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THE 



CYCLOMDIA OF FRATERNITIES 



A COMPILATION OF 

EXISTING AUTHENTIC INFORMATION AND THE RESULTS OF 
ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION AS TO THE ORIGIN, DERIVA- 
TION, FOUNDERS, DEVELOPMENT, AIMS, EMBLEMS, 
CHARACTER, AND PERSONNEL OF 

MORE THAN SIX HUNDRED SECRET 
SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

SUPPLEMENTED BY 

FAMILY TREES OF GROUPS OF SOCIETIES, COMPARATIVE STATISTICS 

OF MEMBERSHIP, CHARTS, PLATES, MAPS, AND 

THE NAMES OF MANY 

represe:n^tative members. 



COMPILED AXD EDITED BY 

ALBERT C. STEVENS 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR OF THE STANTIARI) DICTIOXARY AND FORMER EDITOR OF " BRADSTREET'S 

V 

ASSISTED BY MORE TIIAX ONE THOUSAND 
MEMBERS OF LIVING SECRET SOCIETIES 



NEW YORK CITY: 
PATERSON, N. J.: 

HAMILTON PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1899. 




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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1896, by 
Albert C. Stevens, in the OflBce of the Librarian of Congress 




••iirw-Jf. 



THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 

TO 

THAT UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD, 

TO WHICH, IN TRUTH, BELONG THE GOOD MEN ANT> TRUE OF 

ALL FRATERNITIES. 

—THE AUTHOR. 



Dicitis omnis in imbecilitate est et graiia, et caritas. — Cicero. 



Reason, it is certain, would oTjluje every man to inirsue 
the general liamnness as the means to procure and establish his 
own ; and yet, if, besides this consideration, there were not a 
natural instinct 'promiAing men to desire the welfare and satis- 
faction of others, self-love, in defiance of the admonitions of 
reason, would quichly rtm all things into a state of war and 
confusion. — The Spectator, Sept. 1, 1714. 



PREFACE 



Ix the Cyclop^i::dia of Fraternities 
the first attempt is made, so far as known, 
to trace, from a sociological point of view, 
the development of Secret Societies in the 
United States. 

Freemasonry, of course, is shown to be 
the mother fraternity in fact, as well as 
in name; but particular interest will attach 
to details connecting many of the more 
important fraternities with Freemasonry. 
Broader, and fully as interesting{is the fact 
that in free and democratic America there 
are more secret societies and a larger ag- 
gregate membership among such organiza- 
tions than in all other civilized countries!^ 

The probable extent of the influence of 
secret society life may be inferred from the 
fact that more than 6,000,000 Americans 
are members of 300 such organizations, 
which confer about 1,000 degrees on 300,000 
novitiates annually, aided, in instances, by 
a Avealth of paraphernalia and dramatic cere- 
monial which rivals modern stage eflPects. 
More than 30,000 members are annually 
added to the rolls of Masonic Lodges in the 
United States; quite as many join the Odd 
Fellows, and one-half as many the Knights 
of Pythias; more than 100,000 join other 
secret societies, the lodges, chapters, or 
councils of which dot the country almost 
coincidently with the erection of churches 
and schoolhouses. 

C^It is rarely that one in ten of the active 
members of secret societies is familiar with 
the origin and growth of his own fraternity, 
and not one in a hundred has a fair con- 
ception of the relation of his own organiza- 
tion to like societies, or of the origin and 
evolution of leading organizations which 
form the secret society world-J For this 
reason not only the 200,000 new members 
of such societies each year, but older breth- 
ren as well, should find in the Cyclop.-edia 
OF Fraternities a valuable supplement to 



all previously acquired information on the 
subject. So much that is not true has 
been written about secret societies by their 
friends, as well as enemies, and so much 
that is of doubtful authenticity regarding 
them appears in what have been considered 
standard works, that an analytical supple- 
mentary treatise becomes a necessity. 

]\Iore than half the secret societies in the 
United States pay death, sick, accident, dis- 
ability, funeral, or other benefits. They are 
an outgrowth of the old English friendly 
societies and of Masonic influences, and are 
generally described as beneficiary and char- 
itable organizations, sometimes as fraternal 
orders. Their total membership is enor- 
mous and is growing rapidly. The move- 
ment represents a system of cooperative in- 
surance, usually characterized as "protec- 
tion," and is attracting the attention of not 
only old line insurance companies, but of 
legislatures as well. 

So important has this branch of secret 
society life become, that it has been given 
extended treatment under " National Fra- 
ternal Congress," which chapter is contrib- 
uted by Major N. S. Boynton of Port Hu- 
ron, Mich. Returns as to the nature of the 
protection or benefits given, and methods of 
collecting the same, with costs per capita 
at various periods, have been furnished by 
nearly all the large beneficiary societies, 
and are published in full. The accompany- 
ing analysis and comparison are by Mr. 
Frank Greene, managing editor of Brad- 
street's. This feature should prove of ex- 
ceptional interest to members of beneficiary 
orders. 

One of the revelations of the book is found 
in the reference to secret sisterhoods at- 
tached to beneficiary fraternities, as well 
as separate societies of women, relatives of 
members of brotherhoods, numbering alto- 
gether about half a million women. Among 



PREFACE 



the larger are the Daughters of Eebekah, 
the Order of the Eastern Star, Ladies of the 
Maccabees, the Eatlibone Sisters, Pythian 
Sisterhood, the Daughters of Liberty, the 
Daughters of America, and others. In ad- 
dition, there are many beneficiary societies 
which admit both men and women. 

The results of an examination of standard 
histories of Freemasonry, condensed for the 
Cyclopaedia of Fkaternities, ignore un- 
corroborated traditions as to origin and 
growth, but embody the conclusions of the 
ablest modern Masonic historians. Supple- 
mentary chapters on Freemasonry contain 
much that is published for the first time. 
In all of them the view-point is that of the 
inquiring Freemason, young or old. Too 
much is left nowadays for the newly-made 
Master Mason to find out by studying the 
thousand and one books, good, bad, and 
indifferent, truthful and traditional, with 
which the shelves of Masonic libraries are 
filled. The results of prolonged investi- 
gation are embodied in special chapters 
on "Freemasonry among Negroes," includ- 
ing the English, American, and Scottish 
Eites; " Freemasonry among the Mormons," 
containing original matter contributed by 
brethren familiar with the work of the Mor- 
mon Lodge at Nauvoo, 111., fifty years ago; 
and " Freemasonry among the Chinese/' 
which phrase acquires a new meaning. Ma- 
sonic Eites, their origin, growth, and dis- 
tribution of membership throughout the 
world, their present condition, relationship, 
and modes of government, are presented 
more clearly, perhaps, than ever before. 

Scottish Eite Freemasonry, the discussion 
of which includes a list of the names and 
addresses of all thirty-third degree Free- 
masons in the United States, is dealt with 
so as to make plain much that is misunder- 
stood. The work involved in preparing this 
chapter necessitated retracing the steps of 
many who had gone that way before. Mas- 
ter Masons will find the story a brief and 
clear exposition of what has often been 
befogged. 



Modern Occult Societies are nominally 
more numerous than their following would 
seem to warrant, Nearly all have been 
based upon Masonic degrees or legends. 
The only noteworthy survivor is the Theo- 
sophical Society, Mrs. Annie Besant, suc- 
cessor to Madame Helen P. Blavatsky, 
writes interestingly regarding this Society 
for the Cyclopaedia of Fraternities, 
making several points which will attract the 
attention of Masonic students. 

As very few among those who have here- 
tofore treated of events during the period 
1827 to 1845 have appreciated the part the 
anti-Masonic agitation pla3'-ed in peopling 
what may be called the secret society world, 
this interesting topic is quite fully discussed 
under the heads, "Anti-Masonry," "Col- 
lege Fraternities," " Patriotic Orders," and 
"Independent Order of Odd Fellows." 

The extent to which the Eoman Catholic 
Church has antagonized secret societies in 
America is referred to, in part, under 
"Anti-Masonry;" bnt its later attitude, 
looking without disfavor on the formation 
of private beneficiary and charitable organ- 
izations, does not appear to have received 
treatment elsewhere. The movement is sig- 
nificant in that it constitutes the revival of 
"a little Freemasonry" wholly within the 
Church. 

Among the original charts, maps, family 
trees, and other diagrams, prepared for 
the Cyclopaedia of Fraternities are the 
following : 

1, Secret Society Membership Map of the 

United States; 

2, Masonic Map of the World; 

3, Spread of Freemasonry from England 

throughout the World ; 

4, Number of Freemasons in Various 

Countries; 

5, Number of Master Masons in each of 

the Leading Masonic Eites; 

6, Eelationship of the English, American, 

and Scottish Eites of Freemasonry; 

7, Legitimate and Illegitimate Scottish 

Eite Masonic Bodies; 



GENEALOGICAL OR FAMILY TREE OP SECRET SOCIETIES. 



FREEMASONRY. 



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PREFACE 



8. Odd Fellowship, its Branches and 

Schisms; 

9. Orders of White and of Negro Odd Fel- 

lows and their Branches; 

10. Origin and Relationship of Orders of 

Foresters ; 

11. Patriotic and Political Societies, 1TG5 

(Sons of Liberty) to date (American 
Protective Association); 

12. American College Fraternities and their 

Extension; 

13. Relationship of Temperance Secret So- 

cieties; 

14. Hebrew Secret, Charitable Organiza- 

tions; 

15. Railroad Employes' Brotherhoods, and 

16. Labor Organizations. 

Stndents of the curious will be interested 
in the discussions of anti-Roman Catholic 
secret societies, societies which favor a 
silver monetary standard, mystical organi- 
zations to teach economics, for the encour- 
agement of recreation, enforcing law and 
order, for carrying out revolutionary de- 
signs, for indulging in eccentricity, and for 
subverting law and order. The list is not 
a long one, but is interesting as a sociologi- 
cal record. 

The labor entailed in compiling the 
Cyclopaedia of Fkaternities has been 
lightened by the cooperation of members of 
the societies named ; and for much that is 
meritorious herein, particular credit is in 
part due to those whose names are appended, 
to whom the warmest acknowledgments are 
extended : 
Adelubehagen, Paul, A. F. and A. M., 

Hamburg, Netherlands. 
Allan, F. W., A. F. and A. M., Glasgow, 

Scotland. 
Arthur, P. M., Brotherhood of Locomotive 

Engineers, Cleveland, 0. 
Backus, Rev. J. E., Independent Order of 

Good Templars, Rome, N. Y. 
Bangs, Algernon S., United Order of the 

Golden Cross, Augusta, Me. 
Baskett, S. R., A. F. and A. M., Evershot, 

Dorchester, England. 



Bates, John L., United Order of Pilgrim 
Fathers, Boston, Mass. 

Bayley, J., Independent Order of Foresters, 
Toronto, Ont. 

Beck, Charles F., A. F. and A. M., De- 
troit, Mich. 

Bellamy, Marsdeu, Knights of Honor, Wil- 
mington, N. C. 

Bernstein, Paul, American Star Order, New 
York. 

Besant, Mrs. Annie, Theosophical Society, 
London, England. 

Bien, Julius, B'nai B'rith, New York. 

Bierce, C. A., Order of the Golden Rod, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Bigelow, Joseph Hill, College Fraternities, 
College City New York. 

Biggs, D. S., American Legion of Honor, 
Boston, Mass. 

Bloss, J. M., Equitable Aid LTnion, Titus- 
ville. Pa. 

Bolton, DeWitt C, Knights of Pythias, 
Paterson, N. J. 

Boughton, J. S., Order of Select Friends, 
Lawrence, Kan. 

Bowles, G. F., The Universal Brotherhood, 
Natchez, Miss. 

Boyd, W. T., A. F. and A. M., Cleveland, 0. 

Brown, F. L., Improved Order of Hepta- 
sophs. Scran ton, Pa. 

Buchanan, James Isaac, A. F. and A. M., 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Bundy, William E., Sons of Veterans, 
U. S. A., Cincinnati, 0. 

Burmester, Charles E., Adjutant-General, 
G. A. R., Omaha, Neb. 

Burnett, D. Z., Knights of Pythias, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Burton, Alonzo J., Order of the Eastern 
Star, New York, N. Y. 

Burton, John R., Modern Order of Crafts- 
men, Detroit, Mich. 

Campfield, George A., Independent Order 
of Foresters, Detroit, Mich. 

Carlos, James J., St. Patrick's Alliance of 
America, Newark, N. J. 

Carnahan, Major-General James R., Knights 
of Pythias, Indianapolis, Ind. 



PREFACE 



IX 



Carson, E. T,, A. F. and A. M., Cincin- 
nati, 0. 

Carter, John M., A. F. and A. M., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Chase, Ira J., Tribe of Ben Ilur, Crawfords- 
ville, Ind. 

Churchill, C. Kobert, College Fraternities, 
New Orleans, La. 

Clancy, J. J., Ancient Order of Hibernians, 
Trenton, N. J. 

Clare, Ealph B., Knights of the Mystic 
Chain, Philadel^ihia, Pa. 

Clark, E. E., Order of Kailway Conductors, 
Cedar Rapids, la. 

Clark, Miss F. M., New England Order of 
Protection, Boston, Mass. 

Clarkson, Thaddeus S., G. A. R., Omaha, 
Neb. 

Clendenen, G. W., Mystic Order of the 
World, Fulton, 111. 

Clift, J. Augustus, A. F. and A. M., .St. 
Johns, N. F. 

Coffin, Selden J., College Fraternities, La- 
fayette College, Easton, Pa. 

Colby, Arthur W., College Fraternities, 
Cleveland, 0. 

Congdon, Joseph W., A. F. and A. M., 
Paterson, N. J. 

Cotter, Frank G., Actors' Order of Friend- 
ship, New York. 

Cowen, Thomas B., College Fraternities, 
Williamstown, Mass. 

Cruett, John AV., Improved Order of Hep- 
tasophs, Baltimore, ^Id. 

Culbertson, William, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cummings, Thomas H., Catholic Knights 
of Columbus, Boston, Mass. 

Daniels, William P., Order of Railway Con- 
ductors, Cedar Rapids, la. 

Dase, William H., Knights of the Red Cross, 
Springfield, 0. 

Day, Fessenden I., United Order of the 
Golden Cross. Lewiston, Me. 

De Leon, Daniel D., Knights of Labor, New 
York. 

Devo, John H., A. F. and A. M. (negro), 
" Albany, N. Y. 



Donnelly, T. M., Woodchoppers' Associa- 
tion, Jersey City, N. J. 

Dore, John P., Massachusetts Catholic Or- 
der of Foresters, Boston, Mass. 

Dorf, Samuel, B'rith Abraham, New York. 

Doris, T. C, Ancient Order of the Sanhe- 
drim, Richmond, Va. 

Dorwell, R. R., Good Samaritans and 
Daughters of Samaria, Stamford, Conn. 

Douglicrty, John, Switchmen's Union, N. 
A., Kansas City, Mo. 

Eavenson, Marvin M., Sons of Temperance, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edelstein, John, A. F. and A. M., Jersey 
City, N. J. 

Edmunds, G., A. F. and A. M., Carthage, 
111. 

Eidson, W. R., American Benevolent As- 
sociation, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ellinger, M., B'nai B'rith, New York. 

Engelhardt, August, Benevolent Order of 
Buffaloes, New York. 

Everett, D., Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, Cleveland, 0. 

Failey, James F., Order of Iron Hall, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Farrell, J. H., Royal Arcanum, Paterson, 
N. J. 

Fields, M. F., A. F. and A. M. (negro), 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Fowler, George W., Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, Detroit, Mich. 

Frantzen, C. J., Royal Benefit Society, New 
York. 

Frost, D. M., Knights of Reciprocity, Gar- 
den City, Kan. 

Galami, M., A. F. and A. M., Athens, 
Greece. 

Gans, William A., B'nai B'rith, New York, 
N. Y. 

Garwood, S. S., Order of Home Builders, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gaston, Frederick, The Grand Fraternity, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gerard, D. W., Tribe of Ben Hur, Craw- 
fordsville, Ind. 

Gildersleevc, Charles E., Order of United 
Americans, New York. 



PREFACE 



Glenn, G. W., Independent Order of Reclia- 
bites, Sykes, Va. 

Goodule, H. G., A. F. and A. M., Jamaica, 
Queens Co., N. Y. 

Gorman, Artliur P., A. F. and A. M., Bal- 
timore, Md. 

Graham, Rev. George S., Order of Iron 
Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gretzinger, William C, College Fraternities, 
Lowisburg, Pa. 

Griest, W. C, The United States Benefit 
Fraternity, Baltimore, Md. 

Griffin, Martin I. J., Irish Catholic Benev- 
olent Union, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gross, F. W., United Brothers in Friend- 
ship, Victoria, Tex. 

Gwinnell, John M., American Legion of 
Honor, Newark, N. J. 

Hahne, Irvin A., Independent Order of 
Mechanics, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hamilton, W. R., A. F. and A. M., Car- 
thage, 111. 

Hammer, H. H., Adjutant General, Sons 
of Veterans, U. S. A., Reading, Pa. 

Harburger, Julius, Independent Order, 
Free Sons of Israel, New York. 

Harper, G. S., Order of the World, Wheel- 
ing, W. Va. 

Harrison, H. Leslie, Knights of St. John 
and Malta, New York. 

Harte, H. M., Knights of Honor, New York. 

Hassewell, J. N., Patriotic Order, Sons of 
America, Scranton, Pa. 

Hayes, John W., Knights of Labor, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Heller, S. M., Home Palladium, Kansas 
City, Mo. 

Hennessy, J. C, National Reserve Associa- 
tion, Kansas City, Mo. 

Henry, William, Order of Amaranth, De- 
troit, Mich. 

Herman, L., Ahavas Israel, New York. 

Herriford, Joseph E., International Order 
of Twelve, Chillicothe, Mo. 

Hibben, E. H., Northern Fraternal Insur- 
ance Association, Marshalltown, la. 

Hinckley, George C, College Fraternities, 
Providence, R. I. 



Hitt, George C, Order of Iron Hall, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Holden, S. F., Knights and Ladies of 
America, New York. 

Holman, Oliver D., Order of United 
Friends, New York. 

Holmes, M. B., Ancient Order of Hiber- 
nians, New York. 

Hopkins, A. W., International Order of 
Twelve, Leavenworth, Kan. 

Hucless, Robert, A. F. and A. M. (negro), 
New York, 

Hughes, James L., The Loyal Orange As- 
sociation, Toronto, Ont. 

Irving, E. B., A. F. and A. M. (negro), 
Albany, N. Y. 

Jackson, Thornton A., A. F. and A. M. 
(negro), Washington, D. C. 

Jones, C. C, Adjutant-General, G. A. R., 
Rockford, 111. 

Jones, Charles R., Order of Equity, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Johnston, John G., Order of Rente, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Johnston, Thomas E., Order of Knights of 
Friendship, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Keliher, Sylvester, American Railway 
Union, Chicago, 111. 

Kimptou, Carl W., Order of Unity, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

King, Charles M., Benevolent and Protec- 
tive Oi'der of Elks, Paterson, N. J. 

Kittrell, L. A., Knights of Pythias (ne- 
gro), Macon, Ga. 

Krape, William W., Knights of the Globe, 
Freeport, 111. 

Kuhn, John R., Catholic Benevolent Le- 
gion, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lamb, E. F., Order of United Friends of 
Michigan, Flint, Mich. 

Lander, W. F., Knights and Ladies of 
Azar, Chicago, 111. 

Laurence, R. D., A. F. and A. M., Spring- 
field, 111. 

Lawler, Thomas G., G. A. R., Rockford, 
111. 

Lawrence, G. ^., National Farmers' Al- 
liance, Marion, 0. 



PREFACE 



XI 



Leahy, John P., Union Fraternal Alliance, Mann, Dr. D. IL, Independent Order Good 

Boston, Mass. Tcnii)lars, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Leahy, Thomas, A. F. and A. M., Roch- Markey, D. P., Knights of the Maccabees, 

ester, N. Y. Port Huron, Mich. 

Lee, J. P., St. Patrick's Alliance of Anier- Mason, E. C, Royal Tribe of Joseph, 8e- 

ica. Orange, N. J. dalia, Mo. 
Leisersohn, Leonard, B'rith Abraham, New Mason, Joseph, Foresters of America, Pat- 
York, erson, N. J. 
Lenbert, J. G., Grand United Order of Mason, J, J., A. F. and A. M., Hamilton, 

Odd Fellows (negro), New York. Ont. 

Lerch, George L., College Fraternities, Mason, J. W., Protected Home Circle, 

Clinton, N. Y. Sharon, Pa. 

Levy, Ferdinand, Sons of Benjamin, New Maulsby, D. L., College Fraternities, Tufts 

York. College, Massachusetts. 

Levy, Magnus, Independent Order of Amer- May, William H., Jr., A. F. and A. M., 

ican Israelites, New York. Washington, D. C. 

Lockard, L. B., Knights and Ladies of Mendenhall, B., A. F. and A. M., Dallas 

Honor, Bradford, Pa. City, 111. 

Loewenstein, E., A. F. and A. M., New Mills, A. G., Military Order of Loyal Lc- 

York. gion, New York. 

Lunstedt, Henry, Native Sons of the Gold- Miner, S. L., National Fraternal Union, 

en West, San Francisco, Cal. Cincinnati, 0. 

Lnthin, Otto L. F., Royal Society of Good Mitchell, C. W., Knights of the Golden 

Fellows, Boston, Mass. Eagle, Mansfield, 0. 

Lyon, D. Murray, A. F. and A. M., Edin- Monahan, James, Irish National Order of 

burgh, Scotland. Foresters, New York. 

McCarroll, F. Liberty, Shepherds of Beth- Moore, E. T., College Fraternities, Swath- 

lehem, Newark, N. J. more College, Swathmore, Pa. 

McClenachan, Charles T., A. F. and A. M., Moore, R. B., A. F. and A. M., Elizabeth, 

New York. N. J. 

McClintock, E. S., Ancient Order of the Moorman, Gen. George, United Confed- 

Pyramids, Topeka, Kan. erate Veterans, New Orleans, La. 

McClurg, John, Jr., Templars of Liberty Morse, H. H., Order of Chosen Friends, 

of America, New York. New York. 

McLaughlin, James J., Massachusetts Mott, J. Lawrence, Workmen's Benefit So- 

Catliolic Order of Foresters, Boston. ciety, Boston, Mass. 

McLean, Alexander, Illinois Order of Mu- Mott, Dr. Valentine, A. F. and A. M., New 

tual Aid, Macomb, 111. York. 

Mackery, L., A. F. and A. M., Edinburgh, Mulford, John M., American Insurance 

Scotland. L'nion, Columbus, 0. 

Magill, Joseph R., Grand United Order of Mull, George F., College Fraternities, 

Odd Fellows (negro), New York. Franklin and Marshall, Lancaster, Pa. 

Mahoney, John R., Independent Order of Mulligan, John, Knights of Honor, Yon- 

Rechabites, Washington, D. C. kers, N. Y. 

Malcolm, Samuel L., Order of United Mulligan, Ralph R., Knights of Honor, 

Friends, New York. Yonkers, N. Y. 

Mallard, Rev. Robert Q., College Fraterni- Mundie, P. J., National Union of Iron and 

ties, New Orleans, La. Steel Workers, Youngstown, 0. 



PREFACE 



Muiiger, Frank E., Empire Knights of Ee- 
lief, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Myers, Allen 0., Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks, Cincinnati, 0. 

Myrick, Herbert, Patrons of Industry, 
Springfield, Mass. 

Nason, Edwin H., Shield of Honor, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Keedham. James F., Grand United Order 
of Odd Fellows (negro), Philadelphia. 

Nichols, John, Templars of Liberty, New 
York. 

Nicholson, General John P., Military Or- 
der of Loyal Legion, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Nicholson, James B., Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Nielsen, Eennus, A. F. and A. M., Copen- 
hagen, Denmark. 

Nisbet, Michael, A. F. and A. M., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Noeckel, A. G., The Columbus Mutual 
Benefit Association, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Northcott, William A., Modern Woodmen 
of America, Greenville, 111. 

Oakes, Henry W., New England Order of 
Protection, Auburn, Me. 

O'Connell, James, International Associa- 
tion of Machinists, Richmond, Va. 

O'Connor, P. J., Ancient Order of Hiber- 
nians, Savannah, Ga. 

Oddi, J. S., A. F. and A. M., Alexandria, 
Egypt. 

Oliver, Edward, Order of Sons of St. George, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Oronhyatekha, Dr., Independent Order of 
Foresters, Toronto, Ont. 

O'Rourke, William, Catholic Knights of 
America, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Palmer, Alanson, Eclectic Assembly, Brad- 
ford, Pa. 

Palmer, George W., Templars of Liberty, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pancoast, E. H., Shield of Honor, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Parker, B. F., Independent Order of Good 
Templars, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Paton, Andrew H., Improved Order of Red 
Men, Dan vers, Mass. 



Pearson, A. L., Union Veterans' Legion, 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Peckinpaugh, Thomas E., Improved Order 
of Red Men, Cleveland, 0. 

Pellin, J. F., A. F. and A. M., Havana, 
Cuba. 

Perkins, E. C, Iron Hall, Baltimore, 
Md. 

Perry, John A., A. F. and A. M., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Peters, A. C, A. F. and A. M. (negro), 
Newark, N. J. 

Petter, Frank S., Loyal Additional Benefit 
Association, Jersey City, N. J. 

Phillips, Rev. E. S., Ancient Order of Hi- 
bernians, Plains, Pa. 

Popper, H., Independent Order Free Sons 
of Judah, New York. 

Porter, E. H., College Fraternities, Beloit, 
Wis. 

Post, August, National Farmers' Alliance, 
Moulton, la. 

Powell, J. B. R., Modern Knights Fidelity 
League, Kansas City, Kan. 

Powell, M. v.. Order of Railway Teleg- 
raphers, Vinton, la. 

Presson, G. S., A. F. and A. M., Berne, 
Switzerland. 

Ramsey, Walter M., College Fraternities, 
Lafayette, Ind. 

Ray, Peter S., M.D., A. F. and A. M. 
(negro), Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Reeve, S. Lansing, D.D., American Patriotic 
League, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Reynolds, Walter D., Sexennial League, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ridings, C. C, Patriarchal Circle of Amer- 
ica, Morris, 111. 

Riesenberger, A., College Fraternities, Ste- 
vens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 

Robinson, Charles H., Order of ^gis, Bal- 
timore, Md. 

Robinson, W. A., College Fraternities, 
Bethlehem, Pa. 

Rodrigues, Francesco de P., A. F. and 
A. M., Havana, Colon. 

Ronemus, Frank L., Brotherhood of Rail- 
way Carmen, Cedar Rapids, la. 



PREFACE Xiii 

Roose, F. F., Fraternal Union of America, Simons, W. N., Order of United American 
Denver, Colo. Mechanics, Xorwalk, Conn. 

Root, C. J., Woodmen of the World. Slattery, M. J., Ancient Order of Iliber- 
Oniaha, Neb. nians, Albany, N. Y. 

Rosenthal, B., Independent Order Free Smalley, Frank, College Fraternities, Syra- 
' Sons of Judah, New York. cuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Rosenthal, Henry, Improved Order, Smith, Adon, Veiled Prophets of the En- 
Knights of Pythias. Evansville, Ind. chanted Realm, New York. 

Rosenthal, Morris, Kesiier Shel Barzel, Smith, D. P., Order of United Friends of 
New York. Michigan, Detroit, Mich. 

Ross, James C, Knights of Pythias (negro). Smith, George K., Concatenated Order of 
Savannah, Ga. Hoo-lloo, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ross, Theodore A., Independent Order of Smith, General John C, A. F. and A. }>[., 
Odd Fellows, Baltimore, Md. Chicago, 111. 

Rousell, Edward, Fraternal Aid Associa- Smith, T. J., Knights of the Golden Rule, 
tion, Lawrence, Kan. Cincinnati, 0. 

Rugh, W. J., Ancient and Illustrious Order Smitli, AV. J., American Glass Makers' 
Knights of Malta, Pittsburg, Pa. Union, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Russell. William T.,A. F. and A. M., Bal- Speelman, H. V., Adjutant-General, Sons 
timore, Md. of A'eterans, L^. S. A., Cincinnati, 0. 

Sanders, James P., Independent Order of Speth, G. W., A. F. and A. M., Bromley, 
Odd Fellows, Yonkers, N. Y. Kent, England. 

Sanderson, Percy, Order of Sons of St. Spooner, W. R., Royal Society of Good Fel- 
George, New York. lows. New York. 

Sargent, F. P., Brotherhood of Locomotive Stead, T. Ballan, Ancient Order of Fores- 
Firemen, Peoria, 111. ters, England. 

Saunders, T. W., Independent Order of Stearns, John B., College Fraternities, Bur- 
Foresters of Illinois, Chicago, 111. lington, Vt. 

Schaale, Charles F., Patriotic Order of Stebbins, John W., Independent Order of 
America, St. Louis, Mo. Odd Fellows, Rochester, N. Y. 

Schord, Louis G., United Ancient Order of Stees, F. E., Patriotic Order Sons of Amer- 
Druids, San Francisco, Cal. ica, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Scott, George, A. F. and A. M., New Stephenson, Mary H., G. A. R., Peters- 
York, burg. 111. 

Scott, George A., National Protective Le- Stevens, D. E., Order of the Fraternal Mys- 
gion, Waverly, N. Y. tic Circle, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Scottron, S. R., A. F. and A. M. (negro), Stevenson, A. E., Independent Order of 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Foresters, Chicago, 111. 

Sears, John M., Independent and Interna- Steward, C. C, Grand United Order of 
tional Order of Owls, Nashville, Tenn. Galilean Fishermen, Bristol, Tenn. 

Sendersen, W. C. College Fraternities, Stewart, James F., Indian Republican 
Gambier, 0. League, Paterson, N. J. 

Server, John, Order of United American St. George, Archibald. A. F. and A. ^L, 
Mechanics, Philadelphia, Pa. Dublin, Ireland. 

Shipp, J. F., United Confederate Veterans, Stolts, William A., L^nited Order of For- 
Chattanooga, Tenn. esters, Chicago. 111. 

Shirrefs, R. A., A. F. and A. M., Eliza- Stowell, C. L., A. F. and A. M., Rochester, 
beth, N. J. N. Y. 



PREFACE 



Stringhain, LeRoy M., Templars of Honor 
and Temperance, Ripley, N. Y. 

Stubbs, T. J., College Fraternities, Wil- 
liamsburg, Va. 

Suleb, M., A. F. and A. M., Cairo, Egypt. 

Sullavon, Emanuel, A. F. and A. M. (ne- 
gro), New Bedford, Mass. 

Sullivan, B. Frank, Order of Heptasoplis, 
or S. W. M., Wilmington, Del. 

Sullivan, Timothy F., Catholic Knights of 
Columbus, Boston, Mass. 

Taylor, Harold, Order of Iron Hall, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Taylor,W. E., Molly Maguires, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Terrell, George, College Fraternities, Mid- 
dletown, Conn. 

Thiele, Theodore B., Catholic Order of For- 
esters, Chicago, 111. 

Thompson, J. W., Knights of Pythias, 
Washington, D. C. 

Tipper, F. S., Jr., Order of United Ameri- 
can Mechanics, Stamford, Conn. 

Titcomb, Virginia C, Patriotic League of 
the Revolution, Brooklyn. 

Todd, Quinton, Knights of Birmingham, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tompkins, Uriah W., Home Circle, New 
York. 

Toomey, D. P., Catholic Knights of Colum- 
bus, Boston, Mass. 

Trimble, John, Patrons of Husbandry, 
Washington, D. C. 

Troutman, Charles E., Union Veterans' 
Legion, Washington, D. C. 

Tyler, C. W., Jr., Order United American 
Mechanics, Richmond, Va. 

Underbill, C. F., Royal Fraternity, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Unverzagt, C. H., National Fraternal Alli- 
ance, Baltimore, Md. 

Upson, Irving S., College Fraternities, 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Verticau, F. W., Patrons of Industry, Port 
Huron, Mich. 

Waite, G. Harry, Knights of the Mystic 
Chain, Port Dickinson, N. Y. 

Walkinshaw, L. C, College Fraternities, 
Lewisburg, Pa. 



Wallace, Colonel E. Bruce, Union Veterans* 
Legion, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Watkins, James S., Improved Order of 
Ileptasophs, Baltimore, Md. 

Weatherbee, J., Order of Railway Teleg- 
raphers, Vinton, la. 

Weeks, Joseph D., A. F. and A. M., Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

Weihe, William, Amalgamated Association, 
Iron and Steel Workers, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Wende, Ernest, M.D., Order of the Iro- 
quois, Buffalo, N. Y. 

White, R. L. C, Kniglits of Pythias, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

W^ilson, J. W^., National Farmers' Alliance, 
Chicago, 111. 

Wilson, W. IL, Knights of Birmingham, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wilson, W. Warne, Columbian League, De- 
troit, Mich. 

Wood, C. B., Knights of the Golden Eagle, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wood, E. 0., Knights of the Loyal Guard, 
Flint, Mich. 

Woodruff, C. S., Templars of Honor and 
Temperance, Newark, N. J. 

Woodward, Rev. C. S., Temple of Honor, 
Newark, N. J. 

Woolsey, George F., L^nited Order of For- 
esters, St. Paul, Minn. 

Wright, George W., Order of Heptasophs, 
or S. W. M., Norfolk, Va. 

Wright, William B., Modern American 
Fraternal Order, Effingham, 111. 

Young, James, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, Baltimore, Md. 

Where the origin of so many fraternities 
has been largely or in part obscured through 
the want of voluntary chroniclers, and some- 
times by reason of the emphasis placed on 
the legendary accounts of their beginnings, 
it has often been difficult to arrive at all the 
facts. The search for truth, however, has 
been conducted without bias, in an honest 
endeavor to collate as much as possible of 
that which may be known concerning this 
interesting phase of social life. 



IlSTTRODUCTIOlSr 



Very few among the six million members 
of nearly three hundred secret societies, 
fraternities, and sisterhoods in the United 
States are familiar with the origin, history, 
or function of these organizations. This 
has been noted by the eminent English ]Ma- 
sonic historian, Eobert F. Gould^ who, on 
page 157, vol. ii., of his "History of Free- 
masonry," says: "The members of a secret 
society are rarely conversant with its origin 
and history." Many have a fair knowledge 
of the extent, membership, and the more 
immediate objects of the societies to which 
they belong; but the real histories of the 
origin and development of many of the older 
organizations have so often been enveloped 
in myster}^ or founded on mythical inci- 
dents, or traditions, that the average mem- 
ber, unless i)articularly interested and will- 
ing to devote time and study to the task, 
seldom becomes a trustworthy source of in- 
formation as to the fraternity of Avhich he 
may be a conspicuous and honored repre- 
sentative. 

Lengthy and exhaustive histories of some 
of the older and larger secret societies in 
the United States have been published, but 
most of them are expensive and require 
time and study to enable the reader to be- 
come familiar with the details of their con- 
tents. In the rush of our latter-day civili- 
zation, the busy citizen finds little time to 
pore over the wealth of incident with which 
such works properly abound. It has, there- 
fore, remained for the few to know of that 
which the many have been struggling to 
accomplish, to learn whence they came and 
whither travelling. 

Few who are well informed on the subject 
will deny that the Masonic Fraternity is 
directly or indirectly the parent organiza- 
tion of all modern secret societies, good, 
bad, and indifferent; but fewer still are able 
to explain why or how. Those who have an 



intelligent idea of the relationship of the 
hundreds of secret societies which have left 
an impress upon American sociological de- 
velopment in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries, may be numbered on the lingers 
of one hand, if indeed there are as many as 
that; and it is in order to remedy this, to 
place it within the reach of practically every 
member of every secret society to familiar- 
ize himself with these important particulars, 
that the task of compiling the Cyclopaedia 
OF Fraternities was begun. The im))or- 
tance of such a work may hardly be over- 
estimated, including, as it does, prolonged 
original investigation of hundreds of tradi- 
tions and chronicles of many organizations; 
the examination of all of the best and many 
other official or authoritative historical and 
other publications; and last, but not least, 
the enlistment of the cooperation of hun- 
dreds of the best-informed members of 
nearly all existing and some extinct secret 
societies, to the end that little if anything 
may. remain undone to present, in projier 
perspective, a panoramic view of the secret 
society world in America, which will pre- 
serve the sequence and relationship of such 
organizations. 

"When it is known that more than 200,000 
candidates for membership are initiated 
every year into American secret fraterni- 
ties and sisterhoods, 30,000 alone into the 
Masonic Fraternity, and as many more into 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of 
whom, as a rule, 60 per cent, become more 
or less active members, the need for a com- 
prehensive work Avhich Avill present the im- 
portant facts concerning all secret societies 
from a universal point of view becomes 
apparent. 

Notwithstanding the century's extraordi- 
nary development in agriculture, commerce, 
manufactures, in tlie arts, in the dissemi- 
nation of intelligence, in the machinery of 



INTRODUCTION 



finance, and in good government, interest 
in the older and better types of secret soci- 
eties has grown with even greater rapidity, 
if one may judge from the increase in mem- 
be rsliii) and prosperity. This may come in 
tlie nature of a surprise to many who know 
little of the extent or importance of the 
secret society world, and it gathers inter- 
est for every student of mankind in that it 
suggests an inquiry into the cause of this 
attraction, and raises the question whether 
the mystical side to our natures has not ex- 
panded relatively more rapidly than that 
which looks mainly to material comfort. 

Daring the seventeenth century the specu- 
lative successors to the ancient English 
operative Freemasons added to their symbol- 
ism, drawn from the workingmen's guilds 
of the middle ages, many of the character- 
istics of the older religious and mystical 
societies. Thus, there may be found in 
modern Freemasonry traces of the Egyp- 
tian, Eleusinian, Mithraic, Adoniac, Cabi- 
ric, and Druidic Mysteries, all of which, 
when undefiled, taught jnirity, immortality, 
and the existence of an ever-living and true 
God. Their ceremonials were divided into 
degrees in which were conferred secret 
means of recognition, and each had a 
legend which, by dramatic representation, 
impressed upon the novitiate the lesson that 
the Avay to life is by death. Masonic sym- 
bolism and ceremonials show also the influ- 
ence of the teachings of the Gnostics, the 
Kabbalists, Pythagoreans, Druses, Mani- 
cheans, and the earlier Rosicrucians. It 
was between 1723 and 1740 that the parent 
modern secret society spread from England 
throughout Europe and into the British 
colonies. After the American AVar of the 
Revolution it became, with one or two 
political secret societies founded by Free- 
masons, the direct or indirect source of all 
secret societies formed in America since 
that time. With a few excej^tions, the like 
is true concerning secret societies in Europe 
formed since 1740. 

One hundred years ago there were about 



twenty-five hundred Freemasons in the 
United States, perhaps five liundred mem- 
bers of the St. Tammany (patriotic) secret 
societies, and the few scattered members 
of Phi Beta Kapjia at Yale, Harvard, and 
Dartmouth Colleges. The Cyclop.-edia of 
Fraternities traces more than six hun- 
dred secret societies in the United States 
since 1797, of which more than three hun- 
dred and fifty survive, with a membership 
amounting to 40 per cent, of the present 
male population of the country who are 
twenty-one years of age, in contrast with 
less than one-quarter of 1 per cent, of the 
adult male 2)opulation who were members 
of secret fraternities one himdred years ago. 

MASONIC BODIES. 

American Rite: Lodges, ChaiJters, Councils, and 
Conimanderies. 

Scottish Rite : Grand Lodges of Perfection, Coun- 
cils, Chapters, Consistories, and Supreme Coun- 
cils. 

Concordant Orders : Koyal Order of Scotland ; 
Knights of the Red Cross of Constantine. 

Non-3Iasonic Bodies to which only Freemasons are 
Eligible : Modern Society of Rosicrucians ; Sov- 
ereign College of Allied Masonic Degrees ; An- 
cient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic 
Slirine ; Mystic Order, Veiled Prophets of the 
Enchanted Realm ; Independent, International 
Order of Owls, and the "side degree,"' Tall 
Cedars of Lebanon. 

Dead or Dormant : Rite of Memphis ; Oriental Rite 
of Memphis and Misraim ; Rite of Swedenborg ; 
Order of Martinists. 

Irregular or Spurious Masonic Bodies : 1. Amer- 
ican and "Scottish Rite" bodies among ne- 
groes ; 2. Cerneau and Seymour-Cerneau 
" Scottish Rite" bodies. 

Also, Clandestine Masonic Lodges ; Society of the 
Illuminati and the Covenant ; Freemasonry 
among the Early Mormons ; Chinese Freema- 
sonry in America : Freemasonry among Amer- 
ican Negroes ; Anti-Masonry at Home and 
Abroad; Statistics of Freemasonry, and a list 
of Distinguished Americans who are or were 
Freemasons. 

Various American Military Orders and 
secret societies, followed by Colonial and 
Ancestral Orders, take their inspiration 
from the Society of the Cincinnati, founded 



FREEMASONS. 



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GOOD 



Tem 



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PLab 



s. 



GRAND UNITED ORDER 



000 



^.^■^ 



/ 



'4^y 



Q 



'<^. 



%. '^< 



'Oa 



^ 



& 



% y^ .\ 



%, 



/, 



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A 



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CHART SHOWING RELATIVE SIZE OF VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL SECRET SOCIETIES. 



xvm 



INTRODUCTION 



in 1783 by prominent American oflBcers of 
the War of the Revolution, nearly if not 
all of whom were Freemasons. 

MILITARY ORDERS AND SOCIETIES. 

Society of the Cincinnati (War of Revolution). 

Military Order of the Loyal Legion. 

Grand Army of the Republic. 

Sons of Veterans. 

Union Veteran Legion. 

Women's Relief Corps. 

Ladies of tlie Grand Army of the Republic. 

Aid Society of the Sons of Veterans. 

Auxiliary to the Union Veteran Legion. 

Loyal Ladies' League. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' League. 

Advance Guard of America, or Grand Army of 

Progress, and 
United Confederate Veterans. 

The Sons of Liberty, composed largely 
of and generally officered by Freemasons, 
appeared before the War of the Revolution, 
and was succeeded by the Sons of St. 
Tamina and St. Tammany Societies, and 
the latter in 1813 by the Society of Red 
Men. The Improved Order of Red Men 
(1834) was a further outgrowth, but with 
charitable and benevolent rather than po- 
litical features. 

PATRIOTIC AND POLITICAL ORDERS. 

Sons of Liberty. 
Sons of St. Tamina. 

* Tammany Society, or Columbian Order. 
Society of Red Men. 

* Order United American Mechanics. 

* Junior Order United American Mechanics. 
Sons of '76 ; Order Star Spangled Banner (Know- 

Nothing Party). 

* Patriotic Order Sons of America. 

* Patriotic Daughters of America. 
Order of True Americans. 

* Daughters of Liberty. 

* Daughters of America. 
United Sons of America. 

* Junior Sons of America. 

* Brotherhood of the Union. 
Patriotic Order of True Americans. 
American Knights. 
Order United Americans. 
Templars. 

Order of American Star. 
Free and Accepted Americans. 
Order Native Americans. 



The Crescent. 

National Order of Videttes. 
Order of Red, White, and Blue. 
Loyal Men of American Liberty. 
Sons of the Soil. 

* American Protestant Association. 

* Junior American Protestant Association. 
Loyal Knights of America. 

Order of American Freemen. 
Benevolent Order of Bereans. 
Guards of Liberty. 

* American Protective Association (A. P. A.). 

* Women's Historical Society. 

* Junior American Protective Association. 

* Constitutional Reform Club. 

* National Assembly, Patriotic League. 

* Order Little Red School House. 

* American Patriotic League. 

* Daughters of Columbia. 

* Order of American Union. 
Order of American Shield. 

* United Order of Deputies. 
Minute Men of 1890. 

* Knights of Reciprocity. 

* American Knights of Protection. 

* Templars of Liberty. 

* Patriots of America. 

* Daughters of the Republic. 

* Silver Knights of America, and 

* Silver Ladies of America. 

* Patriotic League of the Revolution. 
Indian Republican League. 

Sons of Liberty (3d). 

* Loyal Women of American Liberty. 
Freemen's Protective Silver Federation. 
Minute Men of '96. 

Ladies of Abraham Lincoln. 
*Lady True Blues of the World (Orange). 

* Protestant Knights of America. 

* Loyal Orange Institution. 

* Women's Loyal Orange Association. 

* Royal Black Knights of the Camp of Israel. 

* National Farmers' Alliance. 

* Order of the Mystic Brotherhood. 

* American Order United Catholics (anti-A. P. A.). 

The germ of American patriotic and po- 
litical secret societies may be traced to 
the Loyal Orange Institution, founded in 
Ireland in 1795. The latter had Masonic 
antecedents, and for a few years had 
the cooperation of individual Freemasons. 
Its cardinal principle was, and is, loyalty 

* Societies marked with an asterisk are still in 
existence. 



INTRODUCTION 



XIX 



to the occupants of the British throne and 
opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. 
It did not appear in the United States as an 
organization until 1870, but Orangeism did, 
and the members of earlier American patri- 
otic secret societies (1840-1855) were pro- 
nounced **' Native Americans^' and anti- 
Roman Catholic. The Orders of United 
American Mechanics (Senior and Junior), 
Sons of America, Brotherhood of the Union, 
American Protestant Association, the Know- 
Nothing party (Order of the Star Spangled 
Banner), and others, were conspicuous dur- 
ing the period referred to, and all, except 
the Know-Nothing party, exist to-day, with 
others spreading into the American Pro- 
tective Association movement, which has 
been conspicuous in American politics. 

American college secret societies, better 
known as Greek letter fraternities, have an 
indirect connection with the high grades of- 
Freemasonry which were elaborated in the 
eighteenth century, and in some instances a 
more direct inspiration from the parent 
secret society. They constitute a social and 
literary aristocracy. There are nearly thirty " 
important ones, and twice as many more of 
consequence. Nearly all have Greek letter 
titles, usually the initials of a motto. Phi 
Beta Kappa, the oldest, was founded at the 
College of William and Mary, Virginia, in 
1776, whence it was taken to Yale and 
Harvard, and thence to other colleges. Rival 
Greek letter fraternities did not begin to 
appear until 1825, since which time they 
have multiplied rapidly. Rivahy between 
them is keen, and college social life is char- 
acterized according as a student is a mem- 
ber of one or another, or of none of them. 
Many of the best-known names in the ])ro- 
fessions, in literature and in political life, 
may be found in the lists of college alumni, 
members of these fraternities. 

COLLEGE GREEK LETTER AND OTHER 

FRATERNITIES. 
Phi Beta Kappa (founded at William and Mary)— . 
Chi Delta Theta (Yale). 
Chi Phi (Princeton). — 



^-\Kappa Alpha (Union). — 
-VSignia Phi (Union). — ■ 

Delta Phi (Union). 

I. K; A. (Trinity). 
-\-A-lpha Delta Phi (Hamilton). — 
. Skull and Bones (local, Yale). 
'"\i*si Upsilon (Union). ——' 

^* " Mystical 7 " (Wcsleyan). 
H^eta Theta Pi (Miami). ' 

yC^'hi Psi (Union). — 

Scroll and Key (local, Yale). 
*"The Rainbow" (Univ. Mississippi), 
.^^^elta Kappa Epsilon (Yale). - "^ 
■^^ta Psi (Univ. New York). - 

Delta Psi (Columbia). 
\;>^eta Delta Chi (Union). — 
'><I|*hi Gamma Delta (Wash, and Jefferson). 

Phi Delta Theta (Miami). 

>Plii Kappa Sigma (Univ. Pennsylvania). — 

Phi Kappa Psi (JelT., Pennsylvania). 
)^i Phi (Princeton). ~ 

>-Sigma Chi (Miami). — 
5-^igma Alpha Epsilon (Univ. Alabama). — 
^..Chi Phi (Univ. Nortli Carolina). — 
"^hi Phi (Hobart). 
^"^Delta Tail Delta (Bethany). '^ 
' Alpha Tau Omega (Virginia Mil. Inst.). — 

Kappa Alpha, Southern (Washington-Lee). 

Kappa Sigma (Univ. Virginia). — 

Pi Kappa Alpha (Univ. Virginia). — 
->Si_gma Nu (Virginia Mil. Inst.).' — 
' Wolf's Head (Yale). 

Local Greek Letter, and other College Societies: 
Phi Nu Theta (Wesleyan) ; Kappa Kappa 
Kajipa (Dartmouth) : Delta Psi (2d) (Univ. 
Vt.) ; Alpha Sigma Pi (Univ. Vt.); Alpha 
Sigma Phi (Marietta) ; He Boule (Soph. Soc. 
Yale) ; Eta Phi (Soph. Soc. Yale) ; Lambda 
Iota (Univ. Vt.). 

Professional: Alpha Chi Omega (music); Phi 
Alpha Sigma (medicine) ; Phi Delta Phi (law) ; 
Phi Sigma Kappa (medicine) ; Nu Sigma Nu 
(medicine) ; Q. T. V. (agriculture). 

Scientific: Berzelius ( Yale) ; Phi Zeta Mu (Dart- 
mouth); Theta XI ; Sigma Delta Chi (Yale). 

^Yomen's Societies : Alpha Beta Tau ; Alpha Phi ; 
"Xappa Alpha Theta ; Beta Sigma Oraicron ; 
"Gamnnj^ Phi Beta ; Delta Gamma; Delta Delta 

Delta : Kappa Kappa (Jamma ; P. E. 0. ; 

Sigma Kappa ; ^i Beta Phi. 

\ Jlotiorary : Sigma Chi (local, Cornell) 

* Extinct. 

t Also Chi Delta Theta (local, Yale), previously 
named. 



INTRODUCTION 



Extinct : Alpha Sigma Theta ; Delta Beta Xi ; 

Delta Kappa (freshman) ; Kappa Sigma Epsilon 

(freshman) ; Kappa Sigma Phi (sophomore) ; 

Phi Theta Psi, all local Yale societies. 
Non-Secret : Delta Upsilon (Williams) ; Gamma Nu 

(local, Yale, extinct). 

The earlier offspring of the Masonic Fra- 
ternity included the Odd Fellows (England), 
1739 ; Druids, 1761; and the Foresters, 
1780, "friendly" societies, with Masonic 
thumbmarks on their rituals and in their 
ceremonials, but differing in that their 
primary purposes were to pay to members 
specified sick, disability, funeral, and other 
benefits. They are conspicuous among hun- 
dreds of other English friendly societies, 
and are the forerunners of the American in- 
surance or secret beneficiary societies, of 
which there are more than one hundred and 
fifty. The Odd Fellows were introduced 
into the United States in 1819, the Forest- 
ers in 1834 (later in 1864), and the Druids 
about 1839. The Improved Order of Eed 
Men, already referred to, is the oldest 
friendly society of American origin. The 
B'nai B'rith, a Hebrew friendly or relief so- 
ciety, was formed at New York city in 1843, 
and has several followers. 

BENEVOLENT OR "FRIENDLY" 
SOCIETIES. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

Improved Order of Red Men. . 

Ancient Order of Foresters. 

Foresters of America. 

Knights of Pythias. 

Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (negro). 

United Ancient Order of Druids. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

Irish National Order of Foresters. 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 

Sons of Herman. 

German Order of Harugari. 

Ancient and Illustrious Order, Knights of Malta. 

Actors Order of Friendship. 

Concatenated Order of Hoo Hoo. 

Artisans' Mutual Order of Protection. 

Order of St. George. 

Order of Scottish Clans. 

Order of the World. 

Order of Sanhedrim. 

Ancient Essenic Order. 



Knights of Pythias of North and South America, 
Europe, Asia, and Africa (negro). 

* Total Abstinence Friendly Societies : Independent 
Order of Rechabites ; Sons of Temperance ; 
Independent Order of Good Templars ; Royal 
Templars of Temperance ; Independent Order 
of Good Samaritans (negro), and others. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
founded in Pennsylvania by a Freemason 
just after the Civil War, is the original 
mutual assessment beneficiary (protection in 
the nature of insurance) secret society, and 
has had many successful imitators. The 
total membership of these organizations is 
about 2,000,000, the aggregate protection 
is fully $4,000,000,000, and the approximate 
annual sum paid relatives of deceased mem- 
bers is about $30,000,000. The Knights 
of Pythias, formed after the Civil War, 
combines the features of both friendly and 
the assessment beneficiary societies. Nearly 
all the twenty-five secret labor organiza- 
tions, all of which have some of the features 
of friendly society and other assessment 
beneficiary plans, were formed within a few 
years after the organization of the Knights 
of Labor, in 1868, but the older Total 
Abstinence secret societies, out of a dozen 
in that group, appeared about sixty years 
ago. 

MUTUAL ASSESSMENT FRATERNITIES. 

Ancient Order United Workmen. 
Knights of the Mystic Chain. 
Knights of Honor. 
Knights of the Golden Eagle. 
Legion of the Red Cross. 
Knights of Birmingham. 
Order of the Golden Cross. 
Knights and Ladies of Honor. 
Royal Arcanum. 
Shield of Honor. 
American Legion of Honor. 
Order of Chosen Friends. 
Order of Sparta. 
Order of the Red Cross. 
United Order Pilgrim Fathers. 
Iowa Legion of Honor. 
Home Circle. 

*In some instances with assessment beneficiary 
features. 



INTRODUCTION 



ZZl 



Modern Woodmen of America. 

Modern Woodmen of the World. 

Home Forum Benevolent Order. 

Loyal Knights and Ladies. 

Order of United Friends. 

National Union. 

United States Benefit Fraternity. 

Protected Home Circle. 

Royal Society of Good Fellows. 

Knights of the Maccabees. 

Knights of the Golden Chain. 

Independent Order of Chosen Friends. 

Knights of the Golden Rule. 

Royal League. 

Northwestern Legion of Honor. 

Grand Fraternity. 

New England Order of Protection. 

United Fraternal League. 

Order of Unity. 

Empire Knights of Relief. 

United Friends of Michigan. 

Fraternal Aid Association. 

National Protective League. 

Modern Knights Fidelity League. 

Mystic Workers of the World. 

Knights and Ladies of Security. 

Canadian Order of Chosen Friends. 

National Fraternity. 

Tribe of Ben Hur. 

Columbus League. 

Order of Iroquois. 

Prudent Patricians of Pompeii. 

Home Palladium. 

Golden Star Fraternity. 

Independent Order of Foresters. 

Independent Order of Foresters of Illinois. 

Canadian Order of Foresters. 

United Order of Foresters of Minnesota. 

Pennsylvania Order of Foresters. 

Order of Heptasophs, or S. W. M. 

Improved Order of Heptasophs. 

Order of Continental Union. 

American Insurance Union. 

Independent Order Chosen Friends of Illinois. 

Chosen Friends of Canada. 

League of American German Friends. 

Order of Select Friends. 

Knights and Ladies of the Golden Star. 

Loyal Additional Benefit Association. 

Knights and Ladies of the Fireside. 

Knights of the Globe. 

Knights of Sobriety, Fidelity, and Integrity. 

Independent Order of Mechanics. 

National Reserve Association. 

Royal Tribe of Joseph. 

Order of Mutual Protection. 



National Fraternal Union. 

Fraternal Mystic Circle. 

American Benefit Society. 

Order of Star of Bethlehem. 

Knights and Ladies of the Golden Precept. 

Western Knights Protective Association. 

Light of the Ages. 

Order United Commercial Travelers. 

Fraternal Union of America. 

Ancient Order of Freesmiths. 

Improved Order Knights of Pythias. 

Patriarchal Circle of America. 

Knights of the Loyal Guard. 

Native Sons of the Golden West. 

Royal Standard of America. 

Ancient Order of Pyramids. 

Hebrew : Independent Order B'nai B'rith ; Inde- 
pendent Order Free Sons of Israel ; Order of 
B'rith Abraham ; Independent Order Sons 
of Benjamin ; Kesher Shel Barzel ; Improved 
Order B'nai B'rith ; Independent Order Sons 
of Abraham ; Free Sons of Judah ; Ahavas 
Israel ; Independent Order of American Israel- 
ites, and American Star Order. 

Roman Catholic : Catholic Benevolent Legion ; 
Knights of Columbus ; Catholic Knights of Illi- 
nois ; Catholic Order of Foresters ; Knights of 
Father Mathew ; Irish Catholic Benevolent 
Union ; Catholic Mutual Benevolent Union ; 
Catholic Women's Benevolent Legion ; St. Pat- 
rick's Alliance of America, and others. 

Negro : United Brethren of Friendship and Sisters 
of the Mysterious Ten ; International Order 
of Twelve, Knights and Daughters of Tabor ; 
Grand United Order Galilean Fishermen. 

SHORT TERM ASSESSMENT SOCIETIES. 

Progressive Endowment Guild. 

Sexennial League. 

Eclectic Assembly. 

Royal Benefit Society. 

Order of Pente. 

Order of Algi^. 

Order of Iron Hall, Baltimore City. 

Modern Order of Craftsmen. 

International Fraternal Alliance. 

Order of Home Builders. 

Columbus Mutual Benefit Association. 

Order of Equity. 

National Dotare. 

The assessment beneficiary fraternities 
and sisterhoods have a sentimental as well 
as a practical basis. In smaller cities they 



INTRODUCTION 



usurp the club, and, where men and women 
are admitted, form centres from which 
emanates a vital social influence. Begin- 
ning about 1840, after the subsidence of the 
anti-Masouic agitation. Freemasonry in the 
United States, as in England and many 
other countries, has grown and prospered 
beyond precedent, leaving in its wake more 
than thirty occult, hermetic, theosophic, or 
religious brotherhoods or societies. The 
transplanted English friendly society finds 
congenial soil here, but is outnumbered by 
the assessment beneficiary fraternities, many 
of which admit both men and women. The 
latter variety of the modern secret society 
has commercialized the mechanism of older 
fraternities by carrying on a system of 
cooperative insurance in brotherhoods de- 
signed, in some instances, to advance social 
or political objects, total abstinence, cooper- 
ative buying and selling, the cultivation 
of patriotism, the protection of the interests 
of labor, and the propagation of partisan 
political views. On the whole, it has en- 
couraged the development of j^ractical 
cooperation more, j)erhaps, than any other 
one influence. 

MYSTICAL AND THEOSOPHIC AL. 
Order of the Omah Language. 
Temple of Isis. 
Society of Eleusis. 
Brotherhood of the West Gate. 
Order of the Magi. 
Hei'inetic Brothers of Luxor. 
Order of the S. S. S. and Brotherhood of Z. Z. 

R. R. Z. Z. 
Order of the Suii. 
Brotherhood of the New Life. 
Ancient Order of Osiris. 
Esoterists of the West. 
Rochester Brotherhood. 
Order of S. E. K. 

Fifth Order of Melchizedek and Egyptian Sphinx. 
Order of the Wliite Shrine of Jerusalem. 
Genii of Nations, Knowledge, and Religions. 
Altruistic Order of Mysteries. 

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS. 

" The International." 
Knights of Labor. 
"Triangle Club." 



" The Brotherhood." 

Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel 

Workers. 
American Flint Glass Workers' Union. 
International Association of Machinists. 
National Union of Iron and Steel Workers. 
Knights of St. Crispin. 
Order of Commercial Telegraphers. 

Railtvay Brotherhoods : Locomotive Engineers ; 
Conductors ; Firemen ; Telegraphers ; Train- 
men ; Switchmen ; Carmen ; American Rail- 
way Union. 

COOPERATIVE AND EDUCATIONAL. 

The Wheel. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

Patrons of Industry. 

Sovereigns of Husbandry. 

Sovereigns of Industry. 

Brotherhood of the Cooperative Commonwealth. 

SOCIALISTIC. 
Universal Republic of the Earth. 
New Order of Builders. 
Crowned ReiDublic. 
Commonwealth of Jesus. 
Order of the Grand Orient. 

SOCIAL AND RECREATIVE. 

Sons of Malta (extinct). 
Oriental Order of Humility. 
Sons of Adam (extinct). 
Loyal Order of Moose. 
Independent Order of Old Men. 
Sons of Idle Rest. 
The Orientals. 
Order of Woodchoppers. 
Independent Order of Gophers. 

The several laAv and order, Irish and 
other revolutionary societies, and various 
lawless secret associations which have been 
prominent for brief periods within the cen- 
tury, do not require extended discussion. 

REVOLUTIONARY SOCIETIES. 
Knights of the Golden Circle. 
Ku Klux Klan. 
Union League of America. 
Fenian Brotherhood. 
Clau-na-Gael. 

Knights of the Inner Circle. 
Brotherhood of United Irishmen. 
United Brotherhood. 
Irish Republican Brotherhood. 
Industrial Army. 



INTRODUCTION 



Iron Brotherhood. 

Order of Reubens (Patriot War). 

League of National Armenian Race. 

OTHERS. 
Order of Mules. The Mafia. 

Tramp "Fraternities." White Caps, 
The Camorra. Molly Maguires. 

Here, in democratic America, we can 
boast no Order of the Bath or Garter, no 
ribbon of the Legion of Honor or Iron 
Cross ; but there may well bo reason for 
asking whether decorations of merit created 
by 100,000 or 500,000 or 1,000,000 mem- 



bers of an organization founded to alleviate 
suffering, to inculcate good morals, loyalty 
to country, and to do good unto others — 
whether such an order of merit is not as 
honorable as one created by prince or poten- 
tate who links Iiis name with ribbon, cross, 
or wreath ? The former are the outgiv- 
ings of armies which meet in private, but 
whose purposes of benevolence and peace 
are known of all, mighty influences for the 
spread of true fraternity. They are often 
hardly less resplendent than decorations 
conferred by royalty, but are often more 
worthily bestowed. 




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ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE 



MASOlSriC, 
MYSTICAL, OCCULT, AND THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETIES. 



Altrurian Order of Mysteries. — Ke- 

oently organized at the Soutli. Untraced. 
Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of 
the ]>Iystic Shrine. — A social and benevo- 
lent society with a ritual and history linked 
to Arabic traditions, in which Oriental mys- 
ticism, names, legends, and titles are freely 
employed. It also has a secret purpose, made 
known only to those who encircle the ]\Iystic 
Shrine. None except Masonic Knights 
Templars or those Avho have attained the 
thirty-second degree. Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, are eligible 
to membership. It is not a Masonic Order 
and forms no part of Freemasonry, is in- 
dependent in origin and government, and 
is associated with the Craft only because 
it was established by eminent Freemasons 
and because none but Freemasons of high 
degree may become acquainted with its 
mysteries. Dr. Walter M. Fleming, 33°, 
and William J. Florence, 32°, both of Xew 
York, are responsible for the existence of 
*' The Shrine," as the organization is fa- 
miliarly called. In a letter Avritten by 
Mr. Florence in 1882, he explains that 
he was introduced into a meeting of the 
Order at Marseilles, France, in 1S70, b}-- 
a banker's clerk who " knew him to be a 
Mason " and could vouch for him as such, 
where he found many distinguished visi- 
tors and members who seemed absorbed in 
learning ''how the French of Marseilles 
had succeeded in getting possession of such 
interesting secrets." Then follows a refer- 
ence to the ceremonies of the evening, the 
costumes, paraphernalia, and scenic effects, 
and the explanation that Yusef Bey, tlie 
Illustrious Potentate of Bokhara Shrine, at 
Marseilles, on being begged for a coj^y of 



the laws and ritual of the Order, gave them 
to liim a day or two later, when he (Flor- 
ence) sailed for Algiers. The inference is 
that the Ancient Arabic Order abroad must 
have been lax in its regulations twenty-five 
or thirty years ago, if it permitted distin- 
guished gentlemen who were not members 
of the Order to visit its Shrines, and pre- 
sented them with copies of its ritual and 
laws when they went away. Be that as it 
may, Mr. Florence went on to Algiers, 
where, he says, he visited the Shrine of the 
Mogribins and found another company of 
Ara]}s, bankers, merchants, learned Mo- 
hammedans, and others "who are passion- 
ately fond of perpetuating ancient customs 
which increase their social pleasures." As 
he gives no account of being initiated into 
the Ancient Arabic Order, and intimates 
that his being a Freemason was sufficient 
to gain admission to Bokhara Shrine at 
Marseilles, the letter leaves much to be de- 
sired. Other accounts of the Order add 
that Florence returned to the United States 
in 1871, and suggested to Dr. Walter M. 
Fleming that they establish ''the Shrine" 
at New York. The latter had already 
" received detached and mutilated sections 
of a translation of the ritual," whicli had 
been " brought to America by a member," * 
together with some vague history and ritu- 

* The ritual now in use is stated to be "a trans- 
lation from the original Arabic" found "in the 
aifhivos of the Order, at Aleppo," whence it was 
brought in 1860 to London by Rizk Allah Ilassoon 
EfFcndee, and later placed in the possession of Dr. 
Fleming, to whom jurisdiction over the Order for 
America was given by the Arabic scholar named. 
In Arabia this ritual is known as the "Pillar of 
Society," and called the " Unwritten Law," in dis- 
tinction from the Koran, or "Written Law." 



ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE 



alistic sections bronglit from Cairo by Sher- 
wood C. Campbell of Xew York. But as 
the Florence ritual "' came from Oriental 
Europe" and "was marked with certain 
sections of the Koran for notes and allu- 
sions "' Avhich facilitated revision for use in 
America, Dr. Fleming. Avith the assistance 
of Professor A. L. Rawson, comj)iled the 
work which became the foundation of the 
Order in America. Dr. Fleming recounts 
the incidents connected with organizing the 
Shrine in the United States, as follows : 

31 r. Florence was entertained as a Mason at 
Marseilles, in Bokhara Temple of the Arabic Bek- 
tash. lie at this time simply witnessed the open- 
ing session of the exoteric ceremonials which char- 
acterize the politico-religious order of Bektash of 
Oriental Euroj\e. A monitorial, historic, and ex- 
planatory manuscript "lie i»,l'^T received there. It did 
not embrace the esoteric Inner Twnple exemplifica- 
tion or obligation, nor the " Unwritten Law,"which 
is never imparted to anyone except from mouth to 
ear. Shortly afterward ]Mr. Florence was similarly 
favored in Algiers and Aleppo. Through letters and 
conunendations he finally secured the manuscript 
monitor, history and descriptive matter from Avhich 
sprang the Order in this country. It was in Algiers 
and Aleppo that he was received into the Inner Tem- 
ple luider the domain of the Crescent and first be- 
came possessor of the esoteric work, the " Unwritten 
Law " and the Shayk's obligation. Subsequently he 
visited Cairo, Egypt, and was admitted, and col- 
lected more of Oriental history and the manuscript 
of " Memorial Ceremonials." But ]\Ir. Florence was 
never fully recognized or possessed of authority until 
long after his return to America. All he possessed 
was a disconnected series of sheets in Arabic and 
French, with some marginal memoranda made by 
himself from verbal elucidation in Aleppo. Through 
Professor Albert L. Rawson these, with others re- 
ceived afterward through correspondence abroad, 
comprised the translations from which the Order 
started here. Mr. Florence and myself receiA'ed 
authority to introduce the Order here. 

On June IG, 1871, at Masonic Hall, Xo. 
114 East Thirteenth Street, Xew York City, 
Messrs. Fleming and Florence conferred 
the "new Order" upon the following Scot- 
tish Rite Freemasons : Edward Eddy, 33°; 
Oswald Merle d'Aubigne, 32°; James S. 
Chappell, 32°; John A." Moore, 32°; Charles 
T. McClenachan, 33°; William S. Paterson, 



33°; George W. Millar, 33°; Albert P. Mo- 
riarty,.33°; Daniel Sickels, 33°; John W. 
Simons, 33°; Sherwood C. Cami^bell, 32°; 
who, together with Albert L. Rawson, 32°, 
"Arabic translator," September 26, ] 872, 
instituted ^lecca Temple, A. A. 0. X. M. S., 
the first or parent Temple in the United 
States. As "'the next session'' was held 
January 12, 1874, it may be seen that the 
Order did, not grow rapidly in the first few 
years. On January 4, 1875, Damascus 
Temj)le, Rochester, N. Y., was organized, 
which gave soiue impetus to the Order, and 
Dr. Fleming, Potentate of Mecca from 1871 
until 1886, invested the following thirty- 
third degree Freemasons with the preroga- 
tives of Past Potentates, to enable them to 
cooperate actively in establishing subordi- 
nate Temples: OrrinWelch, Syracuse, X.Y. ; 
John D. Williams, Elmira, X. Y. ; Charles 
H. Thomson, Corning, X. Y. ; Townsend 
Fondey, John S. Dickerman, and Robert 
H. Waterman, Albany, X. Y. ; John F. 
Collins, Xew York, X. Y. ; John L. Stet- 
tinius, Cincinnati, 0.; Vincent L. Hurl- 
burt, Chicago, 111. ; Samuel H. Harper, 
Pittsburg, Pa.; and George Scott, Pater- 
son, X. J. In June, 1876, an Imj^erial 
(governing) Council was organized at Xew 
York City, with the following list of offi- 
cials : Walter M. Fleming, Xew York, Im- 
perial Potentate; George F. Loder, Roches- 
ter, Deputy Potentate ; Philip F. Lenhart,. 
Brooklyn, Chief Rabban ; EdAvard M. L. 
Elder s, Xew York, Assistant Rabban ; 
AVilliam H. Whiting, Rochester, High 
Priest ; Samuel R. Carter, Rochester, Orien- 
tal Guide ; Aaron L. Xorthrop, Xew York, 
Treasurer ; William S. Paterson, Xew York, 
Recorder ; Albert P. Moriarty, Xew York, 
Financial Secretary ; John L. Stettinius, 
Cincinnati, First Ceremonial Master ; Ben- 
son Sherwood, Xew York, Second Cere- 
monial Master ; Samuel Harper, Pittsburg, 
Marshal ; Frank H. Bascom, Montpelier, 
Captain of the Guard ; and George Scott, 
Paterson, Outer Guard. Meetings of the 
Imperial Council have been held annually. 



ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE 



and officers elected triennially. At the 
fifth session of Mecca Temple, January 16, 
1877, there was a large increase in mem- 
bership, and it was announced that the 
Imperial Council had perfected its ''ritual, 
statutes, history, diplomas, dispensations, 
and charters ;'' that "members, Temples, 
deputies, and representatives now extend 
from the extreme east to the west, and 
from the north to the south of our juris- 
diction,^' and tliat the Order was destined 
to become, what has proved to be the case, 
"a most popular and powerful one in 
America." In that year there were four 
Temples represented at the Imperial Coun- 
cil, and dispensations were granted to form 
others. In 1879 Mecca Temple took on 
new life, largely through the efforts of 
Augustus W. Peters, Charles H. Ileyzer, 
and Joseph B. Eakins, who laid the founda- 
tions for the elaborate ceremonial, gorgeous 
scenic effects, and realistic dramatic rendi- 
-tions of the ritual of the Order, Avhich have 
since distinguished it. By the end of 1879 
there were reported thirteen Temjjles, with 
a total membership of 4:38 Nobles, since 
which time the progress of the Order has 
been one of uninterrupted prosperity. At a 
public installation ceremony at Mecca Tem- 
ple in 1884, many ladies were present, and 
so great was the interest that ladies' receji- 
tions have since been a feature among 
entertainments for which the Shrine is 
noted. To give them permanence they 
have been invested with a ceremonial, and 
gatherings of this character are now known 
as Courts of the Daughters of Isis. This 
organization was formed October 30, 1888, 
to cultivate social relations between ladies 
of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. Its 
government is independent, under the 
jurisdiction of Mecca Court, from which 
other Temples may receive charters en- 
abling them to establish Courts. 

The extension of the Mystic Shrine dur- 
ing the past ten years has exceeded all 
precedent among like societies. Temples 
have been established at leadinsr centres ui 



all States, each with a distinctive Arabic or 
other Oriental name and form, rallying 
points not only for prominent Freemasons 
who reside at those cities, but veritable 
Meccas of hospitality, good fellowshii), and 
true brotherhood for all visiting Nobles. 
Not the least characteristic among agree- 
able features of the Order are the pilgrim- 
ages by members of one or more Temples 
to sister Temples, or to distant points of 
general interest, which, with sight-seeing, 
and the extension and reception of Shrine 
hospitality, usually provide enjoyable ex- 
cursions of a week or a fortnight's dura- 
tion. Pilgrimages from all over the country 
to sessions of the Imperial Council, by spe- 
cial trains bearing Nobles decorated with 
fezzes and crescent tiger-claws, constitute 
invasions of objective points which the in- 
habitants thereof seldom, if ever, forget. 
It is likewise an amiable custom to organize 
family theatre parties at least once eacli 
year. In some instances the Nobles, who 
are decorated with fezzes and claws, and are 
accompanied by wives and families, require 
the entire seating capacity of theatres, and 
it is not infrequent that one or more of 
those behind the footlights on such occa- 
sions are entitled to, and do wear, the mystic 
symbols of the Order. These entertain- 
ments are supplemented annually by carni- 
vals, at which only children of the Masonic 
"nobility" are admitted, to be entertained 
by members of the Order. With the annual 
public receptions and carnivals, where the 
decorations include scenes from Arab life 
and a wealth of Oriental ornamentation, the 
general public at larger cities is familiar. 

It is difficult to analyze and reconcile the 
somewhat fragmentary accounts of the 
origin and development of the Arabic Order 
of wiiich the Shrine is said to be a de- 
scendant, and it may well be doubted 
whether such a task can be successfully 
performed. The "Origin and History of 
the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of 
the Mystic Shrine," compiled and collated 
bv Dr. Walter M. Fleming and William S. 



ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE 



Paterson, copyright, 1894, by Andrew H. 
Kellogg, New York City, states that it was 
instituted by Kalif Alee, "^cousin-german 
and son-in-law " of Mohammed, in the year 
644 A.D., at Mecca, Arabia, ''as an Inqui- 
sition or Vigilance Committee to dispense 
justice upon criminals who escajied their 
just deserts through the tardiness of the 
courts, and also to promote religious tolera- 
tion among cultured men of all nations ; " 
evidently- a sort of Arabic Vehmgerichte, or 
twenty-first degree. The ceremonial in 
this organization was crude, membership 
being acquired on taking the "Arab oath/' 
It is declared to have had a continuous 
existence in Oriental countries, and " now 
gathers arouiid its Shrines the best educated 
and most cultivated classes among Moham- 
medans, Hebrews, and Christians." Dr. 
Fleming writes that ''it is derived from a 
politico-religious order of the Arabic Mo- 
hammedans which extends all over Europe, 
termed the Bektash ;" but in the " Origin 
and History " it is stated that the Bektash 
are merely among the " most honored pa- 
trons of the Nobles," whom it protected 
''in a time of great peril." The Bektash 
are said to number several hundred thou- 
sand, and to have headquarters at Cairo, 
Damascus, Jerusalem, Smyrna, Constanti- 
nople, Adrianople, Teheran, Benares, Tan- 
gier, Oran, Mecca, and at other cities in the 
far East. The chief of these dervishes at 
Mecca is declared to be the principal officer 
of the Arabic Mystic Shrine. It will justly 
surprise many students of " Secret Societies 
of All Ages" to learn that Adam Weis- 
haupt, the founder of the Illuminati in 
Bavaria, in 1776, is claimed " among the 
modern promoters of the principles of the 
Order" of the Mystic Shrine in Europe, as 
well as Frederick the G-reat, Mirabeau, 
Groethe, Spinoza, Kant, Lord Bacon, Ca- 
vour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, Victor Emanuel, 
and others, most of whom are known to have 
been Freemasons. It would seem as if this 
discovery would have been sufficient to en- 
able the founders of the American Order to 



have explained why the Society abroad had 
long been carried within the Masonic bod}^, 
and to have given it, had they so desired, a 
distinctly Masonic alliance. Some of the 
recognized Orders appendent to Free- 
masonry have had less right to claim that 
honor. But as membership in the Order of 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine in America is 
confined to Freemasons, its founders here 
may be regarded as having builded with dis- 
cretion, ingenuity, and Avisdom. 

The jewel of the Order is a crescent, gen- 
erally made of the claws of the Bengal tiger, 
united at the bases with a gold setting. 
The sphinx is engraved on one side, and a 
pyramid, urn and star on the other. The 
emblem may also bear the date of the 
owner's initiation into the Order and an 
Arabic motto, " Kuwat wa Ghadab ; " or in 
Latin, "Eobur et Furor ;" and in English, 
" Strength and Fury." The crescent is 
usually suspended from a scimitar, and 
holds a star pendent between its drooping 
horns. The crescent has been a religious 
emblem in all ages in the East, and in some 
countries is a political ensign. The ancient 
Greeks used the crescent as "an emblem 
of the universal Mother of all living things." 
The Shrine for esoteric reasons employs 
the crescent with its horns pointing down- 
ward: " The setting moon of the old faith at 
the moment of the rising sun of the new 
faith in the brotherhood of all mankind." 
The origin of the universal use of the fez 
among Moslems, whence, of course, Shrine 
members get it, is told as follows : 

When pilgrimages to Mecca were interrupted by 
the Crusades, about a.d. 980, the Mohammedans 
west of the Nile journeyed to Fez (or Fas), in Mo- 
rocco, as to a holy city. Among the flourishing 
manufactures of the city was a head-covering called 
tarboosh, now known as a fez, which was dyed scar- 
let, for the students in a great school at that city. 
In that way it became a mark of learning, and 
gradually displaced other forms and colors of hats. 
It was carried in all directions by caravans, and 
thus became the distinguishing head-dress of Mos- 
lems in every part of the empire. 

During the past eight years the Order 



ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER OF NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE 



in the United States lias grown at the rate 
of fully 4,000 members annually. On 
January 1, 1899, its total membership was 
about 50,000, distributed among seventy- 
nine Temples at as many cities.* Its Christ- 
mas donations to the poor and to benevolent 
institutions recently amounted to over 

* Temples of the Mystic Shrine. — Alabama : Bir- 
mingham, Zaraora Temple, First Wednesday, 
March, June, September. Arizona : Phoenix, El 
Zaribah Temple, First Monday, November, Decem- 
ber, January, February, March, April. Arkansas : 
Pine Bluff, Saliara Temple, First Wednesday. Cal- 
ifornia : Los Angeles, Al jMaluikah Temple, Third 
Friday ; San Francisco, Islam Temple, Second 
Wednesday. Colorado : Denver, El Jebel Temple, 
March, June, September, December. Connecticut : 
Bridgeport, Pyramid Temple, Second Wednesday, 
except July and August ; Hartford. Sphinx Tem- 
ple, Second Thursday. District of Columbia : 
Washington, Almas Temple, Call of Potentate. 
Florida : Jacksonville, Morocco Temple, First Fri- 
day after Third Tuesday. Georgia : Atlanta, Yaa- 
rab Temple, Third Wednesday ; Savannah, Alee 
Temple. Call of Potentate. Idaho : Boise City, El 
Korah Temple, Second Thursday. Illinois: Chi- 
cago, Medinali Temple, Monthly ; Peoria, Mo- 
hammed Temple, Second Tuesday : Rockford, Te- 
bala Temple, Fourth Wednesday. Indiana : Indi- 
anapolis, Murat Temjjle, Fourth Friday. Iowa : 
Cedar Rapids, El Kahir Temple, on call ; Daven- 
port, Kaaba Temple, First Tuesday. Kansas : 
Leavenworth, Abdallah Temple, First and Third 
Friday ; Salina, Isis Temple, Third Tuesday. Ken- 
tucky : Louisville, Kosair Temple, Second Monday. 
Louisiana : New Orleans, Jerusalem Temple, Quar- 
terly. Maine : Lewiston, Kora Temple, Fourth 
Thursday, January, i\Iay, September, Novembei', 
December. Maryland : Baltimore, Boumi Temple, 
29th, 30th, or 31st. Massachusetts : Boston, Aleppo 
Temple, Call of Potentate ; Springfield, Melha 
Temple, Fourth Thursday, except July and Aug- 
ust. Michigan : Grand Rapids, Saladin Temple, 
Call of Potentate ; Detroit, Moslem Temple, First 
Tuesday ; Marquette, Alimed Temple, First 
Wednesday. Minnesota : ^Minneapolis, Zuhrah 
Temple, Fourth Friday ; St. Paul, Osman Temple, 
May 2ith, October 20th, January 19th. Missis- 
sippi : Meridian, Ilamasa Temple, Fourth Thurs- 
day. Missouri : Kansas City, Ararat Temple, First 
Wednesday ; St. Joseph, Moila Temple, Fourth 
Wednesday ; St. Louis, Moolah Temple, Third 
Wednesday. Montana : Helena, Algeria Temple, 
Second Tliursdav. Nebraska : Lincoln, Sesostris 



$26,000, in which none of the secret relief 
extended to sick or distressed Nobles is in- 
cluded. One of the most important and 
characteristic features of the Order is found 
in its generous donations to Freemasons in 
need of assistance, which is done so secretly 
that the world never hears of it, and few 

Temple, Second Saturday ; Omaha, Tangier Tem- 
ple, Fourth Friday. New Mexico : Albuquerque, 
Ballut Abyad Temple, Second Monday. New 
York : Albany, Cyprus Temple, subject to call ; 
Brooklyn, Kismet Temple, on call ; Buffalo, Is- 
mailia Temple, 29th ; New York, Mecca Temple, 
Call of Potentate ; Rochester, Damascus Temple, 
four times a year ; Troy, Oriental Temple, Third 
Friday ; Utica, Ziyara Temple, First Wednesday ; 
Watertown, Media Temple, Second Monday. North 
Carolina : Charlotte, Oasis Temple, no stated time. 
North Dakota : Fargo, El Zagal Temple, every 
Thursday. Ohio : Cincinnati, Syrian Temple, Call 
of Potentate ; Cleveland, Al Koran Temple, Pleas- 
ure of Potentate ; Columbus, Aladdin Temple, 
Second Thursday ; Dayton, Antioch Temple, un- 
certain. Oklahoma : Oklahoma, India Temjile, 
Third Thursday. Oregon : Portland, Al Kader 
Temple, Fourth Wednesday. Ontario, Canada : 
Toronto, Rameses Temple, August, November, 
April. Pennsylvania : Erie, Zem Zeni Temple, Call 
of Potentate ; Philadelphia, Lu Lu Temple, First 
Wednesday ; Pittsburg, Syria Temple, Call of Po- 
tentate ; Reading, Rajah Temple, Fourth Wednes- 
day, except July and August ; Wilkesbarre, Irem 
Temple, Third Wednesday. Rhode Island : Prov- 
idence, Palestine Temple, Fourth jMonday, Decem- 
ber, March, June, October. South Dakota : Dead- 
wood, Nuja Temple, First Saturday, March, June, 
Septendier ; Sioux Falls, El Riad Temple. Third 
Wednesday. Tennessee : Chattanooga, Alliambra 
Temple, Third Friday ; Mempliis, AlChymia Tem- 
ple, December and March. Texas : Austin, Ben 
Ilur Temple, Friday after appearance of Crescent 
in the West ; Dallas, Ilella Temple, Third Thurs- 
day. Utah : Salt Lake City, El Kalah Temple, 
Third Wednesday. Vermont : Montpelier, Mount 
Sinai Temple, Second Friday, March, June, Sep- 
tember, December. Virginia : Richmond, Acca 
Temple, Fourth Thursday, except June, July, Au- 
gust. Washington : Spokane, El Katif Temple, 
First Wednesday ; Tacoma, Afifi Temple, Third 
Wednesday. West Virginia : Charleston, Bcni 
Kedem Temple, Second Thursday ; Wheeling. Osi- 
ris Temple, Second and Fourth Friday. Wiscon- 
sin : Milwaukee,Tripoli Temple, Second Wednesday. 
Wyoming : Rawlins, Korein Temple, Last Friday. 



6 



ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER, ETC., OF NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA 



beyond those iu immediate interest ever 
know of it. Mohammedanism is not advo- 
cated by the ritual of tlie American Order, 
but the same respect is inculcated for Deity 
as in Arabia and elsewhere. 

Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of 
the Mystic Slirine of North and South 
America. — This is a social and fraternal 
organization of negroes, which seeks to 
jiarallel the Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles 
of the Mystic Shrine. (See the latter.) As 
the A. A. 0. N. M. S. admits only Freemasons 
who are Knights Templars or have received 
the thirty-second degree. Ancient and Ac- 
cepted Scottish Kite, so the A. A. 0. N. M.' 
S. of North and South America receives 
only those who have taken the higher de- 
grees conferred in negro Masonic bodies. 
(See Freemasonry among Negroes.) The 
Grand Council of the A. A. 0. N. M. S. 
of North and South America was insti- 
tuted at Chicago, June 10, 1893, by John 
G. Jones and others. It is declared that Mr. 
Jones is the first negro in the United States 
to receive the Shrine degree, and that it was 
conferred upon him by '^^ several members 
of the Grand Council of Arabia" who were 
in Chicago ''in attendance at the World's 
Fair." It is likely that Jones and associate 
negro Nobles received their Shrine ritual 
in the same manner as the negro Knights 
Templars obtained theirs. In 1895 a meet- 
ing of the Grand Council of the A. A. 0. N. 
M. S. of North and South America Avas 
held at Chicago. Its officials were some 
of the more active negro Freemasons in 
the United States. The list is as follows : 
John G. Jones, Chicago, Avho presided ; 
Joseph H. Sbreve, Chicago ; D. W. Demp- 
sey, Chicago ; Robert II. Ilucless, New 
York ; J. W. Dunmore, Chicago ; W. W. 
Madden, Baltimore ; W. P. Floyd, Indian- 
apolis ; D. F. Seville, Washington, D, C. ; 
Thomas W. Logan, Kansas City, Mo. ; B. 
M. Shook, Cleveland ; Eev. Dr. J. B. Stans- 
berry. New York ; James H. Lewis, New 
York ; M. L. Hunter, New York ; J. F. 
Scott, Chatham, Ont. ; E. A. Williams, 



New Orleans ; S. S. Scott, Pueblo, Col. ; 
Thomas P. Mahomet, Omaha; Joseph S. 
Custis, New York; J. D. Scott, Fort Worth, 
Tex., and John Coleman, Water Valley, 
Miss. At the same meeting it was planned 
to organize a women's auxiliary, to be known 
as the Daughters of the Pyramid. There 
were twenty-three Temples represented and 
more were to be instituted. 

Ancient Order of Freesmiths (Der 
Alte Orden der Freischmiede). — According 
to old charters which are alleged to be 
still in existence in the Supreme body 
in Germany, this German secret so- 
ciety carries its organization back more 
years than almost any other similar body. 
The extreme secrecy with which its pro- 
ceedings and traditions are surrounded 
renders it somewhat difficult to obtain de- 
tailed information concerning it. Various 
23ublislied accounts profess to trace its ori- 
gin as far back as the eighth century, to 
Westphalia, which, at that time, included 
the region between the Elbe and the Rhine, 
and the present Republic of Switzerland. 
It will interest Scottish Rite Freemasons, 
as well as other students of the subject of 
secret societies in the Middle Ages, to 
learn that this brotherhood is said to have 
originated in the Vehmic Courts, and that 
the claim is made that this secret organiza- 
tion, the Freesmiths of to-day, has had a 
continuous existence ever since. Whether 
it lias or not, it presumes, like some 
other and better known secret societies, 
to supply the links between the time of 
the Vehmgerichte and to-day. The Amer- 
ican branch of the society declares that the 
Vehmgerichte flourished from the reign of 
Charlemagne, mostly iu Germany, where it 
exercised a considerable influence between 
the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, in put- 
ting down the lawlessness and disregard 
for authority which prevailed there. It 
constituted courts for the protection of the 
innocent and oppressed, which were as 
easily approached by the humblest as high- 
est. The Vehmgerichte became an immense 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FREESMITHS 



power, not only tlirougliout Westphalia, but 
elsewliere in Germany; and while, from the 
point of view of the present time, it was a 
lawless organization, it was, as a matter of 
fact, a society, of the most law-abiding of 
that time, designed to bring to justice the 
evil-doer of whatever rank in society, and 
to see that punishment was meted out. 
The Freesmiths, while claiming direct de- 
scent from these Vehmic courts, carry their 
existence far enough back to date froin the 
period when the courts were used for the 
execution of justice, ignoring the period 
when they became, as they afterwards did, 
in the hands of the nobility, instruments for 
unworthy purposes. One of the latest of 
the Vehmic courts was that held at Celle, 
in Hanover, in 1568, although it has been 
heard of at later dates. It is related that 
Jerome Bonaparte in 1811 abolished one of 
the later forms of the Vehmgerichte in Aus- 
tria, at which time it was known as Der 
Alte Orden der Freischmiede. But the 
Order was in existence in other portions of 
Germany at the time, where it is still con- 
tinued, and had a large membershiji. A 
candidate for initiation into the Order was 
required to be a Christian, never to have 
been excommunicated or outlawed, and not 
a party to any trial before the Vehme. He 
was required to take a solemn oath to sup- 
port the Holy Vehm, to conceal its pro- 
ceedings ''from wife and child, father and 
mother, sister and brother, fire and wind, 
from all that the sun shines on and the 
rain wets, and from every being between 
heaven and earth, and to bring before the 
tribunal everything within his knowledge 
that fell under its jurisdiction." He was 
then invested with the signs by which the 
members recognized each other, and pre- 
sented Avith a rope and a knife, upon the 
latter of which were the letters S. S. G. G., 
supposed to mean Strick, Stein, Gras, Grein, 
or Rope, Stone, Grass, Grain. One variety 
of Vehmic court held its meetings openly, 
while the proceedings of the other were 
secret. The former took jurisdiction in 



civil suits and otiiers of trivial cliaracter, 
while the latter took charge of crimes of 
more serious nature. The accused in the 
procedure of these courts was cited by hav- 
ing the summons nailed over his door at 
night, or, if it was not known where he 
lived, by fastening four copies at a cross- 
road near his sujjposed residence. Xone 
but the initiated was admitted during the 
sessions of the secret court, and any one 
found present who was not a mem])er was 
init to instant death. The only punish- 
ment inflicted by the secret court was 
death ; and in case the convicted accused 
was not present, the first of tlie initiated to 
meet him was bound to put him to death 
and leave the knife with the cabalistic let- 
ters beside the body, to show the deed was 
not a murder. With the revival of law 
and order and legal procedure, Der Alte 
Orden der Freischmiede is declared to have 
taken the place of the Vehmgerichte, with 
some of the more deadly characteristics of 
the latter left out, and some of the benevo- 
lent features of more modern secret socie- 
ties incorporated. 

The first Lodge of the Freischmiede in 
the United States was organized in Bal- 
timore in 1865, and a second one was 
formed in Washington iu 1866. After 
the organization of the third Lodge in 
this country, which was in Philadelphia in 
1867, the Order took on a rapid growth. 
There are thousands of members of the so- 
ciety in this "country to-day, but compara- 
tively little is kno\Vn about the institution, 
and members thereof appear chary about 
giving information. It apparently avoids 
publicity, not only regarding its affairs, but 
regarding its membership and location. 
Lodges are believed to be established in al- 
most every State in the Union, which are 
governed by State or Grand Lodges, and the 
latter are controlled by the Supi'eme Lodge 
of the United States, which is said to meet 
regularly "on the first hour of every leap 
year." The Lodge rooms are called Smith- 
ies, and represent the firmament, the 



8 



ANCIENT ORDER OF OSIRIS 



presiding officer being the Sun, the second in 
command tlie Moon, and the third, etc., re^)- 
resenting other phmets or lieavenly bodies. 
The ritual of the Order has no religions 
characteristics, a recognition of a higher 
power being the only requisite from those 
seeking admission. The objects of the 
society are intellectual development, the 
extension of wisdom and toleration, sick 
benefits and life insurance. The lower body 
in the organization is entitled the Free Mas- 
ters and contains six degrees. The regalia 
is composed of a red sash with three stars. 
After an honorable career in the Order for 
a year, the degree of Grand Marshal is 
conferred, with a black sash and seven 
stars. After that comes the Grand Master 
degree, with the blue sash and seven stars, 
when the member is entitled to wear his 
sword. The highest degree bestowed is en- 
titled Cavalier, and is conferred after three 
years and an examination in astronomy and 
the sciences. Only a Cavalier may become 
President of a Supreme Lodge, the emblem 
of which degree is the Cross of the Knights, 
a sasii of red, black, and blue with all the 
stars, and a sword and a dagger. These 
officials exercise somewhat the same pre- 
rogatives as Sovereign Grand luspectors 
General of the thirty-third and last degree 
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 
Freemasonry, having access to all the bodies 
and their archives, and being entitled to 
special honors at all visits. Like so many 
younger secret societies, this one possesses 
a motto in three words — Truth, Fidelity, 
and Secrecy (Wahrheit, Treue, unde 
Schwiegen). The obligations of the Order 
recpiire every member to assist unfortunate 
or distressed brethren. Lodges pay five 
dollars weekly in case of sickness of mem- 
bers, 1125 in case of the death of a member's 
wife, and 1500 to the heirs of a member in 
case of his death, A recently published list 
of officials of the Supreme Lodge of the 
United States included the followins: : 
Grand Honorary President, William 
Schlumpf of New York ; Grand Marshal, 



William Drexler of Paterson, N. J. ; Grand 
Counsellor, Jacob Himmelsbach of New 
York ; Grand Secretary, William Mertz of 
Paterson, N. J. ; and Grand Treasurer, 
Emil Baumgarten of Paterson, N. J. 

It is only fair to state that there are no 
reasons for believing that the Ancient Order 
of Freesmiths have had any more direct 
connection with the Yehmgerichte of the 
Middle Ages than have any of the haute 
grades of the Ancient and Accepted Scot- 
tish Rite of Freemasonry, and there are 
several external evidences that the found- 
ers of the Freesmiths have patterned after 
some of the emblems and ceremonials of the 
Bite Ecossais. There are, however, rea- 
sons for crediting the inspiration of the Free- 
smiths to some of the earlier workingmen's 
guilds in Germany. 

Ancient Order of Osiris. — In the his- 
tory, objects, and aims of this modern 
American Order, published in 1887, no 
mention is made of its headquarters. It is 
governed by a Supreme Tribunal, and deals 
in Lesser and Greater Mysteries, all of 
which are declared to have been instituted 
in virtue, with the noblest objects in view. 
Its watchwords are Truth, Justice, and 
Equity, and it seeks to clothe the naked, 
feed the hungry, educate the orphan, and 
'*to know each other and ourselves." 

Anti-Masonry. — Organized opposition 
to Freemasonry has shown itself in three 
forms since the revival in 1717, when the 
four London Lodges united to form a Grand 
Lodge. The first came and still emanates 
from the Roman Catholic Church ; the 
second, from one or more offshoots of the 
Scotch Presbyterian Church ; and the third 
was conspicuous in the United States for 
a decade after the disappearance of William 
Morgan of Batavia, N, Y., who, it was said, 
was about to disclose the secrets of the Fra- 
ternity. Almost all political antagonism to 
Freemasonry in Europe may be traced to the 
influence of the Roman Catholic Church. 
During the seven years from 1717 to 1724 
the Fraternity attracted the attention of 



ANTI-MASONRY 



many Englislimen of learning cand title, 
when, on September 3, 1724, the London 
'' Daily Post" announced tiie appearance in 
that city of a secret society described as tlie 
Ancient and Noble, or, the August and 
Noble Order of Gonnogons. It was declared 
to be of Chinese origin, founded " thousands 
of years" prior to Adam, and the printed 
account set forth that a Chapter would be 
held at Castle Tavern, Fleet Street, where 
" no Mason " would be received as a member 
"■ till he had renounced " his " novel Order " 
and been '^ properly degraded." Six weeks 
later the same paper stated that ''many 
eminent Freemasons" had "degraded" 
themselves (renounced their Fraternity and 
burned their gloves and aprons) and joined 
the Gormogons. 

Several theories have been advanced to 
account for the existence of the Gormogons, 
The first, that it was a creation of the Cheva- 
lier Ramsey, an ardent Freemason and a 
Roman Catholic, and another, that it was 
the beginning of what took shape as the 
schismatic branch of English Freemasonry 
about the middle of the last century, are 
both regarded as unworthy of consideration. 
The third theory, that it was a " Jesuitic," 
that is, Roman Catholic, invention, designed 
to offset the growing j^opularity of Freema- 
sonry, was, and still is, believed to be the true 
explanation, particularly as the Society of 
Gormogons disappeared in 1738, the year in 
which Pope Clement XII. issued his famous 
bull against Freemasonry. It was on April 
28, 1738, that Pope Clement XIT. published 
his bull, entitled In Eminent i Apostolatus 
Specula, containing the following words : 

For which reason the temporal and spiritual 
coininnnities are enjoined, in the name of holy 
obedience, neither to enter the society of Free- 
masons, to disseminate its principles, to defend it, 
nor to admit nor conceal it within their houses or 
palaces or elsewhere, under pain of excommunica- 
tion ipso facto for all acting in contradiction of this, 
and from which only the Pope can absolve the dying. 

On January 14, 1739, a still more stringent 
edict was issued for the Papal States, death 



and confiscation of property, without hope 
of mercy, being the penalty. De Cormenin, 
in his " History of the Popes," refers to the 
''l^leiad of philosophers" which had ranged 
itself around Voltaire, ''battling in the 
breach against the civil and religious au- 
thority of popes, bishops and priests," Mon- 
tesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot, d'Alembert, 
and others compelling " tlie third estate, 
the nobility, and even a great part of the 
French clergy to march in their progressive 
route to the conquest of a new order of 
things." The political movement, he de- 
clared, "though less apparent than the re- 
ligious, was not the less real. Secret associ- 
ations were everywhere organized to labor 
for the overthrow of kings and priests," and 
" Rome was so moved " by this revolution- 
ary tendency that " Clement XII. declared 
war on secret societies and fulminated a 
terrible bull against the Freemasons who 
had established Lodges in England, Scot- 
land, France, Germany, and Italy." 
These statements indicate that Clement 
was unable to distinguisli between a secret, 
pacific, non-political, benevolent brother- 
hood and secret political associations. De 
Cormenin relates that Pope Clement's bull 
against Freemasonry prohibited "his sub- 
jects" from affiliating with or being present 
at Masonic assemblies, from inducing any- 
one to join the Fraternity, and from "ren- 
dering aid, succor, counsel, or a retreat" to 
a Freemason "under penalty of death;" 
which, in part, refers, probably, to the sup- 
plementary bull of 1739, applying to the 
Papal States. " These proscriptions," De 
Cormenin says, gave Freemasonry an "ex- 
traordinary lustre, and Europe was soon 
covered by a prodigious Jiumber of Lodges." 
The reasons for issuing this, the first of 
a long list of bulls against Freemasonry, 
are thus set forth in the document itself : 

We have learned, and public rumor docs not per- 
mit us to doubt the truth of the report, that a cer- 
tain society has been formed under the name of 
Freemasons into whicli persons of all religions and 
all sects are indiscriminately admitted, and whose 



10 



ANTI-MASONRY 



members have established certain laws which bind 
themselves to each other, and which, in particu- 
lar, compel their members, under the severest 
penalties, by virtue of an oath taken on the Holy 
Scriptures, to preserve an inviolable secrecy in re- 
lation to everything tliat passes in their meetings. 

The bull further declares tliat these soci- 
eties had become siispected of being hurtful 
to the tranquility of the state and to the 
safety of the soul ; that if the actions of 
Freemasons were irreproachable they would 
not so carefully conceal them from the 
light; and all bishops, superiors, and ordina- 
ries were enjoined to punish the Freemasons 
" with the penalties which they deserve, as 
people greatly suspected of heresy, having 
recourse, if necessar}^, to the secular arm." 
Three years before this, in Amsterdam 
(1735), a Masonic Lodge room was forcibly 
entered and its furniture destroyed by "a 
crowd of fanatics''' whose zeal had been 
kindled by " some of the clergy." Although 
Clement's bull did not meet Avith a favor- 
able reception in France, in Italy many sus- 
pected of being Freemasons were arrested 
and i^laced in dungeons, as well as some ac- 
cused of having furnished an asylum to 
Masonic Lodges. Like measures to crush 
the Fraternity were resorted to in Spain and 
in Portugal, and in 1745 Masonic assemblies 
were prohibited throughout Switzerland 
under the severest penalties. In 1748 a 
Masonic Lodge at Constantinople was de- 
molished and its members were arrested, 
but ultimately discharged through the in- 
terposition of the British Minister. In 
Scotland, in 1757, the Synod of Stirling de- 
barred all adhering Freemasons from the 
ordinances of religion, whence, possibly, may 
be found the origin of some of the opposition 
to the Fraternity in one or more branches 
of the Scotch Church. The Papal bull of 
1738 was confirmed and renewed by Bene- 
dict XIV. in 1751, and by Pius VII. in 1821. 
Leo XII., in his Apostolic Edict, Quo Gra- 
viora, 1826, included the acts and decrees 
of the earlier popes on this subject, and 
ordered them to be ratified forever. As 



noted by Gould, in his ''History of Free- 
masonry," Pius VII. spoke to the same effect 
in 1829, Gregory XVI. in 1832, and Pius IX. 
in 1846, 1864, and at other dates. Leo XIII. 
again confirmed these decrees of his prede- 
cessors in 1884, and extended the o^iposition 
of the Eoman Church to the Odd Fellows, 
the Knights of Pythias, and the Sons of 
Temperance. About ten years ago the 
Cardinal at Quebec took steps to prevent 
Eoman Catholics in his jurisdiction from 
joining the Knights of Labor, a secret labor 
and socialist society, founded by a Free- 
mason, which has some of the outward forms 
and c^iaracteristics of Freemasonry. But so 
much opposition was excited that, on an ap- 
peal to Eorae, the action was not sustained. 
A reply to an inquiry directed to Cardinal 
Gibbons states that the Fenian Brotherhood 
and its successor, the Clan-na-gael, are not 
approved by the Church, in reference to 
which no explanation is necessary. On 
January 6, 1895, the Eoman Catholic Arch- 
bishop of Cincinnati, on the authority of the 
Holy See, announced the position of that 
Church with respect to the Odd Fellows, 
the Knights of Pythias, the Sons of Tem- 
perance, and, incidentally, Freemasonry, in 
part as follows : 

All the ordinaries of the various dioceses of the 
United States must use their exertions to keep the 
faithful away from all and each of the three socie- 
ties called the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, 
and the Sons of Temperance. And the faithful 
themselves must be admonished of this ; and if, 
after the admonition, they still adhere to these so- 
cieties, and will not leave them effectually, they 
must not be admitted to the Sacraments. . . . 
First, these societies seem to have a decided in- 
fluence to lead Catholics toward Freemasonry, and 
Freemasonry is under the absolute condemnation 
and excommunication of the Church. I will not 
stop to consider the reasons for this, except to draw 
your attention to the declared and implacable hatred 
of Masons against the Church and against all reli- 
gious interests. This is openly and angrily avowed 
by the leading Masons of Eui'ope, and manifested 
by their satanic warfare against everything Chris- 
tian, particularly in Italy and France. In our 
country this spirit does not seem to prevail ; yet 
there has been no action by the Masons of this 



ANTI-MASONRY 



11 



country sufficient to satisfy the Church that they 
are secured agjiinst the infusion of the spirit of their 
brethren. . . . Now, it is often seen that the 
active promoters of these societies, now condemned, 
are also zealous Masons; and if a Calliolic is 
drawn into one of them, he is in continual and 
familiar association with the admirers of Masonry, 
and imuiediatcly exposed to imbibe their senti- 
ments, consciously or unconsciously. Again, more 
positively and more strongly do these societies tend 
to weaken a Catholic's regard for the doctrines of 
the Church and for her Sacraments and other 
administrations. . . . They do not, I believe, 
expressly antagonize the Church's teachings and 
practices ; and Catholics who are in them may 
probably say very honestly that they have not seen 
or heard anything opposed to the Church. But 
these societies do profess to inculcate morality with- 
out the help of the Church. They intentionally or 
unintentionally dispose a man to believe that if he 
practises the natural virtues — of honesty, truthful- 
ness, sobriety, philanthropy, etc. — then he is all 
that a man ought to be ; and also to believe that 
he can practise these virtues quite sufficiently by 
the force of his own will ; that he does not need 
the special helps which our Lord furnishes through 
His Church. This is called natin-al religion ; that 
is, such knowledge of God and such practice of a 
good life as a man can reach by his own natural 
reason and strength. It leaves out revealed re- 
ligion ; that is, the other truths which God has 
revealed to man through the sacred Scriptures, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ and Ilis Apostles. 
It leaves out the necessity of grace, our redemp- 
tion from sin through the life and death of the 
Son of God nuide man. It leaves out the means 
of grace given us by God in His Sacraments, the 
Holy Sacrifice of tlie Mass, and the other ministra- 
tions of the Church. In a word, it leaves out the 
supernatural end of man and the supernatural 
means given him to reach that end. Of course, 
the natural tendency of such an association is to 
dispose men to think less earnestly about Christian- 
ity. And it has, too, been observed, that Catholics 
frequenting these societies gradually cool in their 
love for the Church, becoming indifferent to her 
doctrines and careless of observing her precepts. 
Some may resist this tendency, but too many yield 
to it. And the very fact of tlieir seeing nothing in 
the Lodge to disturb their religion makes them all 
the more liable to drift down unconsciously. . . . 

Keferring to tlie nature of the alleged 
obligation of one of the condemned socie- 
ties, the Archbishop continued : 

This oath and these penalties apply to all 



"mysteries which he may hereafter be instructed 
in." lie has no guarantee as to the character of 
these mysteries. Tiiey may Ix; blusphemies against 
God, or treason against his country, or injustice 
against his neighbor. Of course, he hopes it will 
not be so, and the members nuiy say it will not be. 
But how can a man conscientiously put himself 
under such an oath and such penalties, with no 
other protection but their saying ? His oath is on 
record. Their saying is a passing word. . . . 
Such obligations of bliiul obedience are contrary to 
the natural conscience of man. 

The formation of a Post of the Grand 
Army of the Kepublic at Xotre Dame, In- 
diana, in July, 189T, tlie membership of 
which "was composed wholly of Iloman 
Catholic priests," shows striking contrasts 
in the views of that Church concerning 
various secret societies. Archbishop Ryan, 
in replying to a vote of thanks from a 
Philadelphia Post, Grand Army of the Re- 
l^ublic, in 1896, was quoted in the daily 
papers in jiart as follows : 

I do not believe there was ever any general con- 
demnation of your Order by the Church, although 
individual bishops may have misinterpreted your 
constitution. It has no objectionable features that 
I can see, and is universally acknowledged by the 
Churcli at large in the country to-day. Your Order 
is founded on charitable and fraternal fellowship 
and patriotism. Patriotism is from God, and the 
Catholic Church should, therefore, be the first to 
nurture it. 

One significance of this lies in the fact 
that the Grand Army was organized b}' Odd 
Fellows and Freemasons and is largely made 
up of them ; like them, it is '* founded on 
charitable and fraternal fellowship and pa- 
triotism,'' and is secret, has grips, passwords, 
obligations, and an initiatory ceremony. 
The refusal of the Church of Rome to con- 
demn the Knights of Labor and the Grand 
Army of the Republic is, therefore, an ap- 
parent triumph of diplomacy. A Roman 
Catholic Anti-Masonic International Con- 
gress was held at Trient, Austria, in 
September, 1896, ''to make known to 
everybody the immense moral and material 
evil done by Freemasonry to the Church 
and to society, and to seek remedy by way 



12 



ANTI-MASONRY 



of a permanent, international organiza- 
tion against the Craft." In a published 
letter to the clergy approving tliat meeting, 
the coadjutor to Cardinal Taschereau at 
Quebec denounced Freemasonry as an ''in- 
fernal sect " and a " diabolical organiza- 
tion." The London "Times" said of the 
Congress that about eight hundred persons 
attended it, of whom six hundred were 
clergymen ; and that, Avhile the speeches 
were moderate, Freemasonry was "attacked 
as being opposed to the divine law and the 
Cliurcli." Whatever objection the Churcli 
of Rome may have to Freemasonry in 
France or elsewhere on the Continent, where 
the Bible has been removed from Masonic 
altars, or where Freemasons have been ac- 
cused of conspiring against the Pope, it is 
evident that Pope Clement's bull against 
Freemasonry in 1738 (renewed and con- 
firmed by all his successors) is feebly en- 
forced to-day, Tlie consequences of an at- 
tempt in tlie United States and the United 
Kingdom to have it carried out literally 
would suggest a problem in which a resist- 
ible body meets an immovable body. 

The Pennsylvania Christian Reform Con- 
vention, o])posed to secret societies, held at 
the First United Presbyterian Cliurch, 
Philadelphia, February, 1894, declared Free- 
masonry, so-called, the Society 6i Jesuits, 
and all societies which impose an oath on 
members to obey unknown laws, unscrip- 
tural, un-Christian and un-American, and 
membership in them degrading, and im- 
plored the State and Nation to declare 
members of all such societies outlaws. 

At a session of the Synod of the Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church, in Phila- 
delphia, in June, 1894, a report was adopted 
condemning secret societies as being "or- 
ganized on the principle of secrecy and for 
the purpose of concealment without previ- 
ous knowledge of the things to be con- 
cealed. . . ." 

Such a society is contrai'y to the spirit and letter of 
the religion of Jesus Christ. The grip, the pass- 
word, the darkened window, the guarded door are not 



Christlike ; and the Christian, especially the minister 
of Christ, is out of place in such surroundings.* 
Organized secrecy invites suspicion. Organized se- 
crecy is a menace to society. It naturally leads to 
ends and means and invites persons that need con- 
cealment. Whoever calls any man " Grand Master " 
makes himself a grand slave. Secret orders not 
only lord it over their own members, but undertake 
to dictate on terms of death the conduct of those 
outside their organization. Let everyone who enters 
a secret society know that he parts with his liberty, 
puts his neck under a yoke, and fetters his feet. He 
virtually says : " I am your beast, drive me ; I am 
your slave, command me ; I yield my own will and 
judgment to others." 

Organized opposition to Freemasonry 
among Protestant religious bodies has not 
been of sufficient importance to attract 
public attention during the past fifty years, 
being largely confined to a few of the minor, 
schismatic sects. When delegates from 
several of these bodies meet to fulminate 
against the Craft, they sometimes call them- 
selves a "Christian Association, Interde- 
nominational, Anti-Secret Convention." 
Such a gathering was held at Minneaj)olis, 
November, 1895, and resolved : 

That, in our opinion, secret societies are con- 
demned by the example and the word of Jesus Christ ; 
that such societies must injure men who compose 
them, uniting in fraternal fellowship believers and 
non-believers, and thus tending to separate them 
from the Saviour of men ; that such orders are hos- 
tile to the home life, depriving wife and children of 
the companionship and help of husband and father, 
and tending to destroy the confidence and sympathy 
which should be the foundation of home life ; that 
the churches of Jesus Christ are the God-aiDjJointed 
agency for the redemption of the world, and that 
secret societies tend to destroy them by rivalry and 
substitution ; and that the Lodge oaths are incon- 
sistent with good citizenship, and that good citizens 
should withstand and oppose them. 

Though political persecution of Free- 
masons and opposition to Freemasonry in 

* In 1891 the total number of ordained ministers 
in the State of New York who were affiliated Free- 
masons was as follows : Methodist, 288 ; Episcopal, 
146 ; Baptist, 112 ; Presbyterian, 59 ; LTniversalist, 
31 ; Congregational, 21 ; Dutch Reformed, 13 ; 
Christian, 13 ; Lutheran, 11 ; Jew, 7; Unitarian, 
1 ; Reformed Jew, 1 ; total, 703. 



ANTI-MASONRY 



13 



Europe, South America, and elsewhere 
abroad have generally been due to Roman 
Catholic influence, there is an exception in 
the prohibition of meetings of the society 
in Russia. 

In the United States an Anti-Masonic 
political party made its appearance in 
1827, and was active in some or all of 
the Middle and New England States 
for the next ten years. It was the out- 
growth of what was known as the " Morgan 
iiffair." William ]\[orgau of Batavia, 
Oenesee County, N. Y., who claimed to be 
but is not known to have been, a Free- 
mason, had a book in press which was said 
to reveal the secrets of the Masonic Fra- 
ternity. He was arrested on September 
11, 182G, on a charge of petit larceny, and 
put in Jail at Canandaigua, N. Y. The 
story goes that he was released on the 
night of September r2tli on the jaayment of 
the amount of the execution to the jailer's 
wife, the jailer being absent, and, guarded by 
several men, was taken in a closed carriage 
to Fort Niagara, on Niagara River, where all 
trace of him was lost, so far as liis relatives 
and the public were concerned. More than 
a year afterwards, in October, 1827, a much 
decomposed body of anuxn was found on the 
sliore of Lake Ontario, not far from the 
mouth of Niagara River. Morgan's wife, 
Thurlow AVeed, and others wlio knew Mor- 
gan, declared that the body was Morgan's, 
notwithstanding the family of Timothy 
Munroe, a Canadian fisherman who was 
drowned a few months before, were posi- 
tive that the body was Munroe's. Thurlow 
Weed, it will be recalled, first rose into 
political prominence through his connec- 
tion with the Morgan affair. Both he 
and William H. Seward, members of the 
National Republican party, were keenly 
alive to the opportunity to ride into power 
through a political party to be created out 
of the storm to which Morgan's disajipear- 
ance gave rise. The Masonic Fraternity 
suffered severely from the outcry against it, 
and so fierce was the sentiment on both 



sides that in New York, New England, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Miciiigan political 
parties, church congregations, families, 
and friends were divided on the issue. The 
Masonic Fraternity repudiated the acts of 
individual Freemasons accused of Mor- 
gan's abduction, and cooperated with the 
authorities in an effort to bring the guilty 
ones to justice ; but a whirlwind of public 
condemnation was aimed at the Craft in 
general, and would not be stayed. Tiie re- 
sult was, that during the next few years 
hundreds of Masonic Lodge warrants were 
surrendered. The insistence by Weed and 
others that the body found in October, 
1827, was that of Morgan (supposed to 
have been drowned in September, 1826), 
helped to fan the political flame which re- 
sulted in the formation of the Anti-Masonic 
party, in which Weed, Seward, and their 
friends were leaders. When Weed was 
confronted with the inconsistency of his 
claim that the body was Morgan's, he is 
credibly reported to have replied : " It's a 
good enough Morgan until after election," 
which has become a stock political phrase 
to tills day. Morgan was never seen, dead 
or alive, after his abductors left him. In 
Weed's autobiography he says that John 
Whitney, one of Morgan's abductors, con- 
fessed to him at Albany, in 1831, that 
Morgan was carried to Fort Niagara with the 
understanding that Canadian Freemasons 
would furnish him a retreat in the Do- 
minion, but that they refused to do so, 
whereupon Morgan was thrown overboard 
from a rowboat in Niagara River. Weed 
says he promised the secret would not be 
divulged while any of the abductors lived. 
In 1809 Weed says he wrote Whitney, ask- 
ing for a written account of the affair for 
pu1)lication after Whitney's death, when 
he learned that Whitney had just died. 
Weed's account of this did not appear until 
1883. Several persons were apprehended 
for the abduction of Morgan, but none 
were convicted. The Anti-Masonic party 
appeared in western New York early in 



14 



ANTI-MASONRY 



1827; and in 1828, aided in part by the 
"good enough Morgan until after elec- 
tion," polled 33,305 votes for Governor 
of New York State, out of a total of 
276,583 ; and, as Charles M. Harvey, St. 
Louis, states, ''two years later it made 
such inroads on the New York State Na- 
tional Eepublican organization that the 
latter virtually vanished," and the Anti- 
Masonic party became, for the time being, 
the only oj^ponent of the Democracy in 
that State. In Vermont and Pennsylvania 
it also displaced the National Republican 
organization, and it secured a strong foot- 
hold in Ohio, Massachusetts, and a few 
other States. The Anti-Masons entered 
the national field for the Presidential can- 
vass of 1832, by nominating William AVirt 
of Maryland for President, and Amos 
Ellmaker of Pennsylvania for Vice-Presi- 
dent, by national convention, as early as 
September, 1831, the first national Presi- 
dential convention in our history. Thir- 
teen States, all northern, except Delaware 
and Maryland, were represented. They 
met early, to compel the National Repub- 
licans to withhold the candidacy from 
Henry Clay, who was a Freemason. The 
National Republicans nominated Clay, 
however, who was badly beaten by Andrew 
Jackson, who was also a Freemason. Only 
one State, Vermont, was carried by the 
Anti-Masons. As a distinct party the 
Anti-Masons never took part in another 
Presidential campaign, being absorbed by 
the AVhigs, which succeeded the National 
Repnblican party in 1834. In State can- 
vasses in Vermont and Pennsylvania the 
Anti-Masons remained a factor for several 
years, electing Joseph Ritner Governor of 
Pennsylvania in 1835. Some of the or- 
ganizations known as '^' American parties" 
in the past twenty years have had anti- 
Masonic planks in their platforms, but 
their votes have been too few to be 
counted. 

Individual prejudice against or objection 
to Freemasonry, merely because of the secret 



character of the society, does not call for 
extended reference, except with respect to 
such publications as have had sufficient 
weight to attract general attention. Per- 
haps the earliest of these was " The Natural 
History of Staffordshire," by Robert Plot, 
published at Oxford, England, in 1686, 
which admitted that ''persons of the most 
eminent quality did not disdain to be of 
the fellowship." " Masonry Dissected," by 
Samuel Prichard, was irablished at London 
in 1730, and replied to in "A Defence of 
Masonry," by James Anderson, London, in 
1738. Between 1762 and 1768 there was a 
flood of books attacking the Fraternity, nota- 
bly "Jachin and Boaz " (1762), "Hiram, 
or the Grand Master Key" (1766), "The 
Three Distinct Knocks" (1768), and in the 
year last named a sermon, also published at 
London, entitled " Masonry the Way to 
Hell, . . . Wherein is Clearly Proved 
both from Reason and Scripture that all 
who Profess the Mysteries are in a State of 
Damnation." The final English work of 
this character apjieared a century ago, in 
1797, written by John Robison, Professor 
of Natural Philosophy, and Secretary of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh. It was en- 
titled "Proofs of a Conspiracy against all 
the Religions and Governments of Europe 
carried on in the Secret Meetings of Free- 
masons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies," 
and owes preservation solely to the perma- 
nency of the institution it sought to destroy. 
The earliest antagonistic publication in 
France was "La Grande Lumiere," the 
author of which had several imitators, the 
best known of whom was the Abbe Barruel, 
who wrote " Memoires pour servir a I'his- 
toire du Jacobinism." Barruel was a priest 
and a royalist, and was so affected by the re- 
sults of the French Revolution that he in- 
sisted the consequences of that movement 
were the outcome of the machinations of the 
Freemasons or Jacobin clubs. But where 
Robison was calm and dispassionate, Bar- 
ruel became abusive. Anti-Masonic publica- 
tions in Spain and Italy have been confined 



ANTI-MASONRY 



15 



principally to the bulls of the popes and 
edicts of the Iiuiiiisitiou. In defence of the 
edict of the Council of Dautzic against the 
Fraternity, a book appeared in 1764 with the 
name, "Proofs that the Society of Free- 
masons in every Country is not only Use- 
less, but, if )iot Restricted, Dangerous, and 
ought to be Interdicted." Subsequent 
anti-Musonic German publications Merc 
mostly pamphlets. In the United States 
like literature began with Morgan's book in 
1828, a paraphrase of similar early English 
books, and was followed by many others 
with no special claim to attention. An ex- 
ception is found in ** Letters on Masonry 
and Anti-Masonry addressed to lion. John 
Quincy Adams," by AVilliani L. Stone, Xew 
York, 1832, a Freemason, during a period 
of intense political excitement, uiul desigiied 
solely to advance the interests of the Anti- 
Masonic party. The Anti-Masonic party 
had declared that the jMasonic Institution 
was subversive of good government, and in- 
tended for the political aggrandizement of 
its leaders ; yet Stone had the fairness to 
admit that " the fact is not to be disguised 
— contradicted it cannot be'' — that anti- 
Masonry had become so thoroughly political 
that "its spirit Avas vindictive toward the 
Freemasons withoiit distinction as to guilt 
or innocence." Mackey has pointed out 
that Stone condemned Freemasonry because 
of the acts of the abductors of Morgan, 
whereas, "as well might the vices of the 
Christians of Corinth have suggested to a 
contemporary of St. Paul the propriety of 
suppressing Christianity." "Letters on 
the Masonic Institution," by John Quincy 
Adams, ex-President, which appeared in 
the public journals between 1831 and 1833, 
Avere collected and published in book form 
in 1847. The severest competent Masonic 
criticism of Adams may be found in ]\Iac- 
key's "Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" : that 
he Avas "a man of strong points a7id weak 
ones, of vast reading and wonderful mem- 
ory, of great credulity and strong pre- 
judice " — dAvelling continually, ia his anti- 



Masonic Avri tings, on " the oath " and " the 
murder of ^Morgan " — a victim of the mis- 
representations of the Masonic Fraternity. 
It is hardly necessary to more than refer to 
the compilations of anti-Masonic documents 
published by James C. Odiorne and by 
Henry Gassett at Boston, in 1830 and 1831, 
respectively. 

The recovery of the Masonic Fraternity 
from the shock of the inquisition instituted 
by the Anti-Masonic party Avas sIoav. So 
violent was the persecution of adhering Free- 
masons that many Avere driven to renounce 
the society in order to live in peace. Itin- 
erant lecturers found a neAv source of rev- 
enue l)y pretending to give j-jublic repre- 
sentations of Masonic ceremonies; almanac 
makers filled their publications with cor- 
roborative details as to the essential Avick- 
edness of Freemasonry ; and jiretended rev- 
elations of the secrets of Lodge, Chapter, 
Conimandery, and of some of the Scottish 
Kite bodies Avere ])eddled about the country 
by thrifty Anti-Masons. This was from 1830 
to 1835, Avhen to confess sympathy or con- 
nection Avith Freemasonry meant social, ])o- 
litical, and often religious ostracism. It is 
of exceptional interest to note (as may be 
seen by reference to articles under those 
titles) that during this period the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows Avas practically 
reorganized and began a more active career; 
that the Ancient Order of Druids and the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians Avere intro- 
duced into the United States from Eng- 
land and Ireland, res])ectively ; that the Im- 
l^roved Order of Red ^len Avas organized 
and reestablished as at present constituted; 
that the college fraternities Kapjm Alpha. 
Sigma Phi, and Delta Phi, founded at 
Union College, Schenectady, X. Y., a few 
years before, took on rather more conven- 
tional secret society forms; that Alpha Delta 
Phi was founded at Hamilton College, Clin- 
ton, X. Y., in 1832, and Psi Upsilon at 
Union College, in 1833, all leading Ameri- 
can college secret societies. In 1831, the year 
that Thurlow Weed, "William II. Seward, 



16 



BROTHERHOOD OF THE XEW LIFE 



and Thaddeus Stevens went as delegates to 
the Anti-Masonic, the first national Presi- 
dential convention, John Quincy Adams, 
Edward Everett, Joseph Story, and other 
leading Harvard representatives were so 
overcome with the anti-secret society feeling, 
that they indnced members of the Harvard 
Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa to violate their 
pledges of secrecy as to the '' mysteries " of 
the mother of American college fraternities, 
and make that organization non-secret. 
There is food for thought in the fact that 
none of the members of the two dozen imi- 
tators or offspring of the secret society Phi 
Beta Kappa ever imitated it by formally re- 
vealing their secrets on the college campus, 
and in the further fact that the two college 
fraternities, founded respectively in 1832 
and 1833, one year and two years after the 
Harvard Phi Beta Kappa affair, were estab- 
lished as secret societies, and remain among 
the strongest and best of like organizations 
to this day. From 1832 to 1845, or during 
the period of greatest excitement due to the 
anti-Masonic agitation, and for half a dozen 
years thereafter, the college secret societies 
continued to multiply and to establish new 
Chapters, from which an inference is fair 
as to the probable origin of the Masonic cast 
given the earlier rituals of some of them — 
all of those named, and afterward the " Mys- 
tical Seven." Late in the thirties and 
early in the following decade Freemasons 
began to gather and Lodges to open and do 
work. The recovery was not rapid, but was 
steady, and during the ten years prior to the 
outbreak of the Civil War the Craft regained 
what it had lost between 1828 and 1840. 
Since the Civil War the progress of the Fra- 
ternity has been so great that all opportunity 
for successful opposition based on bigotry, 
ignorance, or prejudice has been removed. 
One-half the Freemasons in the world are 
Americans; one man in every thirteen in the 
country is a member of the Fraternity, and 
its membership, as a whole, includes rejDre- 
sentatives of all ranks of society. They are 
found in general business and in political, 



professional, and military life; as President 
or the humblest office-holder; the executive 
head of a continental system of railways, or 
signalman ; in the bishop, priest, clergyman, 
lawyer, editor, and physician or the ordinary 
wayfaring man of commerce, whether propri- 
etor or clerk; as admiral or marine, as gen- 
eral or private. Freemasons constitute a 
dominant seventh as well as an influence 
in all other reputable secret societies in the 
United States. The total membership of all 
of them, allowing for a proportion belonging 
to several organizations, cannot be fewer 
than six million, one-third the total adult 
population of the country. To such pro- 
portions have Freemasonry and like soci- 
eties grown, that were a tithe of the allega- 
tions true which are made against the parent 
organization by its detractors, society at 
large would be reaping a whirlwind. 

Brotherhood of the New Life. — 
A mystical, religious, communal society 
founded by Thomas Lake Harris, at Moun- 
tain Cove, N, C, in 1851. It disbanded in 
1853, owing to internal dissensions. He 
formed a second community, in 1858, at 
Amenia, Dutchess County, N. Y., which 
shortly after removed to Brockton, Chautau- 
qua County, in the same State. Croups of 
three or four persons were formed in the 
Brotherhood, but if affection resulted, the 
group was broken up. Parents were separated 
from children, and husbands from wives. 
Harris was born in England in 1824, but 
most of his early life was passed at or near 
L'"tica, N. Y. He was evidently impressed 
by the Mormon movement, which began at 
Palmyra, and by the Fox Sisters' phenomena 
at Kochester, N. Y. He became a Swe- 
denborgian and a spiritualist. He declared 
that his journey to North Carolina and the 
founding of the Brotherhood were direct re- 
sults of communications from the Lord, and 
that it was as the direct representative of 
the latter that he remained at the head of 
the movement, and held titles to property 
in trust for the discif)les and the commu- 
nity. His followers lived in separate houses 



FREEMASONRY 



17 



and dressed as did people generally, but 
they Avore their hair long, observed the fifth 
day of the week as a day of rest, opposed 
marriage, and advocated Platonic love. 
None of the critics of the Brotherhood has 
charged them with immorality. Harris's 
most distinguished disciple was Lawrence 
Oliphant, over whom, from 1867 to nearly 
the time of the latter's death in 1881, he 
exercised a remarkable influence. In 1875 
Harris and many of his followers reestab- 
lished the Brotherhood at Santa Kosa, Cali- 
fornia. There he is said to have overcome 
his asceticism, and in 1891 was declared to 
have announced that he had discovered the 
secret of perpetual youth. In 1892 he left 
his luxurious home in California, came to 
New York City, married, and settled down. 
Some members of the Brotherhood are re- 
ported to still live in California and some in 
Nebraska. 

Brotherhood of the West Gate. — A 
brotherhood seeking to solve '"the esoteric 
mysteries of the microcosm," the restora- 
tion of ''inner harmony," in the face of 
which " wealth, fame, and power . . . sink 
into nothingness." It publishes '' The Ora- 
cle " at Bridgeton, Maine. 

E-soter-ists of the West. — Little is 
learned of this brotherhood beyond its name, 
its excessively secret character, and the ex- 
planation that the word " west " refers to the 
Americas. The division of the word " Esoter- 
ists " in the title evidently has some partic- 
ular significance. 

Freemasonry. — The Ancient and Hon- 
orable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, 
usually referred to as Ancient, Free, and 
Accepted Masons, sometimes as Free and 
Accepted Masons (A, F. & A. !M. or F. & 
A. M.), is a secret fraternity, founded upon 
man's religious aspirations, which, by forms, 
ceremonies, and elaborate symbolism, seeks 
to create a universal brotherhood, to relieve 
suffering, cultivate the virtues, and join in 
the endless search for truth. It is the oldest 
and most widely distributed secret society, 
having an active membership of 1,400,000 
2 



in the more than 25,000 Lodges which, ex- 
cept in Austria and Russia, mark the paths 
of commerce and civilization throughout the 
Avorld. 

The student of the history of the Craft 
may be glad to know that Benjamin Frank- 
lin, who was a Freemason, wrote of the 
Fraternity as follows : 

It lias secrets peculiar to itself; but of what do 
those principally consist? They consist of signs and 
toiccns, wiiich serve as testimonials of character and 
qualifications, which are only conferred after a due 
course of instruction and examination. These are 
of no small value; they speak a universal language, 
and act as a passport to the attention and su[)port 
of the initiated in all parts of the, world. They can- 
not be lost so long as memory retains its power. Let 
the possessor of them be expatriated, shipwrecked, 
or imprisoned; let him be stripped of everything he 
has got in the world; still these credentials remain 
and are available for use as circumstances require. 
The great effects which they have produced are 
established by the most incontestable facts of his- 
tory. They have stayed the uplifted hand of the 
destroyer; they have softened the asperities of the 
tyrant; they have mitigated the horrors of cap- 
tivity; they have subdued the rancor of malevo- 
lence, and broken down the barriers of political 
animosity and sectarian alienation. On the field of 
battle, in the solitude of the uncultivated forests, or 
in the busy haunts of the crowded city, they have 
made men of the most hostile feelings, and most 
distant religions, and the most diversified condi- 
tions, rush to the aid of each other, and feel social 
joy and satisfaction that they have been able to 
afford relief to a Ijrother Mason. 

"^rhe Fraternity as now organized dates 
from 1717, wljen the four old Lodges in Lon- 
don met and formed a Grand Lodge. The 
most ancient Freemasons referred to in trust- 
worthy historical records were the opera- 
tive stone masons or builders of the ^Middle 
Ages, referred to in England as far back as 
the eighth century. About three hundred 
years ago the operative Craft in England, 
France, and Germany began to disintegrate. 
This Avas the natural consequence of not 
only the Reformation and the Thirty Years' 
AVar, but of the completion of the churches 
and cathedrals upon which the stone ma- 
sons' guilds had been engaged for several 



18 



FREEMASONRY 



centuries, originally with the assistance of 
the Church. These bands of traveling 
builders held a general assembly at Stras- 
burg in 1275, and another nearly one hun- 
dred years later, at whicli laws were framed 
and a fraternity formed. Guilds were com- 
posed of apprentices, craftsmen, and masters, 
had an initiatory ceremony and a sign. 
Traveling from city to city throughout Cen- 
tral and Western Europe, they constituted 
the first, or operative Free Masons, so-called 
because they enjoyed privileges granted by 
the Church and civil authorities, OAving to 
their skill in architecture and the charac- 
ter of the edifices they built. When the 
churches and cathedrals were completed, the 
guilds began to disappear. In France the 
guilds, which were more directly the out- 
come of the Eoman occupation of the coun- 
trv, and of the colleges of artificers which 
accompanied the Eoman legions, were abol- 
ished about 153G-39. Upon their ruins 
there arose a new type of workingmen's 
guilds known as the Companionage. By 
1655 this had spread throughout France, 
'divided into three separate fraternities com- 
posed of various trades, or, as we would say, 
unions, the oldest being known as the Sons 
of Solomon. The other two sprang from 
the Sons of Solomon, and were bitter rivals. 
One was known as the Sous of Maitre 
Jacques. Its traditions carried the society 
back to King Solomon's Temple, and in the 
untimely death of Maitre Jacques is found 
a striking parallel to the story of Hiram. 
The Sons of Soubise, an offshoot of the Sons 
of Maitre Jacques, possessed many of the 
characteristics of the latter. No description 
of the Companionage was made public until 
1841, nearly one hundred and twelve years 
after the introduction of Freemasonry into 
France from England, notwithstanding the 
story of the building of King Solomon's 
Temple and the death of Iliram formed a 
part of the legends of the Companionage. 
The foregoing, as pointed out in Gould's 
"History of Freemasonry," appears to be 
the earliest account of the death of the mas- 



ter builder, for there is no reference to the 
Hiramic legend in Freemasonry until after 
the formation of the Grand Lodge at Lon- 
don in 1717, more than sixty years after the 
French Companionage had reached the 
height of its career. 

Among various theories as to the origin 
of modern Freemasonry, the following have 
had many advocates: (1) That which car- 
ries it back through the mediaeval stone ma- 
sons to the Ancient Mysteries, or to King 
Solomon's Temple; (2) not satisfied with 
the foregoing, that which traces it to Noah, 
to Enoch, and to Adam; (3) the theory that 
the cradle of Freemasonry is to be found in 
the Eoman Colleges of Artificers of the ear- 
lier centuries of the Christian era; (4) that 
it was brought into Europe ,by the return- 
ing Crusaders; (5) that it was an emanation 
from the Templars after the sujipression of 
the Order in 1312; (G) that it formed a vir- 
tual continuation of the Eosicrucians; (7) 
that it grew out of the secret society crea- 
tions of the partisans of the Stuarts in their 
efforts to regain the throne of England; (8) 
that it was derived from the Essenes, and 
(9) from the Culdees. 

Whatever may have been believed as to 
Freemasonry being traceable to any of the 
foregoing, the results of the investigations 
of E. F. Gould, W. J. Ilughan, and Eev. 
A. F. A. Woodford of England, D. Mur- 
ray Lyon of Scotland, Albert Pike, G. F. 
Fort, Albert G. Mackey, Charles T. McClen- 
achan, E. T. Carson, T. S. Parvin, Josiah 
H. Drummond, and others in the United 
States, '' Masonic authors of repute and dili- 
gent students of Masonic records,'' make it 
j)lain that while the rites and symbols of 
Freemasonry have great antiquity, specu- 
lative Freemasonry, as an organization, is 
modern, probably not over three hundred 
years old. 

The Essenes, the only one of the three 
ancient Jewish sects mentioned in the Bible 
which was not referred to unfavorably, has 
been regarded by some as the cradle of an- 
cient Freemasonry. It had existed "from 



FREEMASONRY 



19 



time immemorial," but disappeared about 
400 A.D. The Essenes are said to have per- 
fected the Jewish Kabbala, to have believed 
in miraculous cures, to have regarded them- 
selves as temples of the Holy Ghost, and to 
have been '"forerunners of the ^reesiah." 
They had secret means of recognition, and 
taught that all things were not for all men, 
but there has been no more connection sliown 
between the ancient Essenes and modern 
Freemasonry than that Masonic scholars and 
ritualists may have found something in al- 
leged Essenic rites worthy of assimilation 
in latter-day mysteries. The Culdees were 
Apostolic Christians, monks of Eastern ori- 
gin. They were encountered in Ireland 
about the fifth century, and later in Scot- 
land. They were opposed by 8t. Augus- 
tine, and virtually disappeared in the four- 
teenth century. They were teachers of civ- 
ilization, church architects and builders, 
and it has been claimed they were connected 
with early Scotch and Irish operative Free- 
masons. The partisans of tlie Stuarts were 
active, and some were prominent Freema- 
sons ; but while they contributed something 
to the rituals of so-called higher degrees, 
they had no permanent influence upon the 
institution. The real Rosicrucians were 
mystics who flourished in Germany, France, 
and England in the latter portion of the 
seventeenth century. Contrary to views 
Avhich have been held, it Avas not a society, 
and was not concerned merely in an efi^ort 
to transform baser metals into gold and to 
discover the secret of perpetual youth, which 
synibolized a search for divine truth and 
immortal life. The IJosicrucians were un- 
doubtedly in advance of their time, but not 
too much so to borrow freely from the sym- 
bolism of the ancient mysteries and of the 
Gnostics. A number of eminent Rosicru- 
cijins were Freemasons, notably Elias Ash- 
mole, the antiquary. What Freemasonry 
owes to the Rosicrucians may never be 
known, although something may be inferred 
by students who are familiar with both 
societies. (See Freemasonry, Rosicrucians, 



etc.) Gould (R. F. ) thinks Freemasonry 
may have been tinged with Rosicrucianism 
through the influence of Ashmole and 
others, but points to there being no real 
evidence of it aside from the fact that Free- 
masonry presents the double and single tri- 
angles, the hexagon, the point within a cir- 
cle, a magical aljjhabet, and a searcli for 
light. The ignorance and superstition of 
the mass of the people in the seventeenth 
century led them to regard the brethren of 
the Rosy Cross, who were theosophists first, 
and Kabbalistsand alchemists afterwards, as 
dealers in magic and in league with the 
devil. Those who have favored the theory 
that modern Freemasonry was the outgrowth 
of Rosicrucianism have added that so much 
were the i)ublic inflamed against the Rosi- 
crucians that the latter were obliged to shel- 
ter themselves under the cloak of Fi-ee- 
masonry, when they gave to the latter a 
Christian interpretation. By the end of 
the seventeenth century Europe Avas covered 
with pretended Rosicrucians offering to com- 
municate the occult for money. The theory 
that Freemasonry appeared in Europe upon 
the return of the Crusaders has long been 
abandoned, but its successor was a French 
Templar theory of the origin of the institu- 
tion, and in some portions of Europe it still 
finds advocates. It I'ests on a legend that 
the Knights Templars, at the destruction of 
the Order and the burning of Jacques de 
Molay, fled to Scotland, Avhere they became 
Freemasons and propagated the rite. The 
French Ordre du Temple is based upon a 
modification of this theory, as were the 
Strict Observance in Germany, and other 
rites. There is, however, nothing in this 
except the legend, for Freemasonry a.s it 
existed in England in 1717 has been shown 
to be the result of the evolution of guilds of 
operative stone masons, who, it is needless 
to add, could never have derived their rites 
and formuhe from the original Knights 
Templars, who were men of rank. The 
story that the Fraternity was founded at the 
building of King Solomon's Temple, and 



20 



FREEMASONRY 



has enjoyed an uninterrupted existence ever 
since, is one of the myths of the organiza- 
tion which has been innocently believed by 
many, but which does not merit serious at- 
ten tion . The mystical meanings of Masonic 
references to King Solomon's Temple, not 
only in the symbolic degrees, but also in the 
haute grades, have not always been under- 
stood, even by members of the Craft. The 
carrying back of the Fraternity to the ante- 
diluvian age has been due to an inability to 
distinguish between an idea and a fact. So- 
cieties have existed in all ages of the world 
for the propagation of truth, morality, and 
the practice of that which is involved in a 
universal brotherhood; have risen, flour- 
ished, and died. Others have been born, 
have borrowed from those which went be- 
fore, and they in turn have died. But he 
is bold, indeed, who professes to trace an 
uninterrupted succession or an identity of 
organization for them all. The earlier Eng- 
lish associations of operative builders, who 
were first called Free Masons in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries, because of 
the freedom granted them to work and to 
sell the products of their labor, may or may 
not have been the offspring of German stone 
masons' guilds who built the churches and 
cathedrals erected in the Middle Ages. The 
Roman Colleges of Artificers who accompa- 
nied the imperial armies on their excursions 
throughout Europe naturally had an influ- 
ence on not only the English guilds at the 
time of the Roman occupation of Britain, 
but upon the French and German guilds as 
well. But the Freemason knows of that 
which could not well have been derived from 
the medigeval guilds, or from the Roman 
Colleges, and naturally inquires as to its 
source. During the sixteenth century the 
German and French fraternities of travel- 
ing builders virtually disappeared. The 
French Compaiiionage (trades unions) was 
founded upon the ruins of the latter, but 
had no known connection with the forma- 
tion of speculative Freemasonry, so that in 
the seventeenth and early in the eighteenth 



century speculative Freemasonry as distinct 
from the operative Craft, that which in- 
dulged only in the symbolism of the work 
jierformed by the earlier Free Masons, was 
confined to Great Britain alone. Nowhere 
else iu the world was it to be found, and 
whether the association of learned men with 
the earlier English operative Free Masons 
was due to an effort on the part of the lat- 
ter to interest others than those of the Craft 
to secure immunity at the hands of the no- 
bility or not, it remains true that profes- 
sional and literary Englishmen, some learned 
in astrology, alchemy, and Kabbalistic lore, 
theoretic geometricians, and architect ma- 
sons, identified themselves from time to 
time with the declining operative frater- 
nity. A notable instance was the initiation 
of Elias Ashmole, the antiquary, in 1746, 
and it is not a mere inference that his join- 
ing the society was not the only instance of 
the kind. This class of membership was 
honorary at first, whence the term Free and 
"Accepted" Masons. In 1703 a formal 
effort was made to change the organization 
from an operative to a speculative fraternity, 
as the old English lodges were dying out, 
only seven surviving the eighteenth century 
in the city of London. The professed de- 
sire was to found a brotherhood which would 
build spiritual instead of material temples, 
to become Freemasons as distinct from Free 
Masons who were workmen or ordinary la- 
borers. When a Grand Lodge was formed 
at London in 1717, there was, so far as 
known, only a single ceremonial or degree ; 
but within six or seven years, or by 1724, 
the three symbolic degrees, Entered Appren- 
tice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason, had 
made their appearance. The craft guilds 
had contributed the square and compasses ; 
their patron saint, St. John the Baptist ; a 
reference to King Solomon's Temple ; the 
two famous pillars ; the mystical numbers 
five, seven, and nine ; words and grips and 
a long and honorable record as builders of 
English churches and cathedrals under codes 
of laws for their government, which oral and 



FREEMASONRY 



21 



manuscript tradition carried back prior to 
the teuth century, when, in 93G, it was said 
that ii generul assembly of Masons was held 
at York under the patronage of Edwin, 
brother of Athelstan, where a code of laws 
was adopted which became the basis of sub- 
sequent English craft constitutions. Not- 
withstanding allegations that general Ma- 
sonic assemblies Avere periodically held at 
York thereafter, Gould says there is no sub- 
stantial reason for believing that more than 
one general assembly (the prototype of the 
Grand Lodge) was held at York prior to 
1717. The English operative Free Masons 
may be admitted to have preserved traces of 
the influence of the teachings of the Druids 
(which see) ; the Culdees, who also claimed 
to have been granted a charter by Edwin; 
of the Roman Colleges, and of the English 
Church, with the Holy Bible and altar lights; 
but details of the introdiTction of the Hi- 
ramic legend will probably forever remain a 
mystery. Y"et, Avith the foregoing in mind, 
it is evident that Freemasonry includes 
much that Avas not in possession of the four 
old London Lodges in 1717. 

The oldest of the ancient mysteries, those 
practised at Memphis in Egypt, centred 
about Isis, Serapis, and Osiris, and the 
lesson taught Avas that of regeneration 
through death. Like those Avhich followed, 
they presented a dialogue, ritual, and con- 
trasts betAA^een liglit and darkness, death 
and regeneration. The candidates had 
to undergo purification, trial, failure, and 
even death before being regenerated amid 
rejoicings. The Grecian or Eleusinian 
mysteries (1800 B.C.) represented Demeter 
(Ceres) and Persephone, and depicted the 
death of Dionysus Avith an elaborate ce- 
remonial Avhicli led the neophyte from 
death into life and immortality. Initiates 
were taught the existence of a Supreme 
Being and invested Avith the signs of and 
membership in a fraternity. The Mithraic 
or Persian mysteries celebrated the eclipse 
of the sun god, introduced the signs of the 
zodiac, the procession of the seasons, the 



death of nature in winter, and its birth in 
spring. They Avere popular in Home in the 
earlier centuries of the Christian era, and 
are said to have had an influence on the 
Roman Colleges of Artificers, by Avhom they 
may have been disseminated. The Adoniac 
or Syrian mysteries Avere similar, those in 
Avhicli Venus, Adonis, and Proserpine fig- 
ured, in Avhich Adonis Avas killed, but revived 
to point to life through death. The Cabiric 
mysteries (1000 li.c), Avhich disappeared 
shortly after the Christian era, Avere prac- 
tised on the island of Samothrace. 'J' he 
Cabiri Avere gods, and, in the ceremonial, 
Atys the Sun Avas killed by his brothers the 
Seasons, and at the vernal equinox was re- 
stored to life. So, also, the Druids taught 
of one God and the lesson of the procession 
of the seasons, and conducted the initiate 
through the valley of death to everlasting 
life. The Gnostics are supposed to have in- 
cluded some of the earlier Christians, for 
their doctrines contain a mixture of Chris- 
tianity and the Persian religion. They 
taught by means of symbols, many of wliich, 
including a secret reference to Deity, the 
double triangle, the lion, serpent, etc., are 
familiar to Freemasons. It Avill be seen 
that the Rosier ucians Avere indebted to the 
Gnostics even as they were to the Kabbal- 
ists. The latter taught a mystical inter- 
pretation of the Scriptures, a secret method 
of treating sacred subjects by means of sym- 
bols, and a peciiliar use of letters of Avords 
based upon their A'alues. The student of the 
ancient mysteries, all or nearly all of which 
prior to their perversion taught purity, 
morality, immortality, and the existence of 
a Supreme Being, cannot fail to perceive, 
if in a position to judge, that Freemasonry 
stands as the successor or repository of 
much of that Avhich Avas noblest and best in 
them, liut he also knows of much Avhich 
this theory does not account for, to explain 
which one must go to Pythagoras and his 
celebrated school at Crotona, in Greece, 
founded a.d. 58G. Pythagoras, after being 
initiated into the Egyptian and Eleusinian 



22 



FREEMASONRY 



mysteries, formed a secret society of his 
own, with three degrees, in wliich, among 
other things, he taught geometry, me- 
tempsychosis, and the mystical power of 
numbers. From these the Rosicrucians bor- 
rowed, and from the forms and symbolism 
of the Kabbalists, Gnostics, and Pythago- 
reans as perfected by the Rosicrucians, from 
the Greek, Egyptian, and Oriental philoso- 
phy of the Alexandrian school of Neoplato- 
nism, and from the ancient mysteries. Free- 
masonry has taken enough to mark it with 
the leading characteristics of all ancient and 
mystical schools of religion and philosophy 
— circumambulation, the use of aprons, the 
forty-seventh problem of Euclid, a cipher, 
and the lesson taught by the story of the 
illustrious Tyrian substituted for legends of 
Osiris, Adonis, Atys, and Dionysus. That 
Masonic enthusiasts, antiquarians, and rit- 
ualists superimposed these relics npon Free- 
masonry as it had existed for about one hun- 
dred years prior to 1717, there can be little 
doubt. The Fraternity, therefore, presents 
three classes of symbols : Pagan, derived from 
the same source as Christianity obtained 
them; those contributed by the operative 
Masons, and the exclusively Christian sym- 
bols. It also shows traces of the Vehmge- 
richte, or secret society of Free Judges, which 
was prominent in Germany in the thirteenth 
century. The latter was formed to pro- 
tect the innocent from injustice, held its 
courts in the forest at night, and executed 
its judgments without fear or favor. It 
granted audience alike to noble and peas- 
ant, and few were bold enough to ignore 
its summons or treat its judgments with dis- 
respect. Traces of the society in a modified 
form were found as late as the present cen- 
tury. (See Ancient Order of Freesmiths.) 
Its oath was of a most solemn character, 
binding the initiate to "conceal, hold, and 
not reveal,"' etc. Its chief symbol was the 
arrow, and for a violation of the vow the 
penalty was death. The introduction into 
the ritual of Freemasonry, about 1825, of 
the story of Hiram was a master stroke. 



If a like legend among the French trades 
guilds, or Companionage, for sixty-five years 
prior to 1717, does not explain where the 
Freemasons of 1717-24 got it, it must be re- 
garded as a most extraordinary coincidence. 
Within ten years after the formation of 
the Grand Lodge of England at London, in 
1717, Freemasonry had spread throughout 
the United Kingdom and the Continent of 
Europe, to many of the British colonies, 
and by 1730 to those in America. With the 
ap2:)ointment of the Duke of Montagu as 
Grand Master, in 1720, the impetus given 
the growth of the institution became pro- 
nounced, and, as one author points out, the 
Fraternity almost lost its breath in the race 
for popularity. Many men distinguished 
in the professions, in politics, and as repre- 
sentatives of the nobility, not only in the 
United Kingdom, but on the Continent of 
Europe, became members of the Fraternity, 
and not a few of them were conspicuous 
as its officers. With prosperity there natu- 
rally came antagonisms, for some of which 
see Anti-Masonry. As early as 1724 the 
Grand Lodge of England granted a charter 
for a subordinate Lodge at the ancient city 
of York, which is presumed to have antag- 
onized a Lodge of Freemasons which had 
existed there since 1705, as shown by its 
records, and with little doubt for a period 
ranging far back into the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The ancient Lodge thereupon consti- 
tuted itself a "Grand Lodge of all Eng- 
land " (1725), but does not appear to have 
instituted more than one or two subordinate 
Lodges prior to 1740, when it became dor- 
mant, and remained so for twenty years or 
more. But it does not appear to have ac- 
tively opposed the Grand Lodge of England 
at London, which had been and was still 
engaged in chartering subordinate Lodges 
at home and abroad. In 1761 the Grand 
Lodge of all England, at York, became ac- 
tive again, and chartered a number of sub- 
ordinate Lodges in two counties in England. 
Ten years before, in 1751, nine subordinate 
Lodges holding allegiance to the Grand 



FREEMASONRY 



23 



Lodge of England seceded from that body, 
on the ground that the latter suffered sub- 
ordinate Lodges of its jurisdiction to depart 
from the ancient landmarks and practise 
that which had previously been unknown in 
Freemasonry. The seceders organized a 
" Grand Lodge of England, According to 
old Institutions," describing themselves as 
" Ancients," and the members of the orig- 
inal Grand Lodge of England as " Mod- 
erns." The animating spirit of the seced- 
ing (Ancient) Grand Lodge was Laurence 
Dermott, its Grand Secretary, Avho was an 
able administrator and executive, but an 
audacious antagonist. Dermott compiled 
the '* Ahiman Rezon," or Book of Con- 
stitutions of the Ancients, in 1756, which he 
copied from the Constitutions of the orig- 
inal or so-called Modern Grand Lodge, and 
addressed it to "the Ancient York Masons 
in England."' The rivalry between the two 
London Grand Lodges, Ancient and Mod- 
ern, was keen, and at times bitter. The 
seceders granted many warrants to army 
Lodges, which bore good fruit by making 
Ancient Masons in many parts of the world 
where the English army was stationed dur- 
ing the latter half of the eighteenth century. 
Dermott was made a Freemason in Dublin 
about 1740, and testified to his appreciation 
of the Lodge wherein he was raised by copy- 
ing its by-laws and using them as the by- 
laws of the Ancients. He received the 
Koyal Arch degree in Ireland before com- 
ing to Loudon, then an unsystematized de- 
gree, borrowed presumably from the French, 
and afterwards utilized it in the Grand Lodge 
of Ancients. The Moderns likewise suffered 
from the mania for higher or more degrees 
which characterized the latter half of the 
eighteenth century, and thus it was that at 
the reunion of the Ancients under the Grand 
Mastership of the Duke of Sussex with the 
Moderns under the Duke of Kent, Ancient 
Freemasonry was declared to consist of the 
three symbolic degrees. Entered Apprentice, 
Fellowcraft, and Master Mason, " including 
the Holy Royal Arch." 



After the revival of the Grand Lodge of 
all England, at York, in 1701, it continued 
neutral to the Grand Lodge of England and 
that of the seceding body, the Ancients. 
Late in the last century, after the death of 
its several subordinate Lodges, the Grand 
Lodge of all England was discontinued. 
In 1779 an expelled faction of the Lodge of 
Antiquity at London (one of the four Lodges 
which united to form the Grand Lodge of 
England in 1717), together with a deputa- 
tion from the Grand Lodge of all England 
at York, formed another Grand Body under 
the title, ''Grand Lodge of England south 
of the Trent." But in 1789 the expelled 
members of the Lodge of Antiquity apolo- 
gized to the Grand Lodge of England, and, 
upon petition, were restored to good stand- 
ing, whereupon the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land south of the Trent died. With this 
and the final disappearance of the Grand 
Lodge of all England, the way was clear for 
the concentration of efforts of members of 
the original and of the seceding Grand 
Lodges looking to reunion. Negotiations 
to that end were continued over a series of 
years, and resulted, in 1813, as pointed out, 
in a United Grand Lodge of England, since 
which time the Craft in the United King- 
dom has been undisturbed by schism or 
other serious dissension. It is of interest 
to American Freemasons to note that the 
expression "York Rite Masons " has little 
or no basis; that it is, in fact, a misnomer. 
There was and is no York Masonic rite, and 
the symbolic Freemasonry which the world 
knows did not come from the Grand Lodge 
of all England, founded at Yoi'k in 1725, 
but from the Grand Lodge of England, 
founded at London in 1717. The York 
Grand Lodge outlived its several subordi- 
nate Lodges, and died twenty years before 
the union of the two great English Grand 
Lodges from which the world received An- 
cient Craft Masonry. The expression '* An- 
cient York Masons" is probably derived 
from Laurence Dermott's " Ahiman Re- 
zon," which was addressed to " the Ancient 




lod. Ter-y 



8. Africa. .i^^__ 

B&ham&s. 

Greece. 

Straits Settlements. 

So, Australia. 

Japan. 

Liberia. 

Borneo. 

and others. 



Explanatory. 
The first Masouic Lodge in France had 
an English warrant, as did the first Lodge 
in Ireland, in Scotland, Spain, Germany, 
etc. The charter of the first Lodge in 
Sweden came from France, that of the first 
in New South Wales, from Ireland, first 
in Florida, from Spain, etc. 



GRAPHIC CHART, SHOWING THE SPREAD OF FREEMASONRY, BEGINNING 

IN 1725, FROM ENGLAND TO SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT 

COUNTRIES, STATES, COLONIES, AND PROV- 

INCES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. 



FREEMASONRY 



25 



York Masons in England." The Free- 
masonry of the English schismatics, or An- 
cients, was more firmly established in Penn- 
sylvania than in any other of the American 
colonies, where that jieculiar type remains 
without change or elaboration, a curiosity to 
visiting brethren. In Pennsylvania, natur- 
ally, much was formerly heard of '' Ancient 
York Masons," and for that reason the ex- 
pression acquired vogue. English Free- 
masonry, consisting of the three symbolic 
degrees, " including the Holy Royal Arch," 
forms the English, not the Y^ork rite. The 
Grand Lodge of all England (Y^ork), like 
the rival London Grand Lodges, conferred 
not only the Royal Arch degree, but that of 
Knight Templar, as well as detached cere- 
monials. 

With English commerce and the British 
army, navy, and diplomatic service furnish- 
ing currents of communication between Eng- 
land and almost every civilized community, 
it was not strange, when the jiopularity of 
Freemasonry in England between 1823 and 
1840 is considered, that the Fraternity 
spread rapidly to almost every quarter of the 
world. The dates, locations, and origin of 
first Masonic Lodges in more important coun- 
tries, states, and provinces, given in chrono- 
logical order, enable one to trace its extension. 



FIRST MASONIC LODOKS. LOCATION'. CHARTEllED PROM. 

172.T France Paris Eni;laiul. 

17'.iG Irt'latid Cork England. 

1727 Scotland Edinburgh England. 

1728 Spain Madrid England. 

1730 (iermany Ilambuig.. England. 

Pfnns.vlvania Pliiladclpliia England. 

India Calcutta England. 

1731 Notherlands Uaguc England. 

Hus.><ia St. Poteri-burg. . . . iMigland. 

1733 Ma.ssachusetts Boston England. 

1735 Ncw^llampghire Portsnioutli Massachusetts. 

Portugal Lisbon England. 

Norway and Sweden. Stockholm France. 

Italy Rome England. 

Georgia Savannah England. 

South Carolina Charleston England. 

1736 Switzerland (Jcneva England. 

I'oland Warsaw ICngland. 

1737 .Moiitserrat England. 

17:^8 Martinique France. 

1739 Jamaica Kingston England. 

Antigua England. 

St. Christopher England. 

1740 Prussia Charlottenburg (ierniany. 

Malta Valetta .'. Enghuul. 

Barl)adoe8 England. 

1742 Austria Vienna England. 

1743 Denmark Copenhagen (rermany. 

1747 St. Eustatius Prance. 

Transviuil Pretoria England. 

1748 Turkey Constantinople England. 

1749 Hayti Sau DoiuiDgo France. 



FIRST MASONIC LODGES. LOCATION. CHARTERED FROM. 

749 Rhode Island New|)ort Massachusetts. 

750 Connecticut New Haven Massachusetts. 

Marj;land Baltimore MassachuBetta. 

7.53 V^irginia York town England. 

7.")4 New York New York lingland. 

North Carolina Wilmington England. 

7.'>5 French (iuiana Cayenne F'raiice. 

7.")7 Curayoa Holland. 

7W Virgin Islands England. 

Hungary Presburg (Jermany. 

701 Bermudas England. 

New Jersey Newark New York. 

762 Dominion of Canada. Quebec Massachusetts. 

Maine Porilaiul Massacliusette. 

763 Nicaragua Mosiiiiito Shore Englan(i. 

Honduras St (Jeorge's (^uay . England. 

764 Grenada Fort Royal Engl. & France, 

765 Sumatra Bencoolen England. 

Delaware Cantwell's Bridge . Pennsylvania. 

7(!() Guadeloupe France. 

7ii7 China Canton, Hong KongEngland. 

7i;8 China Cochin France. 

Florida St. Augustine Scotland. 

769 Java Batavia Holland. 

Dutch Guiana Paramaibo Holland. 

771 Ceylon Colombo Holland. 

British Guiana (ieorgetown England. 

772 South Africa Cape Town England. 

773 Dominica Roseau England. 

781 Vermont Springfield Massachusetts. 

783 Ohio Marietta A N. Y. Army L. 

District Columbia . . .Alexandria Pennsylvania. 

784 St. Lucia France. 

78.5 Bahamas England. 

788 Kentucky Lexington Virginia. 

792 St. Thomas Pennsylvania. 

793 Louisiana New Orleans 

794 Michigan Detroit Canada. 

796 Ten nessee Nashville North Carolina. 

797 St. Bartholomew Sweden. 

798 Trinidad Port D'Espagne . . .Pennsylvania. 

800 St. Martin France. 

801 Mississippi Natcliez Kentucky. 

8— Venezuela Caracas Spain. 

802 EgyiJt Alexandria France. 

804 Cuba Havana Pennsylvania. 

805 Illinois Kaskaskia Pennsylvania. 

806 St. Vincent Ireland. 

807 Missouri St. (ienevieve Pennsylvania. 

Indiana Vincennes Kentucky. 

Peru Lima France. 

809 Grei'ce Corfu England. 

Straits Settlements. .Penang England. 

810 Mexico City of Mexico Spain. 

811 Alabama Iluntsville Kentucky. 

815 Brazil Rio de Janeiro . . . France. 

816 New South Wales. . .Sydney Ireland. 

Arkansas Post of Arkansas. . Pennsylvania. 

823 Tasmania Ilobart Town Ireland. 

824 Mexico (revival) City of Mexico Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin Green Bay New York. 

825 Argentine Republic .Buenos Ayres Pennsylvania. 

832 Uruguay Montevideo Pennsylvania. 

Algeria Algiers France. 

8.33 U. S. Colombia Cartha<'ena Spain. 

834 South Australia Adelaide England. 

Society Islands Tahiti France. 

835 Texas Brazoria Louisiana. 

840 Chili Valparaiso France. 

841 Victoria Mell)ourne England. 

842 West Australia Perth England. 

Iowa Montrose Illinois. 

843 New Zealand Akaroa France. 

848 California Sacramento Dist. Columbia. 

849 Minnesota St. Paul Ohio. 

850 Oregon Oregon City California. 

Sandwich Islands . . . llonoUihi ." France and Cal. 

Marquesas Nukahiva France. 

851 New Mexico Santa V6 Missouri. 

8.52 Washington (Jlympia Oregon. 

8.54 Kansas Wyandotte Missouri. 

855 Nebraska ." Illinois. 

Indian Territory. . . .Muscogee Arkansas. 

8."7 Ecuador (iuavaquil Peru. 

859 Roumania Bucharest France. 

Queensland Brisl)ane England. 

860 Porto Rico Mayaguez Cuba. 

Tunis Tunis France. 

8()1 Colorado (Jolden City Nebraska. 

862 Nevada Carson City California. 

Dakota Yankton Iowa. 

1863 Montana Baunock Nebraska. 



26 



FREEMASONRY 



FIBST MASOKIC LODGES. LOCATION. CHABTERED PROM. 

1863 Idaho Idaho City Oregon. 

West Virginia Sep. f r. Va. 

1864 New Caleaonia Noumea France. 

1866 Japan Yeddo England. 

I'tiUi Salt Lake City Nevada. 

Arizona Prescott California. 

1867 .Morocco Tanojiers France. 

Lilieria Monrovia England. 

Costa Kica San Jose Spain. 

1868 Wyoming Cheyenne Colorado. 

1875 Fiji Islands Levuka Scotland. 

Bolivia Peru. 

187- Servia Belgrade Italy. 

1880 Philippine Islands ..Manila Spain. 

1881 I'araguay Asuncion Brazil. 

Uaatemala Carthagena U. S. Colombia. 

1882 San Sal vator Costa Rica. 

188:J Celebes Islands Macassar Ilolland. 

1885 Borneo^ Elopuro England. 

An accompanying chart makes plain the 
importance of the work done by the earlier 
English Grand Lodges and by the United 
Grand Lodge of England in propagating 
Freemasonry. The English Kite was car- 
ried to France in 1725, where it became 
quite as popular as in England ; to Ireland 
in 1726, and to Scotland in 1727. In 1727 it 
was also taken to Spain ; to Germany, Penn- 
sylvania, and to India in 1730 ; to the Neth- 
erlands and to Russia in 1731 ; to Massa- 
chusetts in 1733 ; and to Portugal, Nor- 
way, Sweden, Italy, and Georgia in 1735 ; so 
that within ten years Masonic Lodges had 
been established throughout the United 
Kingdom, at nearly all the larger conti- 
nental cities, at Calcutta, India, and at 
Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston, Wil- 
mington, N.C., and at Savannah, in the 
American colonies. All this was the result 
of the activity of the Grand Lodoe of Enaf- 
land, with_ the exception of the Lodge at 
Stockholm, which was instituted by French 
Freemasons. Eeference to the chart shows 
that next to English Grand Lodges, 
French Grand bodies were most active in 
creating Lodges abroad ; after which, in 
the order named, rank parent bodies in 
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Virginia, Ire- 
land, Spain, the Netherlands, and Ger- 
many. Prior to the present century, the 
American Masonic doctrine of exclusive 
territorial jurisdiction was practically un- 
known ; and while an accompanying chart 
indicates the sources of only the first Ma- 
sonic Lodges, subsequent Lodges were fre- 
quently of another allegiance. The Grand 



Lodge of Ireland is responsible for the first 
Lodges in New South Wales, St. Vincent, 
and Tasmania, but has chartered many 
other Lodges in foreign lauds and in Brit- 
ish colonics, where some other Grand Body 
had preceded them ; and the like is true of 
Grand Lodges of England, France, Spain, 
Ilolland, and Pennsylvania. A dispute as 
to whether the first Masonic Lodge in what 
is now the United States was opened at 
Philadelphia or at Boston continued for 
many years, but the weight of evidence is 
declared, by those who are considered 
authorities, to favor Philadelphia. The 
first Lodge at Philadelphia, 1730-31, is 
believed to have been a voluntary one, as 
there is no record of its having been char- 
tered until a year or two later. It was in 
the same year, 1730, that Daniel Coxe of 
New Jersey was appointed Provincial Grand 
Master of New York, New Jersey, and Penn- 
sylvania, but he is not known to have ever 
exercised his authority as such. The first 
Philadel^jhia Lodge assumed the preroga- 
tives of a Provincial Grand Lodge of Penn- 
sylvania in 1732, and in 1734 Benjamin 
Franklin was elected Provincial Grand Mas- 
ter, to which office he was also appointed in 
1849 by Thomas Oxnard of Boston, Provin- 
cial Grand Master of all North America. 
In 17G4 the Grand Lodge of Ancients, in 
London, chartered a Lodge in Philadelphia 
and organized a rival Grand Lodge, which 
was evidently possessed of more active 
members than the older Pennsylvania Grand 
body, which discontinued its labors about 
1793. The Provincial Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, formed by the Ancients, was 
responsible for the activity shown by Free- 
masons of that colony in establishing 
Lodges, not only in the colonies (later the 
United States), but in other parts of the 
world, and continues the governing body of 
the Craft in Pennsylvania to this day. In 
1786, following like action in Massachu- 
setts, it declared itself an independent and 
sovereign Grand Lodge. At Boston, in 
1733, Henry Price, claiming authority from 



FREEMASONRY 



27 



the Grand Lodge of England, as Provincial 
Grand Master of New England, opened a 
Provincial Grand Lodge, and, witii the aid 
of ten brethren, initiated eight candidates. 
This Lodge and the Philadelpliia Lodge, 
which initiated Benjamin Franklin in 1734 
and subsequently met as a Grand Lodge, 
became the Mother Grand Lodges of 
America. The Price, or St. John's, Grand 
Lodge had smooth sailing until 1752, when 
several brethren in Boston instituted St. 
Andrew's Lodge, according to the old 
usage, without a warrant. This was op- 
posed b}' St. John's Grand Lodge, and re- 
sulted in a schism which lasted forty years. 
Li 1760 St. Andrew's received a charter 
from the Grand Lodge of Scotland, which 
widened the breach. In 1769 it united 
with several Ancient military Lodges in 
forming ^Massachusetts Grand Lodge, with 
Joseph Warren as ''Grand Master of Ma- 
sons in Boston, New England, and Within 
One Hundred Miles of the Same." Li 
1773 Joseph Warren was appointed, by the 
Grand Master of Scotland, Grand Master 
of Masons for the Continent of America. 
The death of Warren, at Bunker Hill, 
resulted in the Massachusetts Grand Lodge 
declaring its independence and sovereignty, 
thus becoming the first independent Grand 
Lodge of Masons in America. In 1792 the 
Grand Lodge for the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts was formed by the union of 
St. John's and the Massachusetts Grand 
Lodges, since which time the history of 
the Craft in that State has not been 
marked by dissension. (See Freemasonry 
among the Negroes.) Successors to Dan- 
iel Coxe, as Provincial Grand Master 
for New York and New Jersey, did noth- 
ing in an official capacity, so far as 
has been learned, except to induct their 
successors into office, until 1754, or 1757, 
when a subordinate Lodge was established 
in New York city. Tliis was about twenty 
years after the Grand Lodge of England 
had granted petitions for liodges at Savan- 
nah, Ga., Charleston, S. C, and at Wil- 



mington, N. C. A schismatic Grand Lodge 
of New York ap^ieared in Albany in 1823, 
the outgrowth of opposition to holding the 
Grand Lodge exclusively at New York city. 
Four years later, in 1827, the city and 
country Grand Lodges compromised their 
differences and united. H. C. Atwood and 
others were expelled by the Grand Lodge 
of New York in 1837, for violation of regu- 
lations regarding public parades, which 
led to the formation of a St. John's Grand 
Lodge, all the members of which were 
declared clandestine, and remained so 
until the union of 1850. A number of 
other Lodges seceded from the regular 
Grand Lodge of New York in 1849, and 
formed a third, known as the Phillip's 
Grand Lodge. This schism was the out- 
come of a disj)ute as to the right of Past 
Masters to membership in the Grand 
Lodge. The matter was amicably adjusted 
in 1858, since which time the Grand Lodge 
of New York has not suffered from dissen- 
sion. South Carolina, like Pennsylvania, 
suffered from the rivalry between the 
Grand Lodges at London, when, in 1787, 
an Ancient Grand Lodge was established at 
Charleston. The breach continued until 
1808, when the opposing bodies united, 
only to separate again in 1809. It was not 
until 1817, four years after the reunion of 
the Ancients and Moderns in England, 
that the warring South Caroliiui bodies 
finally healed their differences. In Georgia, 
where Freemasonry was also introduced 
direct from England, there were rival 
Grand Lodges between 1827 and 1839, 
owing to a controversy growing out of t4ie 
change of the capital of the State. 

Russia is the only country in tbe world 
in which Masonic Lodges are suppressed. 
Austrian prohibition of Masonic gatherings 
is not enforced in Hungary and only moder- 
ately in Vienna. Spanish opposition to the 
Craft has long since ceased to be active. 
Representatives of the reigning family, or 
of the government, in every European 
country exce])t Russia, Austria, Belgium, 



28 



FREEMASONRY 



and Turkey are members of the Fraternity. 
The removal of the name of Deity from its 
lectures by the Grand Orient of France 
more than twenty years ago, and of the 
Holy Bible from its altars, was followed by 
the refusal of English-speaking and other 
Grand Lodges to recognize members of 
Lodges chartered by the Grand Orient of 
France. France, therefore, is outside of the 
^lasonic family. 

In the United Kingdom, during the 
eighteenth century, the adoption of 
'' higher '' or additional Masonic degrees 
was limited to the Royal Arch, Knight 
Templar, and Mark Master Mason ; but in 
France, very soon after Freemasonry was 
introduced there, many new degrees and 
rites made their appearance, in peddling 
which their inventors did a thriving busi- 
ness. Between 1725 and 1775 hundreds of 
what were called higher Masonic degrees 
were evolved and hawked over the Conti- 
nent. Some were meritorious, but many 
soon fell into obscurity, while a few still 
exist in collections of curious outgrowths 
of that character. In 1754, at Paris, the 
Chevalier Bonneville brought together and 
systematized twenty-five of the older and 
better productions among these high 
grades, as the Rite of Perfection, under 
the title, '^ ChaiJter of Clermont." Some 
of them were called Scottish because their 
legends traced their origin to Scotland. 
It would have risked exposure to attribute 
them to English ingenuity. They might 
have been given an Irish origin, because 
their authors had to go as far as possible 
from England and France. But Ireland 
evidently did not suit the purpose, and 
so the degrees were called Ecossais or 
Scotch, and were declared to have been 
conferred for many years in the north of 
Scotland. This, too, accounts for the al- 
leged connection of the partisans of the 
Stuarts with earlier Ecossais Freemasonry, 
some of its traditions stating that they in- 
troduced the degrees into France or were 
responsible for their creation. In 1758 a 



Council of Emperors of the East and 
West was organized at Paris, with a system 
of twenty-five degrees, and, as stated by 
McClenachan, " in some way became pos- 
sessed " of the Rite of Perfection, Chapter 
of Clermont, "and became its successor/' 
In 1761 the Council of Emperors of the 
East and West granted a patent to Stephen 
Morin to introduce this rite (of twenty-five 
degrees) into the West Indies, after which, 
in 1772, it united with a faction of the 
Grand Orient (which controlled the first 
three degrees of Freemasonry in France), 
known as the " Old Grand Lodge," which 
factional Grand Lodge died four months 
later. In 1779, or seven years later, the 
Grand Orient officially declared its j)ower 
limited to the three symbolic degrees, and 
that it had no official knowledge of so- 
called high grades. In 1786 the Grand 
Orient organized and promulgated the 
French rite of seven degrees, adding to 
the three symbolic degrees four from the 
abundant material floating about the Con- 
tinent. The importance of this is to show 
that long prior to the French Revolution 
the Grand Orient of France neither 230S- 
sessed nor claimed to control the Rite of 
Perfection of twenty-five degrees which 
appeared in 1754 as a system under the title 
" Chapter of Clermont," and disappeared 
with the death of the factional or *''01d 
Grand Lodge." In the Rite of Perfection, 
Chapter of Clermont, one finds the origin 
of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, 
thirty-three degrees, which was created 
and first ajDpeared at Charleston, South 
Carolina, in 1801. Of this rite, Gould 
(F. R.), in his '^History of Freemasonry" 
(vol. iii., page 273), says : " Although one 
of the youngest of the Masonic rites, it is 
at this day (1886) the most j^opular and the 
most extensively diffused. Supreme Coun- 
cils or governing bodies of the rite are to 
be found in almost every civilized country 
of the world, and in many of them it is the 
only Masonic obedience." The three sym- 
bolic degrees of ancient Freemasonry 



FREEMASONRY 



29 



underlie all Masonic systems or rites, and 
upon that fact is based the claim of the 
universality of Freemasonry. The Eng- 
lish Rite alone confines itself to the three 
degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow- 
craft, and Master Mason, "'including the 
Holy Eoyal Arch," but upon it have been 
erected the many Masonic systems or rites 
which daring the past one hundred and 
sixty years have attracted the interest of 
the Craft. 

Students will find extended lists of the 
more important Masonic rites or systems of 
degrees, living and dead, in the works of 
many Masonic historians ; but nowhere, so 
far as learned, has there been given a brief, 
chronological account of them and their 
characteristics so as to enable the young 
craftsman to distinguish between those 
which have passed away and those which 
are still practised. There are ten Masonic 
rites in use to-day. Two of them, the Eng- 
lish, which includes the first three or sym- 
bolic degrees, and together with the Royal 
Arch forms the basis of all systems or rites, 
and the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite of 
thirty-three degrees, are ranked as univer- 
sal. The American Rite is next in impor- 
tance, and is j^ractised in the United States 
and the Dominion of Canada, where are 
to be found three-fourths of all the Free- 
masons in the world. The Rite of the 
Grand Lodge of the Three Globes, Ger- 
many, is third in importance, after which 
follow the French Rite, the Swedish Rite, 
or Rite of Zinnendorf, Schroder's Rite (in 
use by a few German Lodges), the French 
Order of the Temple, the Rite of Memphis 
(in Roumania, Spain, and Egypt), and the 
Rite of Swedenborg. 

1724. The English, erroneously called 
the York Rite, is composed of the degrees 
of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and 
Master Mason, the three ancient, symbolic 
degrees which were practically perfected 
and conferred as a system about 1724, or 
shortly after, to which was formally ap- 
pended the Royal Arch degree, in 1813, at 



the reunion of the two English Grand 
Lodges, the change involving a modification 
of the degree of Master Mason. 

1777. The Rite of the Grand Lodge of 
Three Globes is practised by more than two 
hundred German Lodges. It consists of the 
three symbolic degrees and seven others, 
which are modifications of the Gernum 
Strict Observance Templar and various 
Scottish Rite grades. 

1777. The Swedish Rite exists only in 
Norway and Sweden, Avhere it is under the 
patronage of royalty. It is a mixture of the 
English and French Rites, of the Templar- 
ism of the Rite of Strict Observance, and of 
Rosicrucianism. 

1783. The Rite of Swedenborg is pre- 
served in a few French Lodges. It is 
founded on Peruetty's Rite of Avignon, 
which appeared in France in 1769. It in- 
volves, like Pernetty's system, much of the 
mysticism of Swedenborg, who, by the way, 
was not a Freemason. 

1786. The French, or Modern Rite, as 
exi:)lained, consists of the English system, 
upon which are superimposed four degrees 
formed from some of the many unsystema- 
tized ceremonials practised on the Continent 
of Europe in the latter half of tlie last cen- 
tury. 

1801. Schroder's Rite is still cultivated 
by a few German Lodges, notably at Ham- 
burg. It is confined to the three ancient 
craft degrees and a Select Historical Union 
of Master Masons for the study of the iihi-' 
losophy of Freemasonry. 

1801. The Ancient, Accepted Scottish 
Rite, referred to elsewhere. 

1810. The American Rite, substantially 
as it exists to-day, may be said to date from 
the first decade of the present century. It 
is referred to under a separate liead. 

1839. The Rite of Memphis, youngest of 
living Masonic systems, is described under 
that title. 

There are more than 1,400,000 active 
Freemasons in the world, all of whom, of 
course, are practically familiar with the 



30 



FREEMASONRY 



three degrees of the English Kite. Of the 
total, probably 125,000 are in possession of 
the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, and 
118,000 of the American Rite us conferred 
in Lodges, Chapters (Councils), and Com- 
manderies. There are 27,000 members of 
the French Rite, 4,000 of the Swedish Rite, 
20,000 of the Rite of the Grand Lodge of 
the Three Globes at Berlin, but only a very 
few who practise Schroder's Rite, the Rite 
of Swedenborg, or the French Order of the 
Temple. 

The more important among extinct 
Masonic Rites are twenty-two in number, 
thirteen of which appeared in France, six 
in Germany, and one each in England, 
Belgium, and Italy. 

1748. Rite of Vielle Bru, France, an in- 
vention of the adherents of the Stuarts 
while in exile. The Grand Orient of France 
killed it by refusing it recognition. 

1754. Rite of Perfection, Paris, France; 
already referred to. 

1754. Von Hund's Rite of Strict Observ- 
ance, Germany, was based on the Templar 
theory of the origin of Freemasonry, the 
legend of which taught that every Free- 
mason is a Knight Templar. This Rite, 
whicli was drawn from the earlier French 
Scottish Templar degrees, which ultimately 
were formed into the Rite of Perfection, 
into which Von Hund was received in 
Paris, exercised considerable influence over 
succeeding systems. 

1758. Emperors of the East and West ; 
already referred to. 

1765. The Rite of Elected Cohens 
(Priests), France, was based on the mysti- 
cism of the Jewish Kabbala. 

1766. The Rite of the Blazing Star re- 
vived the legends and ceremonials of chiv- 
alry. 

1767. Rite of Chastenier, France, theo- 
sophical and mystical, was introduced into 
England, but did not live long. 

1769. Pernetty's Rite of Avignon, France, 
was a revel in mysticism. Pernetty is said 
to have been the author of the degree of the 



Knight of the Sun, now the twenty-eighth 
of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite. 
His Rite of Avignon had great influence on 
several which followed it. 

1770. Rite of Martinism, France, a com- 
bination of Scottish degrees with the specu- 
lations of the mystics. 

1772. Reformed Rite, a German modifica- 
tion of the Rite of Strict Observance. 

1773. Rite of Philalethes, France, based 
on the Rite of Martinism. It lived about 
twenty years. 

1775. The Philosophic Scotch Rite, 
France, was a revival of Pernetty's Rite of 
Avignon, combined with Rosicrucianism 
and suggestions from the Pythagoreans. 

1776. The Rite of the Elect of Truth, 
France, was jihilosophical. 

1777. The Egyptian Rite, of Cagliostro, 
was the work of that prince of adventurers 
and impostors. Cagliostro was made a Free- 
mason in London in 1776, and immediately 
set to work to form a '' Masonic '' system of 
his own, into which he introduced the search 
for the philosopher's stone, and physical and 
moral regeneration. He traveled through 
Europe, establishing Lodges and selling de- 
grees, often to princes, prelates, and philo- 
sophers. After a career of monumental 
effronter}^ decej^tion, and dishonesty, he 
was sentenced to death in 1789 at Rome by 
the Holy Inquisition, and his manuscript, 
"Maconnerie Egyptienne," was publicly 
burned. The Pope commuted his sentence 
to imprisonment for life. He died in prison 
in 1795. 

1780. The Primitive Rite of Philadelphes 
(Primitive Rite of Narbonne) was founded 
at Narbonne, France, by pretended " Supe- 
riors of the Order of Free and Accejjted 
Masons." Its degrees were divided into 
three classes, in which were treated the oc- 
cult sciences and the rehabilitation and re- 
integration of man in his primitive rank 
and prerogatives. 

1780. The Rite of Brothers of Asia, Ger- 
man, was composed of a mixture of religious 
faiths, science, and the reveries of the mystics. 






,x\ 



CP^ 



o5^E>. 



"/> 



Yr^ \<^^ 






^"-1^. 



'^'>"^^. 



^ 



ANCIEHT 
ACCEPTED 
SCOTTISH RITE 

J25.000. 



THE AREA OF THE 



ENTIRE CIRCLE REP- 



RESENTS THE 1.400.000 



AFFILIATED MASTER MA- 



SONS IN THE WORLD, MEM- 



BERS OF THE ENGLISH (OR "YORK") RITE. OF THIS 



TOTAL ONLY 128^000 HAVE RECEIVED THE SCOTTISH 



RITE, 118.0OO THE AMERICAN RITE, 27.000 THE 



FRENCH RITE. AND ABOUT lO.OOO OTHER 



RITES. 



CHART SHOWING THE RELATIVE MEMBERSHIP OF LEADING LIVING MASONIC RITES. 



32 



FREEMASONRY 



1T82. The Beneficent Knights of the 
Holy City, France, included some of the 
mystical speculations for which the last cen- 
tury was noted, and the early Scottish de- 
gree of Templarism. 

1783. Fessler's Eite, Germany, consisted 
of nine degrees, based on the Golden Eose 
Croix, the Eite of Strict Observance, and 
the Eite of Perfection. It professed to be 
abstrusely learned. 

1784. The Eeformed Helvetic Eite, Ger- 
many, was a modification of the Eeformed 
Eite of 1772, and was used in Poland. 

1787. The Eite of African Architects was 
the successor of a rite with a similar name, 
1767. It appeared in Germany and was 
patronized by Frederick II. Its objects 
were to rescue Freemasonry from innovation 
and to study philosophy. 

1805. The Eite of Mizraim is referred to 
elsewhere. 

1818. Primitive Scottish Eite, thirty-three 
degrees, Belgium, was based on the Eites of 
Perfection and Strict Observance, and fol- 
lowed the Adonhiramite theory as to the 
principal officers at the building of King 
Solomon's Temple, which characterized so 
many of the Continental rites in the latter 
part of the last century, and still has an in- 
fluence in some of the minor living rites. 
It never Avent beyond the city of its birth. 

Freemasonry in the eighteenth century 
was characterized by its rapid spread from 
England throughout the world, by the avid- 
ity with which able and learned men inter- 
ested themselves in it, in many instances 
only to extend, elaborate, or embroider its 
ritual and ceremonials, and by the schism 
in England which lasted from 1751 to 1813. 
It met with the antagonism of pope and 
pamphleteer, and the exiled Stuarts vainly 
sought to use it in an effort to regain the 
English throne. The Order of Odd Fel- 
lows' made its appearance in London be- 
fore 1740, a variety of democratized Free- 
masonry, and was followed by the Druids 
in 1760 and by the Foresters in 1780, types 
of the sincerest form of flattery, when 



judged from the point of view of the Free- 
mason of that day. The Orange Institution 
appeared at the close of the last century, an 
open imitator of the Masonic Fraternity so 
far as some of its forms and ceremonies are 
concerned. American Provincial Grand 
Lodges after the close of the War of the 
Eevolution declared their independence of 
English mother Grand Lodges, and at the 
end of the century an effort was made to 
form a Supreme Grand Lodge of the United 
States with Washington as Supreme Grand 
Master. Washington's death prevented the 
success of the plan, and when the subject 
was brought up again in 1822, it was re- 
ceived with less favor. Between 1827 and 
1840 the Craft suffered from political per- 
secution and unreasoning warfare which 
grew out of the " Morgan excitement ; ''' but 
beginning in 1843, it grew and prospered 
beyond all previous records until its growth 
was checked by the Civil War. Since 1865 
its popularity and prosperity in the United 
States, Canada, Great Britain, the British 
colonies, and elsewhere throughout the world 
have been beyond all precedent. 

Tlie American Eite. — Practised only in 
the L^nited States of America and the Do- 
minion of Canada. It adds to the three 
symbolic degrees of the English Eite, first, 
the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, 
Most Excellent Master, and Eoyal Arch Ma- 
son, which are conferred in Eoyal Arch 
Chapters federated into Grand Chapters, 
and a General Grand Chapter of tlie United 
States of America; second, the degrees of 
Eoyal Master, Select Master, and of Super- 
Excellent Master, conferred in Councils of 
Eoyal and Select Masters, which have a sys- 
tem of state and general government similar 
to that of Eoyal Arch Chapters; and, third. 
Companion of the Illustrious Order of the 
Eed Cross, Knight Templar, and Knight of 
St. John and Malta, under the authority of 
chartered Commanderies of Knights Tem- 
plars. There are no very marked differ- 
ences between the Entered Apprentice and 
Fellowcraft degrees as conferred in the 



FREEMASONRY 



33 



United States and in England; but while 
the peculiarity which marks the third de- 
gree is met w'itli in every Masonic Lodge, 
American Lodges have taken marked liber- 
ties with it. Several so-called essentials are 
omitted altogether, and the one which 
should be universal, if any ])ortion of the 
degree is to be, is totally unlike anything 
communicated under that name in many 
foreign Lodges. American Lodges tend to 
emphasize the dramatic possibilities of the 
Master Mason degree, while in England and 
on the Continent the greater portion of the 
characteristic part of the degree is commu- 
nicated. The claim of universality for the 
English Rite rests on its substance rather 
than form; for certain "accompanying" 
words, the letter G, and a most important 
sign are far from being universal. Where 
this rite exists, it is recognized by Supreme 
Councils of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish 
Eite, which thereupon begin their labors 
with the fourth degree. In countries Avhere 
the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite pre- 
ceded the English Rite, the former presents 
the three symbolic degrees of a genuinely 
universal type. In Germany and elsewhere 
on the Continent the work in the third de- 
gree has, in some systems or localities, been 
abused by the infusion of the Adonhiramite 
theory which made Adoniram rather than 
Hiram the conspicuous figure. The growth 
of this heresy in the eighteenth century was 
due to a confusion of philological and his- 
torical data and to the ignorance of those 
responsible for it. But this alteration, like 
American changes in the English Rite, has 
become a part of the tree on which it 
was grafted, and constitutes something in 
the nature of local color. The arrangement 
of the Words in the first and second degrees 
was reversed by the Ancient, or schismatic, 
Grand Lodge of England, in order to de- 
tect visitors from the rival obedience. The 
dominance of the Ancient Grand Lodge in 
the American colonies naturally brought the 
variation into Lodges here; but in Germany, 
France, Norway, and some other countries 



where Freemasonry was introduced prior to 
1751, visiting American and English Free- 
masons find a singular and, to some, inex- 
plicable reversal of what they were taught. 
The honorary degree of Past Master is con- 
ferred only on Master Masons who have been 
regularly elected and installed Masters of 
Lodges. It did not take the form of a de- 
gree until early in the present century in 
the United States. It was conferred on 
actual Masters of Lodges and on Past Mas- 
ters early in the last century, merely as a 
ceremonial, and in 1744 began to be referred 
to as "passing the chair." Its place in 
Royal Arch Chapters in the L^nited States 
is referred to hereafter. 

Chapters of Royal Arch Masons in the 
United States confer the capitular degrees 
of Mark Master, (virtual) Past JMaster, Most 
Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason 
upon such Master Masons as apply for and 
are elected to receive them.* This system, 
culminating in the Royal Arch, is a purely 
American arrangement, and is found only 
in the United States, the Dominion of Can- 
ada, and in the relatively few Chapters in 
Mexico and elsewhere abroad chartered 
from the United States. The Royal Arch 
degree in England was originally conferred, 
probably as early as 1740, in some of the 
seceding Lodges of 1739 wdiich united in 
1751 and formed the Ancient Grand Lodge; 
for, even in 1740, twenty-three years after 
the formation of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land in 1717, several rebellious Lodges 
claimed to have secrets in reference to the 
Master's degree which were unknown in 
Lodges loyal to the mother Grand Lodge. 
It must, therefore, have been in Lodges 
which in 1751 formed the schismatic Grand 
Lodge that the Master's degree was muti- 
lated to form the Royal Arch, because as early 
as 1735 all of the original essentials of the 
Master's degree remained intact. While gen- 
erally conferred in Lodges as a supplement 

* The exception is in Pennsylvania, where the 
Grand Chapter rejects the Mark and Most Excellent 
Masters' degrees. 



34 



FREEMASONRY 



to the Master's degree for several years 
after the schism, Royal Arch Chapters ulti- 
mately came into existence, and afterward 
a Supreme lioyal Arch Chapter. The An- 
cients announced the existence of the Royal 
Arch degree in its " Ahiman Rezon," or 
book of constitutions, in 1750, but as late as 
1758 the Moderns denied all knowledge of it. 
Dunckerly, the celebrated ritualist, intro- 
duced the Royal Arch degree to the Moderns, 
or mother organization of modern Free- 
masonry, in 1770, by which it was adopted 
in 1779, together with a system of subordi- 
nate Chapters afterward governed by a Su- 
preme Royal Arch Chapter. At the union 
of the rival English Grand Lodges in 1813 
the Royal Arch of the Ancients was made 
supplementary to the degree of Master Ma- 
son, and in 1817 the rival Supreme Chapters 
united. From that day to this the English 
Rite has conferred the Royal Arch on Mas- 
ter Masons elected to receive it, in contrast 
with the American system, which requires 
a Master Mason to first receive the degrees 
of Mark Master, (virtual) Past Master, and 
Most Excellent Master, prior to being '^ ex- 
alted." Before the Moderns adopted the 
Royal Arch degree the Ancients had been 
conferring it only on Masters of Lodges; but 
both the Moderns and Ancients, in order to 
popularize the degree, admitted during the 
latter portion of the eighteenth century, not 
only actual Past Masters, but those made so 
by dispensation of a Grand Master for that 
purpose. This practice was brought to the 
American colonies by British army Lodges 
and explains the existence in the American 
Royal Arch Chapter of the degree of virtual 
Past Master. 

The Mark Master's, or fourth degree of 
the American Rite, is of undoubted English 
origin, and while conferred only on Master 
Masons, forms a graceful appendage to the 
degree of Fellowcraft. It is based on the 
practice of ancient operative Freemasons 
of selecting particular marks which they 
could no more alter or change than they 
could their names, with which they marked 



their work, and utilized, as otherwise related, 
in legendary and historical records. The 
degree is traced to Dunham, England, 1774, 
when it was conferred in symbolic Lodges as 
a side or unsystematized ceremonial. It be- 
came popular and spread throughout the 
Kingdom, but the United Grand Lodges of 
England (1813) refused to recognize it. 
Gradually it separated from symbolic Lodges 
andAvas conferred in Mark Lodges. In 1856 
the English Grand Lodge of Mark Master 
Masons was formed, which maintains cor- 
dial relations with American Grand Royal 
Arch Chapters. In 1792-93 St. Andrew's 
Royal Arch Lodge, Boston, incorporated 
the Mark Master's degree, and the latter 
soon after appeared as a detached degree 
in other American Lodges. 

The Past Master's degree, as such, which 
is of American origin and forms the fifth 
degree of the American Rite, did not ap- 
pear until the second decade of the present 
century. Prior to that time Past Masters 
were those who had actually presided over 
Lodges or who had received dispensations 
from Grand Masters permitting them to 
assume the title to render them eligible to 
the Royal Arch degree. The advisability 
of the introduction of the degree into the 
American capitular system has often been 
and still is seriously questioned. 

The Most Excellent Master's, or sixth de- 
gree of the American Rite, an American in- 
vention, is supposed to have first appeared at 
Albany, N. Y., in 1795 ; to have been the 
invention of John Hanmer, an accomplished 
Masonic, ritualist of England then visiting 
the Craft, and to have been elaborated by 
Thomas Smith Webb, Past Grand Master 
of Rhode Island, the well-known Ameri- 
can Masonic ritualist, who left so deep an 
impress on the formation of what has be- 
come the American Rite of Freemasonry. 
It celebrates the completion and dedication 
of the first Temple, and so supplies a link 
between the Master JNIason and the Royal 
Arch degree, of Avhich it is the immediate 
predecessor. 



FREEMASONRY 



35 



The essentials of the original Master Ma- 
son degree are believed to have appeared in 
new form, in tliat which became the Royal 
Arch, in France, between 1838 and 1840. 
That the Master's degree prior thereto con- 
tained something which gives the Eoyal 
Arch its distinctive connection with it, 
has been shown in many ways, notably 
in an old French print illustrating an im- 
portant ceremony in the third degree, in 
which a Name appears. The origin of 
the Royal Arch has often been erroneously 
attributed to the Chevalier Ramsay, one 
of the learned Freemasons of the first half 
of the eighteenth century and an alleged 
partisan of the exiled Stuart. The only rea- 
son for believing that Ramsay had anything 
to do with it was the fact that he had the 
ability to construct such a ceremonial, and 
Avas for a brief period associated with the 
young Pretender. Beginning about 1738-40 
French Masonic ritualists and others began 
the construction of additional degrees called 
Scottish, which they superimposed upon 
the three symbolic degrees. The Chevalier 
Ramsay, born at Ayr, Scotland, in 1786, 
was made a Freemason at London about 
1728. He was a tutor to the sons of the 
Pretender in Rome for fifteen months, be- 
tween 1725 and 1727, after which he re- 
turned to England, and was prominent 
among London Freemasons and literary 
men until 1737, when he went to Paris. In 
the same year he delivered his now famous 
speech on Freemasonry, in which he merely 
elaborated Anderson traditions as to the ori- 
gin of the Fraternity. Nowhere did he 
speak of Templary, but he did advance a 
theory that some of the Crusaders under 
Prince Edward, son of Edward IIL, who 
had become Knights of St. John in the 
Holy Land (not St. John of Malta), returned 
to England, and, under the patronage of 
the Prince, took the name of Freemasons. 
He declared that a Lodge was established at 
Kilwinning, in Scotland, in 1286, but that 
it afterward declined, and that it was the 
English Masonic Crusaders who perpetuated 



Freemasonry. Gould presumes the refer- 
ence to Kilwinning was a rhetorical flour- 
ish due to his Scotch origin and familiarity 
with Scotland, for the statement requires no 
refutation. His theory as to the chivalric 
origin of Freemasonry, whether or not a 
delicate compliment to the distinguished 
company he was addressing, was only a the- 
ory, for it had no foundation. This address 
had unlooked-for and somewhat remarkable 
results. Its first effect was to furnish an 
alleged authority for the legends of many 
of the Scottish degrees Avhich appeared in 
France within the next few years, for the 
cultivation of the Templar theory of the 
origin of Freemasonry which they presented, 
and for their supposititious Scottish origin. 
A second result was the charge that Ramsa}' 
was himself the inventor of Scottish degrees, 
owing to his friendship for the young Pre- 
tender, and that the ulterior purpose of 
those degrees was to draw adherents to, and 
gain money for, the claimant of the British 
throne. This was almost universally be- 
lieved by otherwise well-informed students 
of the origin of the Scottish degrees of 1739- 
50, until Gould, in a careful examination 
of the subject a dozen years ago, showed its 
absurdity. Ramsay was a liberal Catholic, 
and was antagonized by the Jesuits, who 
were connected with the earlier fabrication 
of some of the Scottish degrees. There is 
absolutely no proof that Ramsay sympa- 
thized with the Stuarts, and there is much 
that he did not. That he ever invented any 
Masonic degree has never been shown. That 
his speech was used by French degree- 
makers between 1740 and 1750 to give a 
status to tlieir creations, and that his name 
was used for the same purpose, require no ar- 
gument. After writing two letters to Cardi- 
nal Fleury, the French Prime ^[inister, 
^larch 20 and 22, 1737 (see Gould's " His- 
tory of Freemasonry," vol. ill., pp. 337, 
338), ui-ging official protection of Free- 
masonry, which might well be read, in all 
sincerity, by Pope Leo XIII., Ramsay re- 
turned to London and was not heard of 



36 



FREEMASONRY 



again publicly until his death in 1743. The 
early Scottish degrees which appeared in 
France, fabulously attributed to Scotland, 
though dissimilar in one respect, had a 
legend in common — that of the discovery of 
a long lost and Ineffable AVord in a secret 
vault by Scottish Crusaders. In this is 
found the germ of the Eoyal Arch degree, 
not only that of Enoch, the earlier Scottish 
degree sublimated into the thirteenth of the- 
Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite of to-day, 
but of the English or Royal Arch of Zerub- 
babel. These (French) Scottish degrees, 
with the vault and Arch, one or more of 
them, were carried into England, and first 
heard of at York, in the independent Grand 
Lodge at that city, Avhence Kilwinning 
Lodge, Dublin, received it at the hands of 
a visiting brother prior to 1744. Laurence 
Dermott was made a Freemason at Dublin 
in 1744, and received the Eoyal Arch degree 
there in 1746. He modified and introduced 
it into seceding Lodges at London. The re- 
sult was the English or Eoyal Arch of Zerub- 
babel in distinction from the Eoyal Arch of 
Enoch, now the thirteenth degree of the 
Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite, into which 
the Eoyal Arch became incorporated through 
having been absorbed into the French Eite 
of Perfection in 1754, and by the Emperors 
of the East and West in 1758, from which 
we get the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite 
of 1801. British army Lodges, most of 
them hailing from the schismatic Grand 
Lodge, brought this degree, as well as the 
Mark, to the American colonies. The first 
Eoyal Arch Chapter held here was under 
that title, " No. 3," at Philadelphia, but the 
degree was first conferred in St. Andrew's 
Eoyal Arch Lodge, Boston, afterward St. 
Andrew's Eoyal Arch Chapter, in 1769, 
and soon after it was found in Xew York 
city and at various points in Xew England. 
The first Eoyal Arch Chapter in New York 
city (independent) was chartered by Pro- 
vincial Grand Master George Harrison in 
1757. The Eoyal Arch degree, the seventh 
of the American Eite, constitutes the sum- 



mit and perfection of symbolic Freemasonry. 
It is conferred on no more or less than three 
persons at the same time, and treats of the 
destruction of the first Temj)le at Jerusalem 
and the building of the second Temple, to- 
gether with important discoveries made on 
the return of the Jews from the Babylonish 
captivity. Prior to 1795, the Mark, Most 
Excellent, and Eoyal Arch ceremonials were 
conferred in America as detached degrees, 
generally in Lodges, that last named some- 
times in Chapters held under cover of Lodge 
warrants. The Eoyal Arch Chapter was 
convened at Philadelphia in 1795 by James 
Molau, in which the four capitular degrees 
were for the first time conferred as at j)res- 
ent, in regular order, Mark Master, Past 
Master, Most Excellent Master, and Eoyal 
Arch Mason. In 1798 delegates from nine 
Eoyal Arch Chapters, six from New Eng- 
land, and three from New York State, met 
at Hartford, Conn., and formed a Grand 
Eoyal Arch Chapter of the Northern States 
of America, which, in 1806, became the 
General Grand Chapter of Eoyal Arch Ma- 
sons for the United States of America, 
which meets triennially to this day, and is 
the governing body of American Grand 
Eoyal Arch Chapters, except Grand Chap- 
ters in Pennsylvania, where the Grand Chap- 
ter is subordinate to the Grand Lodge; in 
Virginia, founded in 1808, and in West Vir- 
ginia (1871), where they remain indepen- 
dent. In Virginia and West Virginia what 
are known as the Council degrees, elsewhere 
the eighth and ninth of the American Eite 
(Eoyal Master and Select Master), are con- 
ferred in Eoyal Arch Chapters. The hon- 
orary Order of High Priesthood, first heard 
of in Pennsjdvania in 1825, is conferred by 
Past High Priests on Eoyal Arch Masons 
who have been regularly elected to preside 
over Eoyal Arch Chapters. 

The eighth, ninth, and tenth, the Cryptic 
degrees of the American Eite, are the Eoyal 
Master, Select Master, and Super-Excellent 
Master respectively, and are so called be- 
cause the first two treat of a secret vault. 



FREEMASONRY 



37 



They are conferred in Councils of Eoyal and 
Select Masters which are federated into 
Grand Councils and a General Council of 
the United States of America. With few 
exceptions, Grand Commanderies of Knights 
'I'emphxrs do not require the possession of 
the Cryptic degrees by candidates for Orders 
conferred in Commanderies. The Cryptic 
degrees are also worked in Enghxnd andt 
Canada, where they were taken from the 
United States, and form interesting supple- 
ments to the Master's and tlie IWal Arch 
degrees. The Koyal and the Select Masters' 
degrees, formerly unattached, honorary, 
Scottish Rite degrees, were introduced into 
America, probably at Albany, in 1767, by 
Francken (see Ancient, Accepted Scottish 
Kite); into Charleston in 1783 by Scottish 
Rite Masons who received them from 
Francken ; into Georgia in 1796 ; and into 
Xew York in 1808, where in 1810 a Grand 
Council was formed. They were originally 
conferred at will upon Royal Arch IVIasons 
by those empowered to do so, and after 1820 
gradually found their way into separate 
bodies called Councils, convened by Royal 
and Select Masters for that purpose, al- 
thougli the Supreme Council, Ancient, Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite, Southern Masonic Jur- 
isdiction, United States of America, claimed 
without exercising much jurisdiction over 
the degrees, until 1870, when it relinquished 
authority over them to Grand Councils of 
Royal and Select Masters, which had grown 
up inucli the same as did the earlier Crand 
Chapters of Royal Arch Masons. In \\r- 
ginia and Maryland both degrees are con- 
ferred in Chapters prior to the Royal Arch 
degree. The Royal Master's degree repre- 
sents the search by the Fellowcraft Adoni- 
ram, prior to the tragedy of the third de- 
gree, for that which was to be the reward 
of faithful craftsmen. In the following 
degree the deposit is made by the master 
builder which was brought to light at the 
building of the second Temple. The origin 
of the honorary degree of Super-Excellent 
Master is unknown, but is believed to be 



native. It has no connection with the two 
which precede it, and is an elaboration of 
tliat portion of the Royal Arch which re- 
lates to the destruction of the first Temple 
by Nebuzaradan. 

There liave been various theories as to 
the origin of Masonic Knights Templars, 
and it is surprising that only within the last 
thirty years have Knights Templars them- 
selves made the necessary investigation to 
learn that they never had any connection 
with the Ancient Military and Religious 
Order of the Temple. The like is true, 
also, with reference to the Masonic Order of 
Knights of St. John and Malta. Among 
the theories to explain a direct connection 
between modern Knights Templars and the 
ancient order, the oldest is that having ref- 
erence to the Charter of Larmenius. When 
JacquQS de ]\Iolay, Grand Master of the 
Templars, was in prison, he is said to have 
sent for Larmenius just prior to his death, 
and to have given him a charter ajipointing 
him his successor with power to name his 
own successor and so perpetuate the Order. 
In 1682, three hundred and sixty-four, years 
afterward, a society was organized at Paris, 
called La Petite Resurrection des Templiers. 
Its members were bo/i vivants among the 
younger element at the French court, and 
the organization became so luuch more con- 
spicuous for the cultivation of licentiousness 
than the knightly virtues, that it was sup- 
pressed by the king. In 1705, perhaps 
twenty years after its suppression, twelve 
years before the revival of Freemasonry in 
England, and twenty years before its intro- 
duction into France, the society was revived 
by Philip, Duke of Orleans, as a secret po- 
litical organization, and declared a direct 
continuation of the Order of the Temple 
which was overtlirown and dispersed by 
Pope Clement V. and Philip the Fair in 
1314. The authority for this was the char- 
ter of Larmenius, then first nuide public, Avith 
a list of signatures following the name of Lar- 
menius, as alleged succeeding Grand Mas- 
ters. The Duke tried to obtain recognition 



38 



FREEMASONRY 



for his Order and for the charter from the 
Portuguese Order of Christ, said to have 
been formed by a number of De Molay's fol- 
lowers wlio escai')ed to Portugal and secured 
the protection of the king, with permission 
to continue their Order under the new title. 
Failing in this, the Orleans-Larmenius Order 
of the Temple fell into obscurity. It was 
last heard of as the Societe d'Aloyau (Beef- 
steak Club) about 1789. The Revolution is 
supposed to have finished it. In 1804-5 
several clever, learned, but unscrupulous 
men came into the possession of the cha^rter 
of Larmenius through having purchased a 
jDiece of antique furniture in which it had 
been secreted. It was an easy matter to 
bring the charter down to date, by adding 
names of alleged Grand Masters, after which 
the Order of the Temple was again revived 
(or created), and exists to this day, claiming 
to be the only true continuation of the orig- 
inal Templars. Its progress was not rapid 
in the first quarter of the century, and with 
the introduction of Freemasonry into France 
these French Templars incorporated the 
three symbolic degrees as the foundation 
of their rite. The German Rite of the 
Strict Observance obtained its Templar Or- 
der, as stated in its own legend, through 
Peter Aumont, one of De Molay's associates 
who fled to Scotland. This statement and 
the fact that Von Hund, who founded the 
rite, had received the earlier (French) Scot- 
tish degrees in Paris, prior to establishing 
his rite, are sufficient to show the fabulous 
character of the Aumont story. The Swed- 
ish Rite attributes its Order of the Temple 
to Count Beaujeu, a nephew of De Molay, 
who, it declares, became a member of the 
Order of Christ in Portugal, went to Swe- 
den, and there revived the true Order of the 
Temple. This story also is its own author- 
ity. The Scotch claim that the modern 
Scotch Templars descended from Knights 
of the ancient Order who fled to Scotland 
after the death of De Molay, and joined the 
ancient Masonic Lodge of working Freema- 
sons at Stirling. This also is one of those 



legends which have been repeated so often 
as to finally gain credence. There was no 
Knight Templary in Scotland when the 
young Pretender went there prior to his 
defeat at Culloden, although it has been so 
often stated that he was elected Grand Mas- 
ter of the Order of the Temple in Scotland 
in 1745, that the story has been looked upon 
as true. English modern Templary is said 
to have been derived from Baldwyn Encamp- 
ment at Bristol, which had existed "from 
time immemorial," or from one or more an- 
cient Encampments at London, York, Bath, 
and Salisbury, where refugee Knights of the 
ancient Order made their headquarters; but 
in the light of modern historical evidence it 
would be difficult to show that these English 
centres of ancient Templarism shielded any 
genuine Knights Templars four hundred 
years after the death of De Molay; that the 
haughty survivors of the ancient Order in 
England united ^vitli the operative Free- 
masons of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, or that either as Knights or Free- 
masons they survived until after the middle 
of the eighteenth century, when Masonic 
Templar degrees began to make their ap- 
pearance from France. 

The earliest recorded Temple degree at 
Baldwyn Encampment is not traced beyond 
1779 or 1780, ten years after some sort of 
Templai'y had appeared in the United States 
from Ireland. English Masonic Templary, 
including the degree of Knight of St. John 
of Rhodes, Palestine, and Malta (the union 
of which Orders legend-makers have ex- 
plained as due to the association of the early 
Templars and Knights of Malta in Scotland), 
took sliape in 1791, six years prior to the 
first Grand Encampment formed in the 
United States, a General Conclave having 
been organized in that year by Dunckerly, 
the well-known English ritualist. In 1809 
the title was *' The Royal, Exalted, Reli- 
gious, and Military Order of H. R. D. M., 
Grand Elected Masonic Knights Templars, 
K. D. S. H. of St. John of Jerusalem, Pal- 
estine, Rhodes, etc." This reference to 



FREEMASONRY 



39 



Heroclem and to Kadosch points quite con- 
clusively to the absorption of earlier (French) 
Scottish degrees. At that period, too, 
" Lodges of Craft ^Easons and Chapters of 
the Koyal Arch," it was declared by author- 
ity of the Eoyal Grand Patron, " pretend, by 
virtue of their respective Charters of Con- 
stitution, to admit Knights of the several 
Orders mentioned, and to confer the De- 
grees of RosEe Crucis to the said Orders an- 
nexed and thereon dependent; " and, says 
Hughan, '"means were taken to prevent 
such irregularity." 

The clash between the English Supreme 
Body, which chose to absorb the chivalric 
degrees, and Lodges and Chajjters which, 
as admitted, had long been conferring them 
without special authority, would seem to 
further show that these high grades were 
derived from the early Scottish degrees and 
their successors (from which it is admitted 
English Lodges received the germ of their 
Royal Arch), and not from surviving 
ancient Templary in England or Scotland. 
The Duke of Sussex became Grand Mas- 
ter of the exalted Orders in 1812, and con- 
tinued to act until his decease in 1843, 
Colonel Kemeys-Tynte succeeding him in 
1840. The Duke of Sussex was evidently not 
satisfied with what he received in the way of 
Masonic Templary from Dunckerly, for he 
asked for and obtained the ritual of the 
French Order of the Temple, which he used, 
as ^lackey says, only once. He also applied 
to Alexander II. of Russia, nominal head of 
a surviving remnant of the ancient Knights 
of Malta in Russia, and obtained authority 
to create Knights of that rank in England, 
which constitutes the nearest approach the 
English body can claim to any connection 
with the ancient Knights of Malta. The 
revival of the English Language of the an- 
cient Knights of St. Jolin, Malta, etc., in 
England, in 1831, where it had been extinct 
for nearly three hundred years, brought to 
life an aristocratic social institution repre- 
senting the fourth inroad of Maltaism into 
the modern English Temple and ]\[alta asso- 



ciation, the first being from the Dunckerly 
ritual, the second that imported from the 
French Order of the Temple, and the third 
from Russia. In 1846 the Ancient, Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite having finally been in- 
troduced into England, the Rose Croix and 
Kadosch degrees were " gradually restored " 
to that rite. The English Religious and 
Military Order of the Temple spread 
throughout the Kingdom, and in 1873 the 
Prince of Wales was installed frraud Master 
of the Convent General (founded in 1872), 
since composed of the Great Priories of Eng- 
land and AVales, Ireland, and Canada. The 
Scottish f raters declined to join the new or- 
ganization. Canada withdrew in 1883, and 
still insists it represents a continuation of 
the ancient Templars. 

It was in the early (French) Scottish de- 
grees of 1739-50, which multiplied and be- 
came popular, that a second series of liigher 
grades appeared, those in which Templar 
and Malta degrees were revived. The 
(French) Scottish Masters assumed preroga- 
tives not possessed by ordinary ^Master Ma- 
sons, such as to sit covered in Lodges, to con- 
trol elections of officers of symbolic Lodges, 
and even to usurp the functions of a Grand 
Lodge; and with the fabrication of a ^la- 
souic Knight Temjilary, in which the noviti- 
ate was told that the Ancient Templars fled 
to Scotland in 1314 and there became Free- 
masons, was introduced another field of ex- 
ploration for those who had already delved 
dee]) into the arcana of symbolic and Scot- 
tish degrees. As Gould says: '"Some of 
these Scots Lodges would appear to have 
very early manufactured new degrees con- 
necting these very distinguislied Scots Ma- 
sons with the Knights Templars, and thus 
giving rise to the subsequent flood of Tem- 
plarism." The Kadosch (Templar) degree 
was invented as early ;is 1741 at Lyons, 
France. It typified the revenge of the Tem- 
plars, and a modification of it constitutes the 
thirtieth degree of the existing Ancient, Ac- 
cepted Rite. By 1745 Masonic Templary 
had spread over Europe, finally securing 



40 



FREEMASONRY 



recognition in both the York, independent, 
and the Ancient Grand Lodges of England. 
It is to this source, then, rather than to 
Larmenius, Aumont, Beaujeu, or survivors 
of ancient Templars who fled to England 
and Scotland that one must look for the 
Masonic Order of the Temple as we have 
it in the United Kingdom and the United 
States to-daj. The Order appeared in Ire- 
land prior to 1779, but just how long before 
cannot be stated. It was only natural that 
it should be popular in the Catholic city of 
Dublin, when one considers the evolution 
of symbolic Freemasonry, originally Chris- 
tian, into a unitarian and cosmopolitan 
institution. The definition of Masonic 
Knighthood, by T. S. Parvin, in the Ameri- 
can aj^iiendix to Gould's " History of Free- 
masonry " (vol. iv., p. 557), is as follows: It 
" is a society eminently Christian, purged 
of all the leaven of heathen rites and tradi- 
tions, and to which none are admitted but 
members of a Masonic body, and such only 
as profess themselves to be Trinitarian 
Christians." Hugh McCurdy, Past Grand 
Master of the Grand Encampment of 
Knights Templars, United States of Amer- 
ica, in an address at the Triennial Conclave 
at Boston, in 1895, said: 

Modern Templary is a Christian association of 
Freemasons adhering sacredly to the traditions of 
the military Orders of the Crusades, strictly follow- 
ing, so far as possible, their principles and customs, 
yielding obedience to their teachings, and accepting 
laneonditionally their Trinitarian doctrine. The 
teachings are founded upon the Bible, and a Temp- 
lar must be a Christian; for, it is said, the practice 
of Christian virtues is their avowed purj^ose of affilia- 
tion. ^' Non noiis, Dotnine," is their motto, and 
" In 7ioc signo vinces" is still their legend. 

In Kilwinning Lodge, Dublin, the degree 
was conferred on Eoyal Arch Masons under 
the title "High Knights Templars," whence 
it went to Scotland, and, strangely, long be- 
fore 1779, the earliest record of it in Dublin, 
to America, through an Irisli military Lodge. 
The earliest known record of conferring this 
Masonic Order anywhere is dated 1769, in 
St. Andrew's Chapter, Boston. During the 



next thirty years it is traced to Charleston, 
Philadelphia, New York city, and to other 
points in the United States, generally being 
conferred under Lodge, sometimes Chapter 
warrants. Prior to 1797, there were no 
American Knight Templar associations 
authorized to grant warrants for Encamp- 
ments, as Commanderies were called prior 
to 1856, so that nearly all earlier Templar 
bodies here were self -created. There were 
Knights Templars in New Y'ork city as 
early as 1785, and in Philadelphia in 1794. 
Temple and Malta rituals, as used in Amer- 
ican Commanderies, are purely American, 
and show something more than a trace of 
the Eose Croix (eighteenth), the Knight of 
the Brazen Serpent (twenty-fifth). Com- 
mander of the Temple (twenty-sixth), and 
the Knight Kadosch (thirtieth) degrees of 
the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite, to 
which the American Temple and Malta 
rituals virtually owe their origin. 

American records of the Eed Cross de- 
gree, now the eleventh, and the Knight of 
Malta, the thirteenth and last of the Amer- 
ican Eite, are few and far between, jDrior to 
the present century, but both are known to 
have existed at Charleston as early as 1783. 
The Eed Cross is a fabrication by chiefs of 
the Scottish Eite of an earlier period from 
what are now the fifteenth and sixteenth 
grades of that rite. It was formerly prac- 
tised under the title ''Babylonish Pass,'' has 
a Jewish and Persian legend, and supple- 
ments the Eoyal Arch. It has no place in 
any Templar system and should not have 
been incorjDorated in one. 

The Malta degree is out of place in any 
secret organization. The Ancient Knights 
of Malta did not constitute a secret society 
and Avere bitter rivals of Knights Templars. 
In 1856 the Grand Encampment of Knights 
Templars of the United States declared that 
the incorporation of the Order of Malta with 
that of Knights Templars, and the making 
the one person the possessor of both degrees, 
was a violation of historic accuracy, and the 
Malta de2:ree was discarded; but in 1862 it 



FREEMASONRY 



41 



was restored, to be communicated after the 
candidate luid been created a Knight Tem- 
plar. 

The earliest notice of a Malta degree or 
ceremony in Scotland is that on ^two old 
brass plates, said to have been in possession 
of Stirling Ancient Lodge, but now lost. 
One related to the first two degrees of Free- 
masonry ; the other displayed Master's em- 
blems on one side, and on the reverse, at the 
top, the Red Cross or ark ; at the bottom 
a series of concentric rings which suggested 
a rainbow, except for a keystone, indicating 
an arch ; the sepulclire, Knight of Malta, 
and Knight Templar. The plates could 
scarcely have dated back farther than the 
middle of the eighteenth century, judging 
from reference to the Red Cross. Scotch 
Masonic Lodges became acquainted with 
Templar and Malta ceremonies through 
Irish brethren who belonged to regiments 
serving in Scotland about the close of the 
last century. These degrees were then 
known as "Black Masonry," and were pro- 
pagated through charters issued by the 
High Knights Templars of Kilwinning 
Lodge, in Dublin. From Dublin Kilwin- 
ning arose the early encampments of L'c- 
land, and subsequently tlie early Grand 
Encampment, which chartered Lodges in 
Scotland and England. The refusal of 
Baldwyn Encampment, England, to confer 
the Temple and Malta Orders on any but 
Royal Arch Masons, which rule obtains in 
like Masonic bodies to this day, has been 
declared to have given rise to the formation 
of Encampments in Ireland separate from 
the influence of the Masonic Fraternity. 
These Encampments became identified with 
the Orange bodies early in this century, 
and subsequently extended their influence 
to America, through an "Imperial Parent, 
Grand Black Encampment" of Scotland, u 
"Grand Lodge," organized about 1844, 
claiming supreme jurisdiction over a reli- 
gious and military Order of Malta. (See 
Non-Masonic Orders of Malta. ) 

That there was abundant material to en- 



able this independent Scotch-Orange body 
to produce an Order of Malta is evident 
from the fact that in 1720 the "History of 
the Knights of Malta," by De Vertot, was 
published in Paris ; and that from 1495 to 
1735 there were no less than thirty publica- 
tions treating of the statutes, ordinances, 
and ceremonies of the Hospitaller Order of 
St. John of Malta. The dramas of the day 
also characterized the ceremonies of the 
Order, and in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
"Knight of Malta" (1646), the ceremonies 
at initiation and degradation are illustrated 
and exemplified. 

Masonic Knight Templary, tlien, is con- 
nected with the ancient Templars only in 
name, and tlirough its use of Temi)lar 
emblems and the names of ancient Grand 
Masters of the Templars, and of sites 
rendered historical by them as titles for 
Commanderies. The American Templar 
ceremonial is exclusively Masonic in method 
and arrangement, repi'esenting the second, 
or Christian, in cratrast with the first, or 
Jewish, dispensation. It docs not incorpo- 
rate the ritual of the ancient or of English 
Templars. It is doubtful whether there 
was much of any ceremonial in American 
Templar bodies until in the second decade 
of the present century. Early American 
Encampments are known to have had little 
else than distinctive uniforms, emblems, 
and an obligation. Bi\t in 1814 the Sover- 
eign Grand Consistory of the ancient Scot- 
tish Rite of Ilerodem, established at Xew 
York city in 1807 by Joseph Ccrneau, a 
spurious Scottish Rite body, whicli had no 
more to do with the independent Templar 
Encampments of that day than with the 
New York Chamber of Conjmerce, pre- 
sumed to, and actually did, constitute a 
Grand Encampment of Knights Tem]>lars 
and Appendent Orders for tlie State of New 
York. It was the early Ccrneau Masons 
who. without authority, constituted a Grand 
Encampment of Knights Temjdars, a body of 
which they officially knew nothing, and who 
filclied from four Scottish Rite dcirrecs that 



42 



FREEMASONRY 



which, with modifications, gives an impres- 
sive and sacred character to the American 
Temple and Malta ceremonials. A Grand 
Encampment of Pennsylvania was formed 
in 1794, twenty years before that in New 
York, and a second one in 1797, in which 
State the Grand Chapter, as well as Grand 
Commaudery, recognizes a higher authority 
iu the Grand Lodge. The United States 
Grand Encampment, that of Massachusetts 
and Ehode Island, was formed in 1805. In 
1816, two years after the formation of the 
Grand Encampment of the State of New 
York, which was not even recognized by 
Encampments in that State for five or six 
years, a convention of eight Encampments 
(five from New England, and three from 
New York State) was held at Hartford, 
Conn., and the Grand Encampment of 
Knights Templars, U. S. A., was organized. 
There were also in existence at that time 
six other Encampments, which did not take 
part in the organization of what finally be- 
came the Supreme Ameftcan Templar body, 
one each at Philadelphia, Pittsburg, New 
York, Wilmington, Del., Baltimore, and 
Charleston. Prior to 1865 the growth of 
the Order in America was slow, but since 
the Civil War the organization has been 
very popular, numbering forty-three Grand 
Commanderies and 115,770 members in 1898, 
out of about 120,000 in the United States, 
United Kingdom, and in Canada. Eighty 
years ago there were probably not more 
than 500 Knights Templars in the fourteen 
Encampments in existence iu the United 
States, when the Grand Encampment of 
the United States of America was formed. 

An accompanying table of total mem- 
bership of the American Eite, members 
of Lodges, Koyal Arch Chapters, Councils 
of Royal and Select Masters, and Command- 
eries of Knights Templars, is presented 
so as to show comparative statistics for 
countries, provinces, etc. The American 
Rite exists in its entirety only in the 
United States. There are Royal Arch 
Chapters on the American system in the 



Dominion of Canada, as well as Encamp- 
ments of Knights Templars, but no Coun- 
cils of Royal and Select Masters, unless 
the bodies in New Brunswick are active. 
There are a few Councils of Royal and 
Select Masters in the United Kingdom, 
where the Order of the Temple is also 
found, with a total membership of about 
4,000, as comjjared with nearly 113,000 in 
the United States. Out of 768,511 Master 
Masons in the United States in 1897, 
193,639, or 25 per cent., were Royal Arch 
Masons ; and of the latter, 43,478, 5.6 per 
cent, of the total number of Master 
Masons and 22.5 per cent, of the Royal 
Arch Masons, were Royal and Select Mas- 
ters. The latter degrees are not generally 
made essential to gain admission to the 
Templar Order, which explains their com- 
paratively small membership. Six Amer- 
ican Royal Arch Masons out of ten, however, 
are Knights Temj^lars, and one Master 
Mason out of seven. The strongest Grand 
Lodges numerically are those of New York, 
including about one-eighth of all the Mas- 
ter Masons in the country ; Illinois, one- 
fifteenth ; and Pennsylvania, one-twentieth 
— in all, 23 per cent, of the members of the 
Fraternity in the United States and Terri- 
tories. New York also reports the largest 
number of Royal Arch Masons, about one- 
tenth of the grand total ; Pennsylvania being 
second, with one-twelfth ; and Illinois third, 
with nearly as large a |)roportion. The 
Cryptic Rite, including the degrees of Royal 
and Select Masters, is most popular in 
Massachusetts, where one-eighth of all who 
have those degrees are to be found. Ohio 
ranks next, with one-tenth; Michigan third, 
with nearly as large a total, and New York 
fourth in order. The Grand Commandery 
of Massachusetts and Rhode Island reports 
more than one-tenth of the total number of 
Knights Templars in the United States, 
Pennsylvania about one-tenth, and New 
York a slightly smaller proportion, after 
which rank Illinois and Ohio, with about 
one-twelfth and one-fifteenth, respectively. 



FREEMASONRY 



43 



TOTAL ACTIVE MEMBERSHIP OF THE AMERICAN 

RITE OF FREE AND ACCEPTED 

MASONS. 



Total 

Active Membership, 

1897. 



Maine 

New Hiimpsliire 

Vermont 

Massacluisctts 

Rlioile Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Michigan 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Colorado 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Nebraska 

South Dakota 

North Dakota 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabanui ... . 

^Mississippi 

Louisiana. 

Texas 

Tennessee. . . 

Arkansas . . . .' 

District of Columbia. 

California 

Oregon 

Nevada 

Washington 

Idaho... 

Arizona 

Indian Territory 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Oklahoma 

+ Attached to General 
Grand Bodies 



Totals, I'nited States 



Ontario 

Ouebec 

New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 

Prince Kdward Island. 

Newfoundland 

Manitoba 

N. W. Territory 

British Columbia 



Totals, Canada. 

England and Wales 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Victoria, Australia., 



Grand Total 



o o 



S,9(i3 

9,(i94 

3r,4G0 

4,890 

lfi,813 

90,874 

1(>,094 

49,.')89 

2,077 

40,839 

~>8.430 

.'•)-2,,-iU9 

30,(i06 

.38,608 

19,.595 

18.367 

7 2i 

16',4b8 

l.-),428 

26,890 

11,8;!6 

4,213 

2..5;i,-) 

2,()20 

1.023 

7,310 

12,052 

.5,867 

10,8:3!) 

.5,72 

17,31' 

4.393 

11,113 

9,110 

5,363 

30,567 

17,082 

13,204 

5,118 

18.208 

4,874 

948 

4,991 

1,152 

569 

2,908 

894 

7(i3 

1.085 



768,511 

23,351 

3,519 

1.774 

3.351 

515 



2.413 



1,272 



36,195 

See 
Another 
Exhibitt 



1,324,000 



32 






5,89 
3,335 
2.t!50 

13,944 
2,347 
5,433 

19,400 
3,234 

15,95' 
59, 

13,373 
6,479 

10.414 
6,681 

12,077 
5,057 
2,826 
2,456 
1.077 
4,615 
7:046 
3,042 
1,.529 
765 
663 



2,189 
1,416 
1,056 
5.294 
1,215 
3.212 
3,932 
413 
1,815 



1,602 
2,407 
1,115 

818 

591 
3,266 

675 
1,007 
1,: 
1,005 
.5,681 
2,755 
1.89' 
2,192 
.5.178 
1,238 

228 
1,141 



179 
581 




6,538 
None 



200,16; 



2,828 
704 

4,006 
79' 
7.52 



89 
133 
514 

72 



434 

20' 



901 
189 



963 



43,478 

Dorm 'I 
None 

No etat. 
None 



79; 
None 



44,275 



as 



3,153 
2,060 
1,499 

11,789 

2,363 
11,037 

1,779 
11,218 



t... 



8,071 

3,.526 

9,518 

4,237 

5,.52;i 

3,234 

2,020 

1,667 

2,902 

2,448 

4,343 

1,769 

750 

426 

34S 

319 

1,132 

1,481 

951 

347 

'7i9 

' " ':i82 

441 

320 

2,115 

1,091 

122 

1,534 

3.033 

415 



626 



122 
123 



1,562 



112,891 



1,548 

2.366 
968 
525 
76 



118,374 



t Attached to (inmil Encami)nient. 



Ancient, Accepted Scottuh Rite, 33°. — 
Mackey, in his " EncjclopEedia of Freema- 
sonry '' (p. G97), says of the Rite : " Although 
one of the youngest of the Masonic rites, 
having been esta])lished not earlier than the 
year 1801, it is at this day the most popular 
and most extensively diffused. Supreme 
Councils or governing bodies of the Rite are 
to be found in almost every civilized coun- 
try of the world, and in many of them it is 
the only Masonic obedience." It was con- 
structed at Charleston, S. C, in 1801, out of 
the twenty-five degrees of the Rite of Per- 
fection, Chapter of Clermont, Paris, 1754, 
which were absorbed by the Emperors of 
the East and West, 1758, which body 
granted a patent in 1761 to Stephen Morin 
to introduce the Rite of Perfection, twenty- 
five degrees, into the West Indies and Amer- 
ica. Reference to the rise and progress of 
the fabrication of so-called higher Masonic 
degrees in France and elsewhere on the 
European Continent may be found in the 
outline of Masonic rites and the discussion 
of the origin of the Royal Arch and Knight 
Templar degrees. McClenachan declares * 
that Morin's patent was probably the first 
Masonic document of the kind ever issued. 
The best informed Masonic students admit 
that such a document was issued. Accord- 
ing to the existing copy, it empo^-ered Morin 
to confer the twenty-five degrees and ap- 
point Inspectors of the Rite of Perfection. 
Morin was an Inspector and a Sovereign 
Prince Mason (then the twenty-fifth, now 
the thirty-second degree). The title In- 
spector referred to an office and not a degree. 
The Morin patent was signed by representa- 
tives of the Council of Emperors of the 
East and West and by officials of the 
National Grand Lodge of France who were 
members of the Council of Emperors. In 
1772 the Council of Emperors united with 
a faction of the Grand Lodge of France, 
and died a few months later. The Grand 
Lodge of France declared, in 1779, that it 

* American Appendix to Gould's History of Free- 
masonry, vol. iv., p. 626. 



44 



FREEMASONRY 



knew nothing of ''high degrees/' and in 
1786 formed the French Rite by adding 
modifications of four borrowed Scottish Rite 
degrees to the three symbolic degrees, which 
system it practises to this day. The impor- 
tance of this, which is admitted by all 
except partisan chroniclers who have axes 
to grind, or are in need of dupes, lies in the 
fact tliat existing spurious Scottish Rite 
bodies in America claim authority for using 
the Rite of Perfection from the Grand Ori- 
ent of France. Morin landed in San Do- 
mingo in 1762 or 1763, and in the same year 
established a Council of Princes of the Royal 
Secret, 25°, and created Henry Andrew 
Francken Deputy Inspector for North 
America, 25°, who, in 1767, organized a 
Lodge of Perfection at Albany, N. Y., thus 
introducing the Rite of Perfection on the 
American Continent. This Lodge was dor- 
mant from 1774 until 1821, w4ien it was 
revived, and is still in existence, the oldest 
high-grade Masonic organization in the 
world. The next body to confer Sublime or 
Scottish degrees in this country was a Lodge 
of Perfection at Philadelphia in 1781. The 
work of creating Inspectors, 25°, of the Rite 
of Perfection, progressed rapidly, and by 
the end of the century, in addition to nu- 
merous representative American chiefs of 
the Rite, introduced here by Morin through 
Francken, there were some who were merely 
peddlers of degrees, who traveled about 
the country making twenty-fifth degree 
Freemasons " at sight,"'' for a price. Ref- 
erence to an accompanying chart shows 
that the filiation of powers over the Rite 
of twenty-five degrees coming from Morin, 
took two courses in the Western world. 
On the one hand it descended through 
Francken to Hayes (1767-1770), with power 
covering North America, and thence to 
Spitzeras Deputy Inspector (1781), to Cohen 
(1781), Jacobs (1790), Long and Mitchell (in 
1795), and to De Grasse Tilly in 179G. On 
the other, Prevost, who was created Deputy 
Inspector by Francken (1774), conferred the 
office on Du Plessis (1790), who made Hac- 



quet an Inspector in 1798. From the latter, 
Du Potet received the Rite in 1799, and Du 
Potet made Joseph Cerneau Deputy Inspec- 
tor, 25°, at Baracoa (1806), "for the north- 
ern part of the Island of Cuba.'' In 1783 
a third Grand Lodge of Perfection was estab- 
lished at Charleston by Isaac Da Costa, who 
had been made Deputy Inspector by Hayes, 
and in 1792 a fourth like body was formed 
at Baltimore by Henry Williams. In 1788 
a Council of Princes of Jerusalem (fifteenth 
and sixteenth degrees) was instituted at 
Charleston by Joseph Myers, Deputy In- 
spector with authority from Hayes, and 
in 1799 the first Grand Council of Princes 
of the Royal Secret, 25°, was formed at 
Charleston by Hyman Long and others, 
acting under authority of the chiefs of the 
Rite at Kingston, Jamaica, which action 
was approved by the latter in the same 
year. In 1797 Huet La Chelle, Du Potet, 
and others opened " La Trij^le Union " 
Sovereign Chapter Rose Croix of H. R. 
D. M., of Kilwinning, Scotland, at New 
York city. This was not the Rose Croix 
(eighteenth degree) of the Rite of Perfec- 
tion, which is now the eighteenth degree of 
the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, but 
the second degree of the Royal Order of 
Scotland. La Chelle came to New York 
from San Domingo and is not known to 
have had any authority to establish a Kil- 
winning Rose Croix Chapter, except by 
virtue of some old ritual which may have 
fallen into his hands. 

At Charleston, S. C, May 31, 1801, 
John Mitchell and Frederick Dalcho, as 
Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, 
opened a Supreme Council of the thirty- 
third degree for the United States of 
America. The Rite of Perfection, twenty- 
five degrees, was used as a basis for the 
new, the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite, 
eight degrees being added. The twenty- 
third degree in the old Rite, Knight of the 
Sun, became tlie twenty-eighth in the new 
one ; the twenty-fourth. Knight Kadosch, 
became the thirtieth ; and the twenty-fifth. 



FREEMASONRY 



45 



Prince of the Royal Secret, became the 
thirty-second. The added degrees (except 
the thirty-third) Avere selected in part 
from existing material, and now rank as 
the twenty-third, twenty-fourth, twenty- 
fifth, twenty-sixth, twenty-seventh, twenty- 
ninth, and thirty-first. Members of the 
thirty-third aud last degree constitute the 
chiefs of the Eite. The new Supreme 
Council recognized Morin's patent and cre- 
ated Morin a Sovereign Grand Inspector, 
33°. It also recognized the Grand Consti- 
tutions of 1762, supposed to have been for- 
warded to Morin after he left France, a copy 
of which Morin gave Francken, and was left 
by the latter in Albany in 1767 ; and the 
Secret Constitutions of May 1, 1786, by 
which Frederick the Great was made the 
founder of the Aucient,Accepted Eite, 33°, 
supreme power descending from the Em- 
peror of Prussia to nine brethren of each 
nation to act as Grand Commanders or Sov- 
ereigns of Masonry. By these constitu- 
tions it was provided that there should be 
one Supreme Council, 33°, for each state or 
kingdom in Europe, one for the West Indies, 
one also for the French West Indies, and 
two for (the United States of) North 
America. In this one finds the origin 
of the power in the rite possessed by active 
thirty-third degree Freemasons. The Secret 
Constitutions have frequently been at- 
tributed to the Charleston creators of the 
rite, and good reasons have been adduced 
to show that Frederick of Prussia never 
heard of them, although Pike makes a strong 
argument in favor of their royal origin in 
Prussia. AVhatever the facts, the legend 
continues as virile and yet as innocuous as 
that which attributes so much to our ancient 
Grand Master, Solomon, King of Israel, in 
symbolic and Eoyal Arch degrees. By the 
end of 1801 the full number of Sovereign 
Grand Inspectors General was completed, 
but the new rite was not formally an- 
nounced to the world until 1803. In 1801 
a Council of Princes of Jerusalem, subordi- 
nate to the new Supreme Council at Charles- 



ton, established a Lodge of Perfection. In 
February, 1802, Count A. F. A. De Grasse 
Tilly was granted a patent by tlie Supreme 
Council A. A. S. E., 33° (mother Council 
of the world), to constitute, establish, direct, 
and inspect Masonic bodies in two hemi- 
spheres. Under this he organized a Su- 
preme Council A. A. S. E., 33°, in San 
Domingo in 1802 (which did not live beyond 
1803), and another, the third, at Paris, in 
1804. The De Grasse Tilly French Supreme 
Council continues to this day the governing 
body of the A. A. S. E., 33°, in France. 
It carried back to France the new rite of 
thirty-three degrees, founded on the old 
Scottish (French) Eite of Perfection, twenty- 
five degrees, as something entirely new and 
distinct, a Masonic Eite, as such, of which 
France had no previous knowledge. De 
Grasse Tilly, on his arrival in Paris, found 
Germain Hacquet, 25° (see chart of powers 
of filiation), who had established the Scot- 
tish Eite of Herodem, an offshoot of the 
unauthorized Kilwinning Rose Croix of 
Herodem, founded in New York by La 
Chelle and others in 1797, a degree of the 
Eoyal Order of Scotland, having no connec- 
tion with the Eite of Perfection, and, of 
course, none with the A. A. S. E. of 1801. 
To the founding of the new French Supreme 
Council, Hacquet and his Eose Croix pro- 
ject offered an obstacle and were promptly 
absorbed. The old Eite of Perfection 
had been forgotten in France, and came 
back with eight more degrees — an absolute 
stranger. The right of Mitchell, Dalcho, 
and others to organize a new rite of thirty- 
three degrees may hardly be called in ques- 
tion. The old Eite of Perfection had no 
governing body, had been forgotten in 
Europe, and a new rite had been created aud 
carried to France, where the Grand Orient, 
governing a French system of seven degrees, 
was the only Grand Body in existence. The 
Grand Orient, alarmed at the prestige of 
and the prospects for success of the new rite 
of thirty-three degrees, a system containing 
more degrees than had ever been constructed 



46 



FREEMASONRY 



before, made overtures for harmony, particu- 
larly as it had utilized in its own system, 
without warrant, a modification of the old 
Kite of Perfection Kose Croix degree, the 
eighteenth in both that and the A. A. S. R. 
It certainly could have no claim to all of 
the thirty-three degrees, seven of which it 
knew nothing about oflBcially, and one, 
nothing about whatever. The result was 
a concordat, December 5, 1804, by which 
the Grand Orient was to have the right to 
confer the first eighteen degrees ; but in 
1805 the Grand Orient broke the agreement 
and claimed the right to control thirty-three 
degrees. This was resisted, and a long 
quarrel followed. In 1814, the Supi-eme 
Council being weakened by the loss of many 
influential members (Bonapartists), the 
Grand Orient, by a coup d'etat, usurped 
control of the thirty-three degrees, where- 
upon the Supreme Council retaliated by 
resuming control of all the degrees from 
the fourth to the eighteenth, inclusive. 

Political conditions in France resulted in 
the Supreme Council becoming dormant 
between 1814 and 1821, during which in- 
terval and subsequent thereto the Grand 
Orient claimed to control thirty-three de- 
grees, until 1862, when peace was restored 
and the Grand Orient retired to its proper 
sphere. The action of the Grand Orient 
between 1814 and 1862 may be likened to 
an attemjit by the Grand Lodge of New 
York State to confer the degrees controlled 
by the Grand Chapter or by the Grand 
Commaudery. 

In 1806 Antoine Bideaud, 33°, created 
a Sovereign Grand Inspector General in 
the Supreme Council instituted by Count 
De Grasse Tilly at San Domingo, in 1803 
(but without authority to act on the 
continent of North America), organized a 
Sovereign Grand Consistory, S. P. E. S. 
32", at New York city, of which notice 
was sent to the mother Supreme Coun- 
cil at Charleston. Bideaud had no right 
to organize a Masonic body in New York, 
but he was a thirty-third degree Mason 



under the authority of a Supreme Council 
created by the Charleston mother Supreme 
Council, and his New York Consistory was 
afterwards made regular by the Charleston 
body. In 1807 Joseph Cerneaii, a French 
immigrant, who had received the twenty- 
five degrees of the Rite of Perfection from 
Mathieu du Potet at Baracoa, Cuba, in 
1806, organized a " Grand Consistory of 
Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret'" of the 
''Scottish Rite of Herodem." Cerneau 
utilized the Rose Croix Chapter '"'La Triple 
Union " of 1797, which was not a Scottish 
Rite body, in building up his Consistory. 
Reference to an accompanying chart, and to 
Cerneau's patent, shows that he had only 
the twenty-five degrees of the Rite of Per- 
fection when he did this. For that matter, 
he did not, at that time, claim to have the 
thirty-three degrees of the Ancient, Accepted 
Rite. In 1808 the Bideaud body issued to 
J. G. Tardy a patent as Illustrious Com- 
mander, etc., under the statutes, etc., of the 
Supreme Tribunal of Sovereign Grand In- 
spectors General, which, while Bideaud was 
not authorized to do so, is important as show- 
ing that the sublime degrees, as created by 
the A. A. S. R. Supreme Council at Charles- 
ton, were being conferred in New York 
city at that date. In 1812 Joseph Cerneau 
organized at New York a Supreme Council 
of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, 
33°, for the United States of America, its 
Territories and Dependencies, with himself 
as Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Com- 
mander, and from this assumption on his 
part grew the dissension in Scottish Rite 
Masonry in the United States which marked 
many succeeding years. Even a tyro at 
controversy might well ask where did the 
man of the twenty-five degrees of the Rite of 
Perfection get his title, " Sovereign Grand 
Inspector General," and his ''thirty-third 
degi'ee" ? As a matter of fact, he assumed 
them with the same effrontery that Cagli- 
ostro, after receiving the three symbolic 
degrees, invented his "ancient" Egyptian 
Rite, with the sole difference that the Italian 



FREEMASONRY 



47 



impostoi' bad the decency to create some- 
thing instead of pretending to possess de- 
grees which did not belong to him and which 
he did not have. Ccrneaii dupes, and others, 
have declared that Cerneau received his 
patent from one Martin, "a successor of 
Morin,'' who, they allege, had his patent 
recalled by the Emperors of the East and 
West in 176G. Cerneau's patent itself is 
sufficient refutation, but just what advan- 
tage would have been gained by Cerneau if 
it had been so, is not clear. Martin is un- 
known to the Masonic world other than to 
purveyors of Cerneau gold bricks. Cerneau 
received his patent as Inspector, 25°, from 
Du Potet, and Du Potet his from Du Plcs- 
sis. Du Plcssis was made a thirty-third 
degree Freemason b}" Du Grasse Tilly, in 
1802, three years after he had created Du 
Potet an Inspector, and fully four years be- 
fore Du Potet gave Cerneau his patent. Why 
did Du Plessis feel it necessary to get an- 
other patent in order to secure the thirty- 
third degree of the A. A. S. R. ? Yet Du 
Plessis was the Masonic grandfather of 
Cerneau. 

The chiefs of the Bideaud (New York) 
body, among others, were J. G. Tardy, J. J. 
J. Gourgas, and J. B. Desdoity, to whom 
Bideaud gave the thirty-second degree ; yet 
they soon found they Avere not regular, be- 
cause of Bideaud's lack of authority in New 
York, and were healed at Philadelphia, in 
1807 and 1808, by Du Plessis, who received 
the thirty-third degree in 1802, from De 
Grasse Tilly. It was in 1813 that Emanuel 
De la Motta, a Sovereign Grand Inspector 
General of the mother Supreme Council, 
A. A. S. R., 33°, at Charleston, S. C, arrived 
in New York with full power from the 
mother Supreme Council, when, with the 
aid of those who had been connected with 
the Bideaud body, he organized the Supreme 
Council, A. A. S. R., 33° (the second in the 
United States), for the Northern Jurisdic- 
tion, with Daniel D. Tompkins, afterward 
Vice-President of the United States, in the 
Grand East. 



The Cerneau body, a Sovereign Consistory, 
at first produced its Supreme Council attach- 
ment in 1812. It was more active than the 
De la Motta body. It naturally ignored the 
Charleston Supreme body, and corresponded 
with the Grand Orient of France at a period 
when that body was most anxious to recog- 
nize a claimant of any Masonic rite, as it was 
engaged in an effort to disrupt the Su])reme 
Council of France and so monopolize the 
latter's system of thirty-three degrees. The 
character of the Cerneau body of 1814 is 
illustrated by its presuming to organize the 
Grand Encam])ment of Knights Templars 
of New York. Notwithstanding neither 
the Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdic- 
tion, or the Cerneau body made much effort 
to popularize the rite prior to 18C0, the latter 
skilfully advertised itself, going so far as to 
deceive De Witt Clinton into accepting of- 
fice, a position which he held several years 
without ever filling it or ever being present 
at a meeting. Mackey explains that Clinton 
became "unwittingly complicated" with 
the spurious (Cerneau) "Consistory," and 
states how, but "took no active part "in it, 
and soon " withdrew from all connection 
with it." A chronological synopsis of the 
more important events in the careers of 
Supreme Councils prior to 1863 is given as 
follows : 



A. A. S. R.— U. S. A. 

Southern Jmisdiction . 

1801. 

Charleston, S. C, Supreme 
Council of the I'uited States, 
foriiK'd by Count A. F. A. 
De (irasso Tilly, John Mitchell, 
J. K. I)elaho>ru(', and Fred- 
erick I)alcho ; Mitchell, Grand 
Commander. 

1802. 

Tableau that year showB 
nine Sovereign Grand Inspect- 
ors General. 

1807. 

Seven Sovereign Grand In- 
spectors General. 



IRREGULAR SCOTTISH 
RITE BODIES. 



1811. 

New Orleans. Grand Con- 
sistory P. K. S. ;£2°, oreanizc<l 
hy^ regular Supremo Council at 
Kingston, preceding Cerneau 
invasion of the South. 



48 



FREEMASONRY 



A. A. S. R.-U. S. A. 
Southei'n Jurisdiction. 

. 1813. 
Commissioned Emanuel De 
la Motia to organize a Su- 
preme Council at New York 
city for Northern Jurisdiction, 
wHicli was done. 

1822. 
Corresponded with Northern 
Supreme Council through 
Bouse and Holbrook. Commit- 
tee on Correepomlence. 

1823-24. 
Frederick Dalcho, Grand 
Commander. 



IRREGULAR SCOTTISH 
RITE BODIES. 

1813-55. 
New Orleans. A Cerneau 
Scottish Kite body appc:ucd in 
1813 (two years after the Kings- 
ton Rose Croix Chapter). After 
a fight of forty years (during 
which, in 1830, "it became in- 
dependent), in which it antag- 
onized the Grand Lodge of 
Louisiana by assuming to war- 
rant Lodges and confer the 
three symbolic degrees, it 
united with the regular Con- 
sistory at New Orleans, formed 
by the Supreme Council, South- 
ern Jurisdiction, at Charleston. 



1825. 
G. F. Yates created a Sover- 
eign Grand Inspector General. 

1827. 

Acknowledged receipt of 
documents from Northern Su- 
preme Council and partitioned 
ITnited States between itself 
and Northern Supreme Coun- 
cil. 

1828-32. 

Corresponded with Grand 
Orient of France until 1832. 
(Dormant 1832 to 1844.) 

1844. 
Alexander McDonald, Grand 
Commander. 

18.%. 
John Henry Honour, Grand 
Commander. 



1859. 

Albert Pike, Grand Com- 
mander. 

1892. 
James C. Batchelor, Grand 
Commander. 

1893. 
Philip C. Tucker, Grand 
Commander. 

1897. 
Thomas H. Caswell, Grand 
Commander. 



1856. 
New Orleans. Poulhouze'e 
spurious Consistory formed ; 
short-lived. 



A. A. S. R.— U. S. A. 
Northern Jurisdiction. 

1806. 
New York city. Grand Con- 
sistory, P. R. S. (by A. Bi- 
deaud of San Domingo Su- 
preme Council, established by 
De Grasse Tilly of the Charles- 
ton Supreme Council), after- 
wards regularized by Southern 
Supreme Council. 



SCOTTISH RITE OF HERO- 
DEM— U. S. A. 

Cerneau. 



New York city. Council, 
Princes of Jerusalem, estab- 
lished by Abraham Jacobs. 

New York city. Aurora Grata 
Grand Lodge of Perfection. 



A. A. S. R.-U. S. A. 
Noi'thern Jurisdiction. 

1811. 
New Orleans. Chapter of 
Rose Croix, established by au- 
thority from the Supreme 
Council at Kingston. 



SCOTTISH RITE OF HERO- 
DEM— U. S. A. 



1813. 

New York city. Bideaud 
Consistory organized into the 
Northern Jurisdiction Su- 
premeCouncil Sovereign Grand 
Inspectors General, 33°, by au- 
thority of Charleston Supreme 
Council. 

1822. 

Letter received from Com- 
mittee on Correspondence of 
Southern Supreme Council by 
D. D. Tompkins of Northern 
Supreme Council. 

1825. 
J. J. J. Gourgas, actineMost 
PuissantSovereign GrandCom- 
mander. 

1826. 
Northern Supreme Council 
received oaths of fealty from 
Camague, Lawrence, and 
others. 

1827. 
Southern Supreme Council 
acknowledged receipt of docu- 
ments from Nortliern Supreme 
Council. 

1827. 
Southern Supreme Council 
recognized States north of Ma- 
son and Dixon line and cast of 
the Mississippi River ae terri- 
tory of the Northern Supreme 
Council. 

1'828. 
Northern Supreme Council 
received oath of fealty from 
G. P. Yates of Southern Su- 
preme Council. 

Alliance between the Grand 
Orient of France and the 
Northern and Southern Su- 
preme Councils. 

1830. 
Cerneau's name struck from 
the Tableau of the Grand Ori- 
ent of France. 



1812. 
Supreme Council, Sovereign 
Grand Inspectors Gteneral, 33°, 
for United States of America, 
their Territories and Depend- 
encies, formed two years be- 
fore hearing from the Grand 
Orient of France, from which 
Cerneau, after 1814, claimed to 
have received the thirty-third 
degree. 



1807. 
New York city. Joseph Cer- 
neau opened a Sovereign Grand 
Consistory, P. R. S., 25°, which 
claimed to revive a preexist- 
ing Rose Croix Chapter, Royal 
Order Scotland. 



1827. 
Cerneau body became dor- 
mant and was allowed to die. 



1844. 

Northern Supreme Council 
revived ; J. J. J. Gourgas, Most 
Puissant Sovereign Grand 
Commander. (Met annually 
thereafter.) 



1832. 
Revived by A. Laurent of 
France as United Supreme 
Council, etc., for the Western 
Hemisphere, and confederated 
with Supreme Council of Bra- 
zil. Elias Hicks, Most Puissant 
Sovereign Grand Commander. 

1836. 
Alleged confederation with 
Supreme Council of France. 



FREEMASONRY 



49 



A. A. 8. R— U. S. A. 
Northern Jurisdiction. 

1845. 
Northern Supreme Council 
issued charter for a Supreme 
Council for England. 



SCOTTISH RITE OF HERO- 
DEM-U. 8. A. 



1860. 
Gourgas resigned and ap- 
pointecf Giles Fonda Yates 
Most Puissant Sovereign Grand 
Commander. 



1851. 
G. F. Yates resigned and ap- 
pointed E. A. Raymond Most 
Puissant Sovereign Grand 
Commander. The Grand East 
was removed from New York 
city to Boston. 



1857. 
Northern Supreme Council 
recognized the Supreme Coun- 
cil of V'enezuela. 



1860. 
Boston. Northern Supreme 
Council (owing to dissensions) 
declared closed sine die by 
Raymond, August 25Jd. 

Boston. Raymond (with 
RobiuMon) rcorgiinizcs a North- 
ern Siiprcnie Council. 

1861. 
Rjiyinoiid deposed as Sover- 
eign Grand Coniniander by the 
Provisional Supreme Conricil. 

1862. 
Van Rensselaer, Lieutenant 
Grand Commander, elected 
Sovereign Grand Commander, 
vice Raymond deposed. 



1846. 
United Supreme Council dis- 
solved ; went otit of existence, 
and divided funds among four 
out of the Ave remaining mem- 
bers. (Genuine Cerneau bodies 
terminate here.) 

1850. 

IT. C. Atvvood (an expelled 
Master Mason, who claimed to 
have receiveil thirty-third de- 
gree patent from a traveling 
Scottish Kite lecturer *) organ- 
ized a Supreme Council, etc., 
for the United States of Amer- 
ica, Territories, and Dependen- 
cies, without cooperation of 
any member of the Hicks 
body. 

1851. 

Atwood succeeded by J. L. 
Cross of Southern Supreme 
Council, who soon found him- 
self misplaced and withdrew. 

1852. 
Atwood succeeded Cross and 
changed the name to Supreme 
Council, etc., for the Sovereign, 
Free, and Independent State 
of New York. 

1854. 
Name again changed to Su- 
preme Council, etc., for the 
United States of America, Ter- 
ritories, and Dependencies. 



1858. 
Name changed for the fifth 
time, to Supreme Council, etc., 
for Western Hemisphere. 

1860. 
E. B. Hays, by appointment 
of Atwood, succeeds latter at 
his death. 



* William Sewall (Jardner, *}", Massachusetts, in appendix 
to the Proceedings of the Northern Jurisdiction, on spurious 
Supreme Councils in the Northern Jurisdiction, says that H. 
C. Atwood (as well as K. B. Folger) went to Trenton, jjiior to 
1840, among a p.'irty, all of whom paid ten dollars and got the 
thirty third degree from Abraham .Jacobs (e.xpt'lled), who had 
spent nearly forty years peddling Scottish Hile degrees il- 
legally. They went to Trenton, because Jacobs had agreed 
with the Cerneau i>eoi)le for a price not to peddle his desrrees 
within sixty miles of New York. Atwood is said to have'- in- 
herited " Jacobs' trunk of rituals. Here, then, is the probable 
origin of the Cerneau Kite of 18f)0-180)i, for Atwood started it 
as Its comniaiKler, without an officer of any preceding Cerneau 
body to legitimatize him. 



"Scottish CekneauRite, A. A. S. R. A. A. S. H. 

Rites" AMONG "Scottish." Northern Southern 

Negroes. Masonic .Masonic 

Jurisdiction. Jurisfliction. 



New York. 
(Without au- 
thority.) 
1806. 



Charleston, 
S. C. 



1801 



o « o 
" ME 

o 1-1 *:; 



f5 oO 






New York. 

(Authorized.) 

1813. 



186.3. 



o 2 = 






i 



Schism. 

ISfiO. 



18«.3. i 



Rcor^ani- = 

zatioii, 3 

186*;. = 



Seymour's 

Spurious 

Cerneau Rite, 

N.Y.City, 1879. 



Hopkins 
Thomj)- 

son 

Bodv, 

NY'.,i881. 



Consol- 
idation. 
1867. 



(crea- 
ted). 



Neuro "Cekneai'" 
"Scottish "Scoltisli 

Rite "Bodies. Rite" Bodies. 
(Irregular.) (Unauthorized.) 



White and Negro Spurious 
Bodies, recognized nowhere. 



Anc. .\ccepted Scottish Rite. 

Northern Southern 

Jurisdictions, U. 8. A. 



Regular Bodies, universally 
recognized. 



1761 
1762 



1781 



1798 

1799 
1801 

1808 
1806 
1808 



Stephek Mohim, 25°, 
Inspector for America, Rite 1 of Perfection, Paris, 1761. 

Hekbt a. Franceen, 25', Jackmel, Jamaica, 1762. 
Dep. Inspector (or North America. 



M. M. Hays, 25\ Boston, 
1767-70, Dep. Ids. for North America. 



Aug. Prevost, 25°, Dep. Ins., 
Jamaica. 1774. 



P. Le B. Du Plessis, 25°, Dep. Ins 
PUlla. 1790. 



• B. Spftzer, 25', Dep. for Georgia, 

Pliila. I 1781. 
' M. Cohen, S5°,'Phlla., 1781. 



Abr. Jacobs, 25°, Jamaica," 1790. 



John Mitchell, 25°, Dep. for S. C. 
Charleston, 1795. 



Germain Hacquet, 25° 
Phila. 1798. 



Mathieu Du Potet, 25° 
Port Republic, 1799. 



Hym. I. Long, 25°, Phila., 1795. 

A. F. A. De Grasse TiUy, 25», Chwleston 
1796 




Fred'k Dalcho, 33°, S. Q. I. G 
CharlestoB, 1801. 



A. F. A. De Grasse Tilly. 33°: S. G. I. G. •"■ ^- ^ ^" ^"^"''^Z'/- ,^- ^2,•, 
Charleston, 1801. Charleston, 1801. 



Joseph Cerneau, 25°, 
Baracoa, July, 1806. 



Antolne Bideaud. 33°, S. G. I. G. 
Jamaica 1802, 

n. O. Tardt, ^ 

J. J. J. GouRGAS, and 
J. B. Desijoity, 32°. 
Deo. Insp., , New York 1806. 



P. Le B. Du Plessis, 38° S. G. I. G. 
PhUa. 1 1802. 



■ 

'Tardv, Gooroab, and Desdoity, 
NewYork 1807-8. 



M. L. M. PeUotto, 82°. N. Y., 1806. 



1761 



1774 



1790 



1796 



1803 



1808 



CHART SHOWING THE SUCCESSION OF AUTHORITY AMONG THE ORIGINAL. 

CHIEFS OF "SCOTTISH" FREEMASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES, 

AND AMONG THE EARLIER POSSESSORS OF THE 33d 

DEGREE, ANCIENT ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE. 



FREEMASONRY 



51 



In 1862 there were four Supreme Coun- 
cils in the United States — that of the South- 
ern Jurisdiction, at Charleston, the orig- 
inator of the rite of thirty-tiiree degrees; 
the Van Rensselaer and the Raymond rival 
bodies, each chiiming to be the Supreme 
Council for the Northern Jurisdiction ; and, 
fourth, the Cerneau Supreme Council, "for 
the United States of America, its Territories 
and Dependencies." The first three held 
fraternal relations with like bodies in Eng- 
land, Scotland, Ireland, France, Belgium, 
and in Central and South American coun- 
tries. An active warfare was in progress 
between the Van Rensselaer and Raymond 
Councils, with the former apparently the 
more successful in creating subordinate 
bodies and obtaining new members. On 
April 2, 1862, the Cerneau body made 
overtures to the Raymond Supreme Coun- 
cil looking to union, though some chron- 
iclers (Cerneau members) say the Raymond 
people made the advances. In any event, 
each side appointed a conference committee, 
which committees met and reported in favor 
of union, whereupon the committees were 
continued with full power to act. On 
April 13, 1863, complete union was effected 
under the title by which the Cerneau body 
had been known. Supreme Council for the 
United States of America, etc., with E. 
B. Hays, who had been at the head of 
the Cerneau body, as the Grand Com- 
mander of the union Council. The contin- 
uation of the name Supreme Council for 
the United States of America, etc., with 
Hays at the head of the new Supreme 
Council, should not be regarded as an evi- 
dence that the Cerneau organization swal- 
lowed the Raymond body. This is plainly 
shown by all the members of both the unit- 
ing bodies taking an oath of fealty, and all 
the subordinate organizations of the Cer- 
neau and of the Raymond Councils sur- 
rendering their old charters to, and tak- 
ing out new charters from the new, or 
united Supreme Council. More than this, 
it will be recalled that offices of both the 



Supreme Councils were then held ad vitam, 
and that at the union those oflBces were va- 
cated and refilled, after which the incum- 
bents were duly installed. No more com- 
plete or perfect action could have been 
taken to emphasize the fact that the union 
Supreme Council of 1863 was a newly 
formed body. Whether its members then 
regarded its authority as based on Cerneau's 
assumption of power in 1806, or on De la 
Motta's action at New York in 1813, is im- 
material. By 1865 the Civil War had 
ended, and the rival Supreme Councils at 
the North — the Van Rensselaer and the 
united Cerneau-Raymond bodies — were anx- 
ious for recognition from the mother 
Supreme Council at Charleston ; if for no 
other reason, to secure regularity and ex- 
clusive territorial jurisdiction. It was in 
this year, too, that Harry J. Seymour was 
defeated for office in the Cerneau-Raymond 
Supreme Council and afterward expelled 
for cause. Following this, two committees 
were appointed, one to visit the Supreme 
Council at Charleston, witli a view to secur- 
ing recognition, and the other to consider 
the advisability of changing the name of the 
body from "for the United States of Amer- 
ica,*' etc., to Northern Jurisdiction, for it was 
realized that no overtures to the Supreme 
Council, Southern Jurisdiction, would be re- 
ceived from a body claiming jurisdiction 
throughout the country. On October 22, 
1865, the latter committee reported in favor 
of that change in name, and the rejjort was 
unanimously adopted. Hopkins Thompson, 
who, in 1881, led a revolt over this very 
point, was present. That the action was 
taken in order to secure recognition from 
the Southern Supreme Council, and thus 
pave the way to self-preservation, is shown 
by the united Supreme Council at its next 
session receiving and welcoming a visi- 
tor from the Southern Supreme Council. 
Late in the same year the committee to 
visit the Cluirleston Supreme Council re- 
ported that the latter declined to recognize 
Hays, who represented an illegal (the Cer- 



52 



FREEMASONRY 



iieau) boch', and that it did not regard the 
union of 18G3 as legal, because Eaymond 
(who had died in 18G4) had been illegally 
deposed as the Sovereign Grand Commander 
of the only legal Northern Supreme Coun- 
cil (by the Van Eensselaer body in 1861), 
and that Kobinson alone (Lieutenant Grand 
Commander of the old Raymond body), now 
Lieutenant Grand Commander of the united 
Cerneau-Raymond body, could succeed Ray- 
mond. Hays thereupon resigned his office, 
and was succeeded by Robinson in the pres- 
ence of a majority of all the officers and 
members of the Supreme Council. But this 
was not to suffice. The Van Rensselaer 
schism was in existence and prosperous, 
numbering among its officers several former 
ad vitam officials of the Raymond Supreme 
Council of 1860, the only Supreme Council 
the Southern body could recognize. Com- 
plete union was therefore necessary, and to 
accomplish it, reorganization of the Cerneau- 
Raymond body was necessary. Robinson, 
therefore, as successor of Raj^mond, called a 
special meeting of the old Raymond Council 
at Boston, December 11, 1860. ]\rostof the 
officers of the latter were members of the 
Van Rensselaer Council, and naturally de- 
clined to be present, where ajDon Robinson, 
in strict accord with his prerogative, filled 
the vacancies from among the twelve active 
and ten honorary members of the united 
Cerneau-Raymond Supreme Council who 
were present. Men of whom the Avorld at 
large has never heard, to whom self rather 
than fraternity has been a creed, who have 
hankered for Masonic office and the oppor- 
tunity to peddle degrees and titles rather 
than for the union and prosperity of the 
Craft, have held that this action of Robin- 
son at Boston amounted merely to the dis- 
solution of the Cerneau-Raymond Council. 
As a matter of fact, it was not only a disso- 
lution of it, but a reorganization of the 
Cerneau-Raymond body in order to make 
the latter regular under the statutes and 
regulations, the recognition of honesty in 
fraternity politics as opposed to assumption 



and deception. The reorganized Cerneau- 
Raymond Council thus honestly acquired 
what it had unanimously resolved to secure 
the year before, the title "Northern Juris- 
diction," in place of "United States of 
America, its Territories and Dependencies," 
That the action at Boston in 1866 was not 
regarded by those present as a coiqj, in order 
to merely revive the old Northern,- or Ray- 
mond, Supreme Council and swallow the 
Cerneau-Raymond Council, is shown by the 
fact that all the officers of the latter were re- 
elected, and that no oaths of fealty were re- 
quired. Overtures were then made looking 
to a union with the Van Rensselaer Supreme 
Council. Committees to consider the pro- 
ject were appointed by each body, which met 
at Boston in 1867, just prior to the annual 
session of the Van Rensselaer Supreme Coun- 
cil. After prolonged conference, during 
which it seemed at times as if the outcome 
could only be failure, a treaty of union was 
agreed to, which Avas ratified by both Su- 
preme Councils and approved by all the 
honorary members. After rescinding acts of 
expulsion based on former differences, the 
two Supreme Councils ratified each other's 
acts, and Josiah H. Drummond of Maine 
was elected Most Puissant Sovereign Grand 
Commander of the (consolidated) Supreme 
Council, Northern Jurisdiction, by concur- 
rent vote of the two bodies, which came to- 
gether as one. The oath of fealty was then 
taken to the consolidated Supreme Council 
by eighty members present. The career of 
this Sujireme Council ever since has been 
one of harmony and prosperity, and it is 
to-day the largest body of the kind in the 
world, numbering more than 25,000 thirty- 
second degree members, about one-fifth of 
the total number of Scottish Rite Freemasons 
in the world. Among Sovereign Princes of 
the Royal Secret, 32°, and Sovereign Grand 
Inspectors General, 33°, of the Northern and 
Southern Jurisdictions, United States of 
Abierica, are to be found many of the most 
illustrious of those who re2)resent the pro- 
fessions, the army and navy, and financial. 



FREEMASONRY 



53 



commercial, and industrial life. The two 
Supreme Councils who now divide between 
them the United States of America, its 
territories and dependencies, hold amicable 
relations with Supreme Councils of the A. 
A. S. R. for England, Scotland, Ireland, 
France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Italy, 
Greece,. Switzerland, Brazil, Argentine Re- 
public, Uruguay, Peru, United States of 
Colombia, Chili, Central America, Cuba, 
Mexico, the Dominion of Canada, Egypt, 
and Tunis. 

The degrees of the Ancient, Accepted 
Scottish Eite, from the fourth to the thirty- 
second, inclusive, are conferred in the North- 
ern Masonic Jurisdiction, United States of 
America, in four bodies, and make of the 
Master Mason a Sublime Prince of the Royal 
Secret. Grand Lodges of Perfection, not 
Grand Lodges in the ordinary sense of the 
words, induct candidates into the mysteries 
of eleven ineffable degrees, fourth to four- 
teenth, inclusive, of which the first nine are 
additions to and explanations and elabora- 
tions of the second section of the Master's 
degree, so familiar to all Freemasons. The 
names of the thirty-three degrees of Scottish 
Rite Freemasonry are given in full in an ac- 
companying chart of the English, Scottish, 
and American Rites. The thirteenth and 
fourteenth degrees of the Scottish Rite, form- 
ing the summit of work jierformed in Grand 
Lodges of Perfection, correspond to, but are 
in no sense identical with, the English Royal 
Arch degree as worked in Royal Arch 
Chapters in the American Rite. They are 
founded historically on the royal arch of 
Enoch instead of tiie royal arch of Zerub- 
babel, which forms the basis of the English 
royal arch degree. Many among those com- 
petent to judge favor the theory elsewhere 
outlined, tliat the English royal arch of 
Zerubbabel was an outgrowth of the earlier, 
continental royal arch of Enoch of about 
1740, and that Laurence Dermott had as 
much to do with the changes made as he 
had with the introduction of this ampli- 
fication of the old Master's degree among 



British Freemasons. The Grand Elect, Per- 
fect, and Sublime Mason, fourteenth degree, 
is eligible to receive the historical degrees, 
Knight of the East and Sword, and Prince 
of Jerusalem, tlie fifteenth and sixteenth, 
respectively, of the system. These relate to 
the rebuilding of the second holy Temple at 
Jerusalem under the authority of King 
Cyrus and Darius his successor. From 
them the modern framers of the ritual of 
the degree of Companion of the Red Cross, 
conferred in Commanderies of Knights Tem- 
plars, have borrowed freely. 

The philosophical degrees of the Scottish 
Rite, Knight of the East and West, and 
Knight of the Eagle and Pelican, or Rose 
Croix, the seventeenth and eighteenth, are 
conferred in Chapters of Rose Croix and 
" relate to the building of the third Temple, 
'one not made with hands,' within the 
heart of man." In the Rose Croix degree, 
Scottish Rite Freemasonry reaches its sum- 
mit as a teacher of the sublime truths of 
Christianity, and it is from this degree, as 
well as others of the Rite, that the Ameri- 
can Templar ritual draws some of its more 
impressive ceremonials. The degrees from 
the nineteenth to the thirty-second, inclu- 
sive, historical and philosophical, are con- 
ferred under the sanction of a Consistory or 
Areopagus of Knights of Kadosch. 

The thirty-third and last degree of An- 
cient, Accepted Scottish Masonry is conferred 
upon thirty-second degree Freemasons who 
have rendered long or distinguished service 
to the Craft. It is executive in its func- 
tion, recipients being members of the Su- 
preme Council, or governing body, of the 
Rite. In the Southern Jurisdiction in the 
L^nited States there is an intermediate grade 
between the thirty-second and thirty-third 
degrees, known as the Court of Honor, com- 
posed of (a) Masters of the Royal Secret, 
and (b) Inspectors General (thirty-third 
degree), active, emeriti, and honorary. 
There is also the rank of Knight of the 
Court of Honor, consisting of two grades, 
Knight Commander and Grand Cro^?s of 



54 



FREEMASONRY 



Honor. Sovereign Grand Inspectors Gen- 
eral, by which title members of Supreme 
Councils of the Kite are known throughout 
the world, are classed, practically, as active, 
emeriti, and honorary. Only those in the 
first class are permitted to be present at ex- 
ecutive sessions of Supreme Councils, and 
''actives'' alone create thirty-third degree 
members. The total number of active thirty- 
third degree members is very small, probably 
not exceeding one hundred in North Amer- 
ica, and not exceeding three hundred in all 
countries. There are fewer than fifty in 
the Northern Jurisdiction in the United 
States — north of the Ohio and east of the 
Mississippi Rivers — and still fewer in the re- 
maining States. The list of emeriti Sover- 
eign Grand Inspectors General is very short, 
and, as the title implies, includes the few 
" actives " who have retired from the labors 
of the governing body full of honors and 
advancing years. The custom of creating 
honorary Sovereign Grand Inspectors- Gen- 
eral is one which has grown up within a 
generation, as a means of advancing and 
rewarding enthusiastic and active Sublime 
Princes of the Royal Secret one step nearer 
the goal which, of course, all may not reach. 
There are nearly six hundred names of hon- 
orary "thirty-thirds" in the Nortlieru and 
nearly four hundred in the Southern Juris- 
diction of the United States. A full list of 
the names and places of residence of active 
and honorary Sovereign Grand Inspectors 
General, 33°, in the United States, January 
1, 1898, may be found in an accompany- 
ing Masonic Directory. Official position in 
a Supreme Council was formerly for life, 
and in nearly all, except the Northern Ju- 
risdiction, where the term is three years, it 
continues so. But even in the Supreme 
Council of the Northern Jurisdiction fitness 
for the position insures continued reelection 
at every triennial meeting, so that where 
nothing transpires to make a change desir- 
able, the kingly prerogative of life tenure in 
office is still in force. 

It remains to be related that there are two 



spurious Supreme Councils "A. A. S. R." 
in the United States, one of which is 
founded on fraud and the other on misrep- 
resentation and personal pique. Neither 
numbers many adherents, and each is only 
nominally or locally active. Both claim 
the name, authority of, and regular descent 
from Cerneau, and the founders of both 
know that their claims are without founda- 
tion. The older calls itself "the Supreme 
Council of the thirty-third and last degree 
of A. A. S. R. Masonry, organized by T. I. 
Joseph Cerneau, M. P. S. G. C, October 
27, 1807, for the U. S. A., its Territories 
and Dependencies." Its real founder was 
Harry J. Seymour, who was expelled from 
the Cerneau-Raymond Council in 1865, for 
reasons which should have caused his name 
to be struck from the list of acquaintances 
of every self-respecting Master Mason. Sey- 
mour was once well-to-do, but afterward felt 
compelled to follow in the footsteps of Abra- 
ham Jacobs, whose name is on the chart of 
filiated powers accompanying this sketch.* 
Jacobs was a notorious peddler of degrees, 
who was expelled for illegal assumption of 
Masonic authority. Seymour was initiated 
into the Rite of Memphis in Paris in 1862, 
and after being expelled from the Scottish 
Rite in the United States in 1865, started 
out for himself by organizing alleged Scot- 
tish Rite bodies in New York city, into 
which well-meaning Master Masons were 
inducted, at so much apiece, by himself as 
hierophant and purveyor of regalia and para- 
phernalia at cent-per-cent prices. Some 
who were duped by him, who have since 
joined regular Scottish Rite bodies, vouch 
for this statement, and for the fact that at 
one time he used a condensation of the Rite 
of Memphis as his "Cerneau Rite." In 
1879 he organized a Supreme Council, claim- 
ing to have been constituted the head of the 
Cerneau Rite by Hays, who died in 1874 
member of the consolidated Northern Su- 

* See footnote to chronological events in the 
career of the Southern, Northern, and Cerneau 
Supreme Councils. 



FREEMASONRY 



55 



preme Council. So transparent a fraud 
would seem to have been apparent to an)^ 
sane man over twenty-one years of age. 
Cagliostro found his victims, Jacobs his, 
and Seymour evidently had several of his 
own. The descent is precipitant but mani- 
fest. Enough material in the way of new 
members has been secured by Peckham, 
Gorgas, Hibbs, and other successors of Sey- 
mour to enable them to go through the mo- 
tions of maintaining so-called Consistories 
in New York city and Jersey City, and, in 
former years, at a few other cities, and to 
report having held annual sessions of a Su- 
preme Council. The only regret is that a 
few hundred innocent and honest Master 
Masons have been taken advantage of and 
induced to part with their money and inter- 
est — for nothing. This Seymour-Cerneau 
organization is repudiated by Supreme Coun- 
cils throughout the world, and its adherents 
must place themselves in the category with 
those who find themselves deceived becaiise 
they failed to examine before buying. A 
large precentage of the Grand Masters of 
Grand Lodges, Grand High Priests of Grand 
Chapters, Very Eminent Commanders of 
Grand Coramanderies of Knights Templars, 
their asoociate officers, past and present, 
and thousands of other members of the Craft 
throughout the United States are members 
of Scottish Rite bodies holding obedience to 
the legitimate Supreme Councils, the North- 
ern and Southern Jurisdictions. The unin- 
formed Master Mason has only to inquire to 
learn. 

Not until 1881 was the second existing 
spurious Supreme Council "A. A. S. R. " 
formed, fourteen years after the union of 
18f)T. It was organized at New York by 
Hopkins Thompson (an emeritus thirty- 
third of the Northern Supreme Council, 
who was not ji resent at Boston when Rob- 
inson reorganized the Cerneau-Raymond 
Council, but who was present at and swore 
fealty to the consolidated Council in 1867). 
He was aided by a few honorary thirty- 
third, and one thirty-second degree mem- 



ber on whom the consolidated Northern 
Supreme Council had refused to confer the 
thirty-third degree, eleven in all. When 
the full proceedings of the action of the 
Cerneau-Raymond Council leading up to 
the consolidation of 1807 were published in 
1881, all of which had been known at the 
time, these men claimed to have just dis- 
covered that when Robinson dissolved the 
Cerneau-Raymond Council at Boston in 
18G6, and reorganized it under the name 
Northern Jurisdiction, that they were there- 
by absolved from their oaths of fealty to the 
union Council of 1863. They, therefore, 
with Hopkins Thompson as the alleged suc- 
cessor of Cerneau, et ah, claimed to revive 
the old Cerneau body, that which united 
with the Raymond Supreme Council in 1863. 
Their oaths of fealty to the consolidated Su- 
preme Council of 1867 Avere repudiated be- 
cause, as alleged, they were obtained by 
keeping them in ignorance of all the facts. 
Their antagonism to the Seymour organi- 
zation is bitter. Naturally the Thompson 
party repiidiates the Southern as well as the 
Northern Supreme Councils, and continues 
an existence on jiaper, isolated from all other 
Supreme Councils in the Avorld. Its total 
active membership does not number more 
than a few hundred. Many who have joined 
it have discovered they were deceived and 
have retired. Its centres of activity are 
at New York city, Columbus, 0., Washing- 
ton, D. C, and ]\Iiuneapolis, Minn. In 
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Iowa, 
and Nebraska, Master Masons render them- 
selves liable to suspension by joining Cer- 
neau Scottish Rite bodies, and the Grand 
Lodge in Ohio has been sustained by the 
courts in its position on this point. 

MASONIC DIRECTOllY. 

Secretaries of Sovereign Grand Lodges of Free and 
Accepted Masons in the Uiiited States. 

Alabama H. C. Armstrong. .Montgomery. 

Arizona G. J. Roskruge . . .Tucson. 

Arkansas F. II. Hempstead .Little Rock. 

California G. Johnson Sau Francisco. 



56 



FREEMASONRY 



Colorado 

(Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Golum. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina . . 
North Dakota . . . 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . . . 
Rhode Island. . . . 
South Carolina . . 
South Dakota. . . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia . . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Ed, C. Parraalee. 
John II. Barlow.. 

B. F. Bartram . . . 
W. R. Singleton . 
W. P. Webster . . 
A. M. Wolihin. . . 
Theop.W. Randall 

J. H. C. Dill 

W. H. Smythe. . . . 

J. S. Murrow 

T. S. Parvin 

Albert K. Wilson. . 

H. B. Grant 

R. Lambert 

Stephen Berry . . . . 
J. H. Medairy . . . . 
S. D. Nickerson . . . 

J. S. Conover 

T. Montgomery . . . 

J. L. Power 

J. D. Vincil 

Cornelius Hedges . 
W. R. Bowen 

C. N. Noteware. . . 
G. P. Cleaves.... 
T. H. R. Redway 
A. A. Keen 

E. M. L. Ehlers. . 
John C. Drewry... . 

F. J. Thompson . . 
J. H. Bromwell. . . 

J. S. Hunt 

James F. Robinson 
William A. Sinn . 

E. Baker 

C. Inglesby 

G. A. Pettigrew. . 
John B. Garrett. . 
John Watson .... 

C. Diehl 

W. G. Reynolds.. 
G. W. Carrington 

T. M. Reed 

G. W. Atkinson.. 

J. W. Laflin 

W. L. Kuykendall 



Denver. 
Hartford. 
• Wilmington. 
Washington. 
Jacksonville. 
.Macon. 
.Boise City. 
Bloomington. 
Indianapolis. 
Atoka. 

Cedar Rapids. 
Topeka. 
Louisville. 
New Orleans. 
Portland. 
Baltimore. 
Boston. 
Coldwater. 
St. Paul. 
Jackson. 
St. Louis. 
Helena. 
Omaha. 
Carson City. 
Concord. 
Trenton. 
.Albuquerque. 
New York. 
.Raleigh. 
Fargo. 
Cincinnati. 
Stillwater. 
.Eugene City. 
Philadelphia. 
Providence. 
Charleston. 
Flandreau. 
Nashville. 
Houston. 
Salt Lake City. 
Burlington. 
Richmond. 
Olympia. 
Wheeling. 
Milwaukee. 
Saratoga. 



General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, 
U. S. A., General Grand Secretary, Christopher 
G. Fox, Buffalo, N. Y. 

General Grand Council of Royal and Select 
Masters, U. S. A., General Grand Recorder, Henry 
W. Mordhurst, Fort Wayne, Ind. • 

General Encampment of Knights Templars, 
U. S. A., Grand Recorder, Wm. H. Mayo, St. 
Louis, Mo. 



Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite. 

Supreme Council, Sovereign Grand Inspectors 
General, 33°, Southern Jurisdiction (south of Mason 
and Dixon line and west of the Mississippi River), 
U. S. A. 

Thomas H. Caswell, 33°, Most Puissant Sover- 
eign Grand Commander, San Francisco, Cal. 

Frederick Webber, Illustrious Grand Secretary 
General, 33°, No. 433 North 3d Street, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

The complete list of active thirty-third degree 
members of the Supreme Council, Sovereign Grand 
Inspectors General, Southern Jurisdiction, 1897, is 
as follows : 

Adams, Samuel E Minneapolis, Minn. 

Carr, Erasmus T Miles City, Mont. 

Caswell, Thomas H San Francisco, Cal. 

Chamberlain, Austin B Galveston, Tex. 

Collins, Martin St. Louis, Mo. 

Cortland, J. Wakefield Asheville, N. C. 

Fellows, John Q. A New Orleans, La. 

Fitzgerald, Adolphus L Eureka, Nev. 

Fleming, Rufus E Fargo, N. D. 

Foote, Frank M Evanston, Wyo. 

Hayden, James R Seattle, Wash. 

Henry, James A Little Rock, Ark. 

Levin, Nathaniel Charleston, S. C. 

Long, Odel S Charleston, W. Va. 

McLean, William A Jacksonville, Fla. 

Mayer, John F Richmond, Va. 

Meredith, Gilmor Baltimore, Md. 

Moore, George F Montgomery, Ala. 

Nun, Richard J : Savannah, Ga. 

Parvin, Theodore S .Cedar Rapids, la. 

Pierce, William F Oakland, Cal. 

Pratt, Irving W Portland, Ore. 

Richardson, James D Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

Sherman, Buren R Vinton, la. 

Teller, Henry M Central City, Colo. 

Todd, Samuel M New Orleans, La. 

Webber, Frederick Washington, D. C. 

The following is a complete list of honorary 
thirty-third degree members of the Supreme Coun- 
cil, A. A. S. R., Southern Jurisdiction of the United 
States, for 1897 : 

Alabama. 
Billing, Fay McC Montgomery. 

Arkansas. 

Kramer, Frederick Little Rock. 

Rosenbaum, Charles E Little Rock. 

Rickon, Frederick J. H Little Rock. 

Arizona. 

Freeman, Merrill P Tucson. 

Kales, Martin W Phoenix. 

Roskruge, George J Tucson. 



FREEMASONRY 



57 



California. 

Hobe, George J San Francisco. 

Goodman, 'J'heodore II San Francisco. 

Sherman, Edwin A Oakland. 

Spaulding, Nathan W Oakland. 

Daugherty, Charles M Oakland. 

Buck, Silas M Eureka. 

Stone, Charles E Marysville. 

Merritt, James B Oakland. 

Gillctt, Charles E Oakland. 

Petrie, Williain M Sacramento. 

Davies. William A San Francisco. 

Waterhouse, Columbus San Francisco. 

De Clairmont, Ralph San Francisco. 

Rosenstock, Samuel W San Francisco. 

Lloyd, Reuben H San Francisco. 

Levy, Samuel W San Francisco. 

Patterson, George Oakland. 

Crocker, Charles F San Francisco. 

Daniell, William H Northampton, Mass. 

Cline, Henry A San F'rancisco. 

Rader, Frank Los Angeles. 

Lee, James G. C San Francisco. 

Fletcher, LeRoy D Oakland. 

Pallon, Charles L San Francisco. 

Pierce, Charles L. J. W Oakland. 

Davis, Jacob Z San Francisco. 

Wagner, Charles W. A. San Francisco. 

Lask, Harry J San Francisco. 

Jones, Florin L Pasadena. 

Langdon, Frederick S Los Angeles. 

Colorado. 

Greenleaf, Lawrence N Denver. 

Parmalce. Edward C Denver. 

Pomeroy, Richard A New Iberia, La. 

Orahood, Harper M Denver. 

Gove, Aaron Denver. 

Hill, Frank B Denver. 

District of Columbia. 

Ingle, Christopher Washington. 

Brown, Joseph T New Roehelle, N. Y. 

Bennett, Clement W Washington. 

Singleton. William R Washington. 

^lacGrotty, Edwin B Washington. 

Schmid, John E. C Wa.shington. 

Somerville, Thomas Washington. 

Roome, William Oscar Washington. 

Taylor, Joseph C Washington. 

Roose, William S Washington. 

Loockerman, Thomas G Georgetown. 

Lansburgh. James Washington. 

Duiicanson, Charles C Washington. 

Taylor, Leroy M Washington. 

Balloch, George W Washington. 

No yes, Isaac P Washington. 



Baldwin, Aaron Washington. 

Woodman, Francis J Washington. 

Goldsmith, Louis Washnigton. 

Naylor, Allison, Jr Washington. 

Ball, Robert Washington. 

Willis, Edward M Washington. 

Florida. 
Perry, Robert J Key West. 

Georgia. 

Blackshear, James E Savannah. 

Wolihin, Andrew M Macon. 

Stockdell, Ileniy C Atlanta. 

Cavanaugh, John H Savannah. 

Hawaiian Islands. 

Williams, Henry II Honolulu. 

West, Gideon 

Lidian Territory. 
Hill. Robert W Muscogee. 

Iowa. 

Ashton, George W Lyons. 

Cotton, Aylett R San Francisco, Cal. 

Parker, George W Lyons. 

Morton, James Cedar Rapids. 

Van Deventer, James T Knoxville, Tenn. 

Lamb, Artemus Clinton. 

Bever, George W Cedar Rapids. 

Ellis, Lyman A Lyons. 

Fidlar, Wilbur F Davenport. 

Curtis, Charles F Clinton. 

Woodward, Benjamin S Clinton. 

Blakely, Frederick L Lyons. 

Gardiner, Silas Wright Lyons. 

Wadleigh, Leroy B .Clinton. 

Watson, William P Vinton. 

Macy, John C Des Moines. 

Percival, Frederick A Des Moines. 

Park, William A Des Moines. 

Head, Albert Des Moines. 

Gage, Elbridge F Cedar Rapids. 

Ray, Frank G Vinton. 

Parvin, Newton R Cedar Rapids. 

Lacey, Thomas B Council Bluffs. 

Japan. 

Langfelt, August Yokohama. 

Keil, Oscar Yokohama. 

Kansas. 

Sherman, Adrian C Rossville. 

Freeling, Peter J Leavenworth. 

Miller, Matthew M Topcka. 

Carpenter, John C Leavenworth. 

Langdon, Burton E Louisville, Ky. 

Emmons, Alonzo C Leavenworth. 

Davis. Evan Lawrence. 



58 



FREEMASONRY 



Kansas. — Continued. 

Cole, Jeremiah S Freeport, 111. 

Smith, Jeremiah G Wichita. 

Cunningham, Harper S Oklahoma, Okl. 

Seilz, John G. Salina. 

Liepman, Joseph H Fort Scott. 

McDermott, Fcnton L Fort Scott. 

Jones, Charles M Wichita. 

Goldberg, Edward Wichita. 

Loomis, Henry C Winfield. 

Norton, Jonathan D Topeka. 

Passon, David Lawrence. 

Hass, James H Topeka. 

Kentucky. 

■Gray, Henry W Louisville. 

Freeman, Ambrose W St. Louis, Mo. 

Reinecke, William Louisville. 

Hall, Edwin G West Side, Cal. 

Ryan, William Louisville. 

Sloss, Levi Louisville. 

Smith, Kilbourn W Louisville. 

Vogt, Charles C Louisville. 

Fisk, Charles H Covington. 

Miller, Robert T Covington. 

Dudley, Thomas U Louisville. 

Johnson, Frank H Louisville. 

Thomas, Warren La Rue. . . .Maysville. 

Livezey, Thomas E Covington. 

Wilson, David H Louisville. 

Johnson, William R Louisville. 

Kopmeier, George Louisville. 

Staton, James W Brooksville. 

Pruett, John W Frankfort. 

Witt, Bernard G Henderson. 

Ranshaw, Henry Covington. 

Robinson, Eugene A Maysville. 

Louisiana. 

Craig, Emmett DeW New Orleans. 

Isaacson, Alfred H New Orleans. 

Brice, Albert G New Orleans. 

Soule, George New Orleans. 

Hero, Andrew, Jr New Orleans. 

Kells, Charles Edmund 

Norwood. Abel J 

Quayle, Mark New Orleans. 

Buck, Charles F New Orleans. 

Lambert, Richard New Orleans. 

Schneiden. Paul M New Orleans. 

Pinckard, George J New Orleans. 

Collins, William J New Orleans. 

Coulter, Henry W New Orleans. 

Pratts, Jose Alaban y New Orleans. 

Maryland. 
Jenkins, Benjamin W ..... . .Baltimore. 

Cisco, Charles T Baltimore. 



Wiesenfeld, David Baltimore. 

Shryock, Thomas J Baltimore. 

Larrabee, Henry C Baltimore. 

3Iinnesota. 

Hayden, Francis A Chicago, 111. 

Nash, Charles W St. Paul. 

Hotchkiss, Edward A Minneapolis. 

Williams, James M Minneapolis. 

Whitman, Ozias Red Wing. 

Merrill, Giles W St. Paul. 

Thompson, Joseph H Minneapolis. 

Ferry, John C St. Paul. 

Metcalf, George R St. Paul. 

Wright, William H. S St. Paul. 

Hugo, Trevanion W Duluth. 

Schlener, John A Minneapolis. 

Jewett, William P St. Paul. 

Levering, Anthony Z Minneapolis. 

Metcalf, Oscar M St. Paul. 

Powell, Milton E Redwood Falls. 

Dobbin, Joseph L Minneapolis. 

Randall, John H Minneapolis. 

Higbee, Albert E Minneapolis. 

Kilvington, Samuel S Minneapolis. 

Richardson, William E Duluth. 

3Iisso%iri. 

Loker, William N St. Louis. 

Garrett, Thomas E St. Louis. 

Thacher, Stejjhen D Kansas City. 

Parsons, John R St. Louis. 

Morrow, Thomas R Kansas City. 

Altheimer, Benjamin St. Louis. 

Stowe, James G Kansas City. 

Harvey, William Kansas City. 

Stewart, Alphonse C St. Louis. 

Mayo, William H St. Louis. 

Nelson, Benjamin F St. Louis. 

Mississipjii. 
Speed, Frederic Vicksburg. 

Montana. 

Hedges, Cornelius Helena. 

Major, John C Helena. 

Guthrie, Henry H Helena. 

Frank, Henry L Butte. 

Fowler, William C Genesee, Ida. 

Hitman, Cyrus W Livingston. 

Lashorn, Millard H Livingston. 

Nebraska. 

Furnas, Robert W Brownsville. 

Betts, George C New Jersey. 

Deuel, Harry P Omaha. 

Monell, John J., Jr Omaha. 

Fulleys, James A Red Cloud. 

Oaklev. Roland H Lincoln. 



FREEMASONRY 



59 



Nebraska. — Continued. 

Rawalt, Benjamin F Dubois, Colo. 

Young, Frank II. Broken Bow. 

Duke, Elbert T Omaha. 

Warren, Edwin F Nebraska City. 

Cleburne, William Omaha. 

Sewell, Thomas Lincoln. 

Huntington, Charles S Omaha. 

Webster, Edward C Hastings. 

Akin, Henry C Omaha. 

France, George B 

Mercer, John J Omaha. 

Sudborough, Thomas K Omaha. 

Kenyon, William J. C Omaha. 

Anderson, Leverett M Omaha. 

Wheeler, Daniel H Omaha. 

Korty, Lewis H Omaha. 

Newell, Henry Omaha. 

Hall, Frank M Lincoln. 

Keene, Louis McL Freemont. 

Nevada. 

Laughton, Charles E Carson City. 

Buttlar, Charles J. R Oakland, Cal. 

Harmon, Fletcher H Eureka. 

Hall. David H Eureka. 

Torre, Giovanni Eureka. 

North Dakota. 

Burke, Andrew H Duluth, Minn. 

Paxton, Thomas C Minneapolis, Minn. 

Thompson, Frank J Fargo. 

Twamley, James Grand Forks. 

Darrow, Edward McL Fargo. 

Plumley, Horatio C Fargo. 

Kneisley, Charles C Davenport, la. 

Schwellenbach, Ernest J Jamestown. 

Guptil, Albert B Fargo. 

Knowlton, Roswell W Fargo. 

Nash, Francis B Fargo. 

Scott, William A Fargo. 

Oregon. 

Dolph, Joseph N Portland. 

Foster, John R Portland. 

Shurtliff, Ferdinand N Portland. 

Pope, Seth L Portland. 

Roberts, Andrew Portland. 

Malcolm, Philip S Portland. 

Whitehouse, Benjamin G. .. .Portland. 

Withington, George E Portland. 

Clark, Louis G Portland. 

Tuthill, David S Portland. 

Mayer, Jacob Portland. 

Chance, George H. Portland. 

Hoyt, Henry L Portland. 

cook, James W Portland. 



South Dakota. 

Blatt, William Yankton. 

Huntington, Eugene Webster. 

Cummingg, Daniel E Dead wood. 

Leroy, Lewis G Webster. 

Maloney, Richard M Deadwood. 

South Carolina. 

Buist, John S Charleston. 

Ficken, John F Charleston. 

Mordecai, Thomas M Charleston. 

Buist, Samuel S Charleston. 

Pankin, Charles F Charleston. 

Tennessee. 

Eastman, Charles H Nashville. 

Plumacher, Eugene H Maracaibo, Venez'la. 

Wright, Pitkin C Memphis. 

Sears, John McK Memphis. 

Weller, John J Memphis. 

Texas. 

Gunner, Rudolph Dallas. 

Openheimer, Louis M Austin. 

Morst, Charles S Corsicana. 

Ashby, Joseph K Fort Worth. 

Martin, Sidney Fort Worth. 

Hotchkiss, Charles A Dallas. 

Hamilton, Benjamin Galveston. 

Gelbough, Frederick M Galveston. 

Hunter, Craig Temple. 

United States Army. 

Head, John F Washington, D. C. 

Bailey, Elisha I San Francisco, Cal. 

Wood, Marshall W Boise Barracks, Ida. 

Hall, Robert 11 

Dudley, Edgar S. Columbus, 0. 

Woodruff, Carle A Fort Warren, Mass. 

Page, Charles Baltimore, Md. 

Lee, James G. C San Francisco, Cal. 

Rockefeller, Charles M. Alliance, O. 

Sanno, James M. J Ft. Snelling, Minn. 

McConihe, Samuel Ft. Leavenw'th.Kan. 

Virginia. 

Olney, Uervey A Tilbury, Can. 

Craighill, Edward A Lynchburg. 

Greenwood, Frederick Norfolk. 

Turner, Daniel J., Jr Portsmouth. 

Nesbitt, Charles A Richmond. 

Ryan, William Riciiniond. 

Carmichael, Hartley Riclimond. 

Williams, Richard P Montgomery, Ala. 

Washirigton. 

O'Brien, Rossell G Olympia. 

Reed. Thomas M Olympia. 

Zeigler, Louis Spokane. 



60 



FREEMASONRY 



Washington. — Continued. 

Rundle, Nathan B Spokane. 

Gowey, John F Olympia, 

Thompson, Walter J. Tacoma. 

Hare, Edward R Tacouia. 

Snodgrass, Furman E Spokane. 

West Virginia. 

Walker, Kephart D Fairmount. 

Applegate, William J Wellsburg. 

^Morris, John W Wheeling. 

Parrah, Thomas M Wheeling. 

Birch, John M Wheeling. 

McCahon, James Wheeling. 

Wyoming. 

Knight, Jesse .Evanston. 

Dickinson, Edward Laramie. 

Supreme Council, Sovereign Grand Inspectors 
General, 33°, Northern Jurisdiction (north of Mason 
and Dixon line and east of the Mississippi River): 

Henry L. Palmer, 33°, Most Puissant Sovereign 
Grand Commander, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Clinton F. Paige, 33°, Illustrious Grand Secre- 
tary General, Stewart Building, New York. 

The list of active thirty-third degree members of 
the Supi'eme Council, Northern Jui'isdietion, is as 
follows: 

Arnold, Newton D Providence, R. I. 

Babcock, Brenton D Cleveland, 0. 

Balding, Thomas E Milwaukee, Wis. 

Barnard, Gilbert W Chicago, 111. 

Bentley, George W Brooklyn N. Y. 

Buchanan, James I Pittsburgh, Pa. (Deputy.) 

Burnham, Edward P Saco, Me. 

Caven, John Indianapolis, Ind. 

Carson, Enoch T Cincinnati, 0. (Deputy.) 

Carter, Charles W Norwich, Conn. (Deputy.) 

Codding, James H Towanda, Penn. 

Cottrill, Charles M Milwaukee, Wis. (Deputy.) 

Currier, George W Nashua, N. H. (Deputy.) 

Daine, Charles C Newburyport, Mass. 

Drummond, JosiahH. . . .Portland, Me. 

Frazee, Andrew B Camden, N. J. 

Guthrie, George W Pittsburg, Pa. 

Hawley, James H. . . . . .Dixon. 111. 

Higby, William R Bridgeport, Conn. 

Highly, Francis M Philadelphia, Penn. 

Homan, William New York City, N. Y. 

Hutchinson, Charles C. ..Lowell, Mass. 

Ide, Charles E Syracuse, N. Y. (Deputy.) 

Kenyon, George H Providence,R.I. (Deputy.) 

King, INIarquis F Portland, Me. (Deputy.) 

Kinsman, David N Columbus, 0. 

Lawrence, Samuel C Boston, Mass. 

McCurdy, Hugh Corunna, Mich. (Deputy.) 

Metcalf, A. T Kalamazoo, j\Iich. 



Paige, Clinton F Bingham ton, N. Y. 

Palmer, Henry L Milwaukee, Wis. 

Patterson, Robert E Philadelphia, Pa. 

Perkins, Marsh Windsor, Vt. (Deputy.) 

Pettibone, Amos Chicago, 111. 

Quinby, Henry B Lakeport, N. H. 

Ruckle, Nicholas R Indianapolis, Ind. 

Shirrefs, Robert A Elizabeth, N. J. ^Deputy.) 

Siekels, Daniel Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Smith, Barton Toledo, 0. 

Smith, John Corson Chicago, 111. (Deputy.) 

Smith, Joseph W Indianapolis, Ind. 

Stettinius, John L Cincinnati, 0. 

Stevens, Walter A Chicago, 111. 

Tracy, David B Detroit, Mich. 

Tyler, George Burlington, Vt. 

Ward, J. H. Hobart Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wells, Samuel Boston, Mass. 

Woodbury, Charles Levi.. Boston, Mass. (Deceased.) 

The following is a complete list of honorary 
thirty-third degree members, Sovereign Grand In- 
spectors General of the Supreme Council A. A. S. 
R., Northern Jurisdiction of the United States, for 
1898 : 

3Iaine. 

Locke, Joseph A Portland. 

Waite, Almon C Portland. 

Hinkley, Ruf us H Portland. 

Marston, Arlington B Bangor. 

Berry, Stephen Portland. 

Russell, John S Portland. 

Chase, Albro E Portland. 

Shaw, George R Portland. 

Bearce, Samuel F Portland. 

Mallet, Edmund B., Jr Preeport. 

Farnham, Augustus B Bangor. 

Penley, Albert M Auburn. 

Burnham, William J Lewiston. 

Merrill, Jonathan A Portland. 

Hastings, Moses M Bangor. 

Mason, Wm. Castein Bangor. 

Harris, Herbert East Machias 

Day, Fessenden I Lewiston. 

Heath, Elbridge G Auburn. 

Hicks, Millard F Portland. 

Raymond, George E Portland. 

Burr, Thomas W Bangor. 

Treby, Johnson Augusta. 

New Hampshire. 

Atherton, Henry B Nashua. 

Fellows, Joseph W Manchester. 

Cleaves, George P Concord. 

Webster, John F Concord. 

Shattuck, Joseph Nashua. 

Webster, Charles H Nashua. 



FREEMASONRY 



61 



New Hampshire, — Contitmed. 

Danforth, Charles C Concord. 

Smith, Henry B Nashua. 

Sanders, Frank L Concord. 

Hunt, Nathan P Manchester. 

Hatch, John Greenland. 

Kent, Henry Lancaster. 

Hatch, Oscar C Littleton. 

Clark, John H Nashua. 

Towle, Charles N Concord. 

Hayes, Charles C Manchester. 

Marsh, Henry A Nashua. 

Fletcher, Thomas M Alder Brook. 

Wait, Albert S Newport. 

Vermont. 

Underwood, Levi Burlington. 

Paine, Milton K Windsor. 

Heaton, Charles H Montpelier. 

Johnson, IMiron W Burlington. 

Hill, Howard F Concord, N. H. 

Fisher, Frederick S Deposit, N. Y. 

Nichols, Albro F St. Johnsbury. 

Reynolds, Warren G Burlington. 

Kinsley, George H Burlington. 

Jackson, J. Henry Barre. 

Cummings, Silas W St. Albans. 

Nichols, Sayles Burlington. 

Hall Alfred A St. Albans. 

Wing, George W Montpelier. 

Whitcomb, Charles W Cavendish. 

Wright, Robert J Newport. 

Nicholson, Daniel N Burlington. 

Calderwood, Charles A St. Johnsbury, 

Thompson, Jesse E Rutland. 

Whipple, John H Manchester. 

Taf t, Elihu B Burlington. 

Babbitt, George H Bellows Falls. 

Webster, Daniel P Brattleboro. 

Massachusetts. 

Hathaway, Nicholas Fall River. 

Lawrence, Daniel W Medford. 

Marshall, Wyzeman Boston. 

Kelsey, Albert H . . .North Cambridge. 

P'reeland, James H Boston. 

Hall, John K Boston. 

Smith, William A Worcester. 

Richardson, William A Washington, D. C. 

Fo.x, James A Boston. 

Everett, Percival L Boston. 

Niekerson, Sereno D Boston. 

^Nfullikcn, Henry Boston. 

Carpenter, George Boston. 

Gould, Benjamin A Cambridge. 

Endicott, Henry Cambridgeport. 

Chessman, William H Boston. 

Guild, William H Boston. 



Perkins, Henry P Lowell. 

Welch, Charles A Boston. 

Weld, Otis E Boston. 

Alger, William R Boston. 

Walbridge, Frederick G Boston. 

Wright, Edwin Boston. 

Waterman, Thomas Boston. 

Smith, Albert C Boston. 

Spellman, Charles C Springfield. 

Spooner, Samuel B Springfield. 

Stevens, William J Kingston, N. H. 

Carpenter, George S Boston. 

Doolittle, Erastus H Boston. 

Young, E. Bentley Boston. 

Seward, Josiah L Lowell. 

Lakin, John II Boston. 

Buckingham, George B Worcester. 

Rowell, Benjamin W Boston. 

Savage, Mi not J Boston. 

Work, Joseph W Boston. 

Richardson, Albert L. ..... . .Boston. 

Spring, Frederick H Boston. 

Richards, Eugene II Boston. 

Allen, George H Lynn. 

Livingston, William E Lowell. 

Cutting, Walter Pittsfield. 

Hersey, Freeman C Salem. 

Stickney, Horace W Boston. 

Young, James H Boston. 

Collamore,'\Iohn H Boston. 

Emmons, Theodore H Boston. 

Kendrick, Edmund P Springfield. 

Welch, Albion F Danvers. 

Hubbard, Samuel F Boston. 

Temple, Thomas F Boston. 

Fitts, Edward A Haverhill'. 

Pollard, Arthur G Lowell. 

Gates, Albert F Worcester. 

Holton, Eugene A Boston. 

Kellough, Thomas East Boston. 

Plummer, j\Ioses C Boston. 

Holmes, Edwin B Boston. 

Nichols, Edward W. L Boston. 

Lawrence, William B Medford. 

Bowen, Seranus Roxbury. 

Raymond, John M Salem. 

Trefry, William D. T Marblehead. 

Flanders, Dana J jMalden. 

Bush, John S. F Boston. 

Gleason, James M Boston. 

Rhodes. George H Taunton. 

Thorndike, Samuel L Cambridge. 

Young, Cliarles F Lowell. 

Rhode Island. 

Chaffee, Albert II Worcester, Mass. 

Bra>-ton, James B Newport. 



62 



FREEMASONRY 



Rhode Island. — Continued. 

Burt, Eugene D Providence. 

White, Stillman Providence. 

Earle, Josepli Providence. 

Underwood, William J Newport. 

Shepley, George L Providence. 

Field, Henry C Providence. 

White, Hunter C Providence. 

Ilusband, William E Providence. 

Eddy, Andrew B Providence. 

Newhall, Charles C Providence. 

Mumford, Charles C Pi-ovidenee. 

Vincent, Walter B Providence. 

Burnham, George H Providence. 

Studley, J. Edward Providence. 

Connecticut. 

Allen, Marciis C Bridgeport. 

Parker, Henry L Norwich. 

Gould, James L Bridgeport. 

Baldwin, Nathan A Milford. 

Billings, Charles E Hartford. 

Skiff, Charles W Danbury. 

Kirker, James. . Norwich. 

Waldron, Frederick H New Haven. 

Seeley, William E Bridgeport. 

Bronson, Samuel M Hartford. 

Brewer, Arthur H Norwich. 

Bronson, Horatio G New Haven. 

Quintard, Eli S New Haven. 

Button, Alpheus D Bridgeport. 

Sevin, Nathan D Norwich. 

Knowlton, Julius W Bridgeport. 

Lines, H. Wales Meriden. 

Hubbard, Charles L Norwich. 

Root, John G Hartford. 

Woodward, Henry JMiddletown. 

Spencer, Frederick A Waterbury. 

Porter, George L Bridgeport. 

Chapman, Silas, Jr Hartford. 

Lippitt, Costello Norwich. 

Neiv York. 

Woodhara, Alfred Brooklyn. 

Jennings, Joseph J Brooklyn. 

Vining, Harrison S Brooklyn. 

Cole, Otis Rochester. 

Anderson, John R Le Roy. 

Gardner, George J Syracuse. 

Stone, Seymour H Syracuse. 

Loomis, Edwin J Norwich. 

Williams, John D Elmira. 

Fleming, Walter M New York. 

Northrup, Aaron L New York. 

Sage, John L Rochester. 

Anthony, Jesse B Troy. 

Stiles, Benjamin F Skaneateles. 



Robinson, John C Binghamton. 

Bartlett, John S Buffalo. 

Cook, Abel G Syracuse. 

Ten Eyck, James Albany. 

Gilbert, George W New York. 

Telfair, Jacob R Staten Island. 

Ehlers, Edward M. L New York. 

Sage, William L Boston, Mass. 

Paterson, William S New York. 

Macomb, John N Lawrence, Kan. 

Peters, Augustus W New York. 

Russ, Herman H Albany. 

Torrey, Charles W Staten Island. 

Eakins, Joseph B New York. 

Heyzer, Charles H New York. 

Wood, Austin C Syracuse. 

Steele, Samuel C Rochester. 

Clark, Charles P Syracuse. 

Thacher, John Boyd Albany. 

Berry, Hiram B. .* Warwick, 

Fuller, George W Corning. 

Pearce, Willard A New York. 

Simmons, J. Edward New York. 

Flagler, Benjamin Suspension Bridge. 

Brodie, William A Geneseo. 

Millar, George W New York. 

Lawless, William J New York. 

Becker, Albert, Jr Syracuse. 

Ely, Foster Ridgefield, Conn. 

Trask. Wayland Brooklyn. 

Ward, Charles S New York. 

Richardson, John W Brooklyn. 

Abel, Joseph P Brooklyn. 

Parker, Richard H Syracuse. 

Lawrence, Frank R New York. 

Plumb, Hiram W Syracuse. 

Ferguson, James F Central Valley. 

Fitch, William E Albany. 

McGown, George Palmyra. 

McDowell, Simon V Rochester. 

Thrall, Edwin A Brooklyn. 

Walker, Sidney F Brooklyn. 

McGee, James Brooklyn. 

Clarke, Geoi'ge H Rochester. 

Hubbard, Warren C Rochester. 

Jones, Edward F Binghamton. 

Frisbie, Byron S LTtica. 

Benson, Frederic A Binghamton. 

MacLellan, Daniel M New York. 

Shafer, John F Menands, Albany. 

Lombard, Thomas R New York. 

Lorillard, Pierre New York. 

Knowles, Edwin Brooklyn. 

MacArthur, Arthur . Troy. 

Story, William Albany. 

Affleck, Stephen D New York. 



FREEMASONRY 



63 



New York. — Continued. 

Griffith, Charles T New York. 

Moore, Thomas New York. 

Washburne, Pldwin D New York. 

Lambert, J. Leavitt Hoosick Falls. 

Day, David F Buffalo. 

Sherer, William Brooklyn. 

Tallcott, Edwin Syracuse. 

Hinc, Omar A Canton. 

Wright. Alfred G Rochester. 

White, William II New York. 

Van Buskirk, George W . . . .New York. 

Ellison, Saruni R New York. 

Duncan, W^illiam J New York. 

Burdgc, Dwight Brooklyn. 

Rowell, George A Brooklyn, 

Quantin, Edward 11 Brooklyn. 

Brown, Elon G Utica. 

Duncan, John II Syracuse. 

Sutherland, William A Rochester. 

Sturtevant, Stephen Y West Troy. 

Crawford, Charles New York. 

Armatage, Charles II Albany. 

Goble, Frank B Rochester. 

Cushman, Charles W Buffalo. 

Edwards, Amos S Syracuse. 

Williams, Robert D Albany. 

Stewart, John New York. 

Wood, George New York. 

Matthews, William J New York. 

Stiles, Robert B Lansingburg. 

Hall, Edwin C Syracuse. 

Stone, Horace G Syracuse. 

Griimniond, Fred W Binghamton. 

Moore, Joseph C Corning. 

Kendall, Hugh H Corning. 

Noble, Horace A Buffalo. 

Brothers, John L Buffalo. 

Brown, George L Buffalo. 

Titus, Robert C Buffalo. 

Newell, George A ^Medina. 

Vick, Frank H Rochester. 

Beatty, Claudius F New York. 

Sisson, John W New York. 

Stevens, T. Jefferson Brooklyn. 

Sloan, Augustus K Brooklyn. 

Weaver, William II Albany. 

Smith, J. Hungerford Rochester, 

Hatch, Edward W Buffalo. 

Woodward, Clarence L Syracuse. 

Delavan, Erastus C Binghamton, 

Pritchard, Truman S Corning. 

Lloyd, James II Troy. 

McKee, J. Frank Gloversville. 

Bingham, Charles D Watertown. 

Greenwood, Marvin I Newark. 



Potter, Henry C New York. 

Dunwell, Charles T Brooklyn. 

Dumary, T. Henry Albany. 

Ward, Francis G Buffalo. 

Prescott, Joel H., Jr Buffalo. 

Anderson, Jolin Binghamton. 

Johnson, David M Binghamton. 

Sisson, William W Binghamton. 

Hand, Walter M Binghamton. 

Sickels, f 'harles E Brooklyn 

Luscomb, (^harles II Brooklyn. 

Demarest, William E New York. 

Barker, George T Brooklyn. 

Eaton, Calvin W Albany. 

Hayes, Charles E Buffalo. 

Newell, John T Ogdensburg, 

Curtis, Dexter D Elmira. 

Brooke, Thomas Rochester, 

Stowell, Henry Troy. 

Neiv Jersey. 

Edwards, George B Jersey City, 

Goodwin, William W Camden, 

Bechtel, Charles Trenton. 

Higginbotham, Marcus Jersey City. 

Scott, George Paterson. 

Borden, Jerome B Somerset, Mass, 

Steed, George W Camden. 

Mills, Edward Camden. 

Winfield, Albert D Paterson. 

Tice, Josiah New Brunswick. 

Smith, Stephen Jersey City. 

Watson, Thomas F Jersey City. 

Roome, Henry C Jersey City. 

Schoder, Anthony Woodbridge. 

Stevens, Albert C Pater.son. 

Durand, James II Railway. 

Tillou, Edward L Elizabeth. 

Tilden, Thonuis W Jerst>y City, 

Pennsylvania. 

Vallerchamj), John Harrisburg. 

Knapp, Christian F Bloomsburg. 

Lutz, Isaac D Harrisburg. 

Ilunn, Townsend S New York. 

Earley. Charles R Ridgeway. 

Egle, William II Ilarri.'^burg. 

Muckle, Mark R Phihulelphia, 

Patton, Thomas R Philadelphia, 

Sartain, John Philadoljjhia. 

Wyckoff, Edward S Philadelphia. 

Hopkins, James H Washington. D. C. 

Barber, James S Philadelphia. 

Carroll, De\Vitt C Pittsburg. 

Garrigues, Franklin Philadelphia. 

Balmain, George P Pittsburg. 

Eichbaum, Joseph Pittsburg. 



64 



FREEMASONRY 



Pennsylvania. — Continued. 

Meredith, William B Kittanning. 

Clapp, John M Tidioute. 

Lyte, Eliphalct Millersville. 

Francis, Charles K Philadelphia. 

Ciimniiugs. Charles 11 Maiieh Chunk. 

Shaffer, Vosburgh N Pha^iixville. 

Lyte, Joshna L Lancaster. 

Wray, Samuel W Philadelphia. 

Henderson, Matthias H New Castle. 

Slack, William H Allegheny City. 

Kerr, James, Jr Pittsburg. 

Arnold, John B Aurora, 111. 

Eaby, Joel S Lancaster. 

Kennedy, Samuel B Erie. 

Thompson, Caleb C Warren. 

Smith, Lee S Pittsburg. 

Himrod, William Erie. 

Gary, Charles Philadelphia. 

Dunnell, Henry N Scranton. 

Kendrick, George W., Jr. . . .Philadelphia. 

Bates, Stockton Philadelphia. 

Sprenkel, Peter K Harrisburg. 

Holmes, Americus Y Pittsburg. 

Kuhn, Henry H Somerset. 

McClees, Levi B Germantown, Phila. 

Steffe, Christian G Reading. 

Linden, Robert J Philadelphia. 

Wigley, Arthur B Pittsburg. 

Stevenson, David A Pittsburg. 

Barkey, Peter Erie. 

Hall, Amos H Philadelphia. 

Smith, Edgar F Philadeljihia. 

Gilroy, John J Philadelphia. 

McKillip, Harvey A Bloomsburg. 

Williams, J. H Philadelphia. 

Johnstone, George C Allegheny. 

Sweigard, Isaac A Philadelphia. 

Boone, Edwin Reading. 

Brown, James W Pittsburg. 

Bishop, Alfred S Pittsburg. 

Hale, George Philadelphia. 

Ohio. 
Cunningham, William M. . . .Newark. 

Hoadley, George Cincinnati. 

Woodward, Charles A Cleveland. 

Keifer, Charles C Urbana. 

Totten, James S Lebanon. 

Ross, ApoUos M Cincinnati. 

Huston, Alexander B Cincinnati. 

Urner, Henry C Cincinnati. 

Mack, Max J Cincinnati. 

Parsons, J. B Cleveland. 

Sickels, Sheldon Cleveland. 

Collins, Charles A Akron. 



Buechner, William L Youngstown. 

Gordon, Theodore P Columbus. 

Ncmbach, Andrew Cincinnati. 

Sage, George R Cincinnati. 

Whitaker, Ej)hraim S Garretsville. 

Fasold, Eli Dayton. 

Caldwell, John D ........ . .Cincinnati. 

Patton, Alexander G Columbus. 

Houck, Martin J Dayton. 

Chambei'lin, John W Tiflfin. 

Yance, Alexander F., Jr Urbana. 

Hauipson, Robert Y Salem. 

Halladay, Calvin Lima. 

Goodspeed, Josei^h McK Athens. 

Melish, William B Cincinnati. 

Briggs, Sam Cleveland. 

Wiiiegarner, David C Newark. 

Shepard, William Columbus. 

Cutler, Eben J Cleveland. 

Page, Edward D Cleveland. 

Gwyini, Robert Cincinnati. 

Pelton, Frederick W Cleveland. 

Akers, W^illiam J Cleveland. 

King, David L Akron. 

Brown, Huntington Mansfield. 

Moore, Sidney Delaware. 

Dunn, Joseph H Columbus. 

Harris, John T Columbus. 

Chamberlain, Charles W . . . .Dayton. 

Matthews, Edward W Cambridge. 

Armstrong, Clax'ence E Toledo. 

Stipp, Joseph A Toledo. 

Flach, Charles H Cincinnati. 

Michie, William Cincinnati. 

Tucker, Charles H Cleveland. 

Williams, Samuel S Newark. 

Hays, Otho L Gallon. 

Parsons, John W Springfield. 

Jeffers, Allen Dayton. 

Senter, Orestes A. B Columbus. 

Collins, ^ames A Cincinnati. 

Morse, Fred A Cleveland. 

Lyttle, La Fayette Toledo. 

Bell, John N Dayton. 

Goodale, Levi C Cincinnati. 

Lemmon, Reuben C Toledo. 

Avery, William R Cincinnati. 

Rickley, R. R Columbus. 

Spencer, Joseph M Toledo. 

Walden, John M Cincinnati. 

Morris, Evan Girrard. 

Melish, Thomas J Cincinnati. 

Andrews, Allen Hamilton. 

Baldwin, Charles F Mt. Yernon. 

Burdick, Leander Toledo. 

Sands, Stephen P Cincinnati. 



FREEMASONRY 



65 



Ohio. — Continued. 

Perkins, Henry Akron. 

Cotterall, Joseph W., Jr Cincinnati. 

Buchwalter, ^Morris L Cincinnati. 

Butler, Charles R Cleveland. 

Squire, Andrew Cleveland. 

Mcintosh, Henry P Cleveland. 

Blyth. John Bucyrus. 

Boone, William K Lima. 

Schaus, Lewis P Newark. 

Pfafflin, Herman C Cincinnati. 

Irvin, Horace A Dayton. 

Jackson, Mervin Toledo. 

Stull. John M Warren. 

Bromwell, Jacob H Cincinnati. 

Keiniedy, Henry A Canton. 

Sater, John E Columbus. 

McCune, John P Columbus. 

King, Edmund B Sandusky. 

Johnston, J. Russell Dayton. 

Bushnell, Asa S Springfield. 

Lewis, Charles T Toledo. 

Bates, William L Dayton. 

Kite, Thomas Cincinnati. 

Michigan. 

Brown, Charles H Grand Rapids. 

Tabor, Augustus B Detroit. 

Kellogg, Andrew J Detroit. 

Bury, Richard A Adrian. 

Hills, Charles T Muskegon. 

Shipman. Ozias W Detroit. 

Fox, Perrin V Grand Rapids. 

Haxton, Benjamin F Detroit. 

Thorp, Darius D Detroit. 

Baxter, William H Detroit. 

Striker, Daniel Hastings. 

Henderson, Frank Kalannizoo. 

Pomeroy, Charles H East Saginaw. 

Swart out, Richard D Grand Rapids. 

Corljss, John B Detroit. 

Coulson, Nicholas Detroit. 

Chamberlain, M. Howard. . . .Detroit. 

Gilbert, Frank Bay City. 

Moore, Francis M Marquette. 

Sharp, Edgar M Bay City. 

Maybury. William C Detroit. 

Steerc, Joseph H Sault Ste. Marie. 

Emery, Temple P^ast Tawas. 

Dunham, William Grand Rapids. 

Ellis, Waring H Detroit. 

Conover, Jefferson H Coldwater. 

Hudson, William G Ludington. 

Wlieeler, Edward D Manistee. 

Palmer, Thomas W Detroit. 

Stephenson, Samuel M Menominee. 

5 



Davis, James E Detroit. 

Livingstone, William, Jr Detroit. 

Findlater, James Detroit. 

Smith, George D Muskegon. 

Fifield, Eugene Bay City. 

May worm, Joseph Detroit. 

Fowle, George W Detroit. 

Meigs, Alfred E Detroit. 

Bolton, Henry Alj)ena. 

Duncan, John Calumet. 

Gerow, John A Detroit. 

Williams, Thomas H Jackson. 

Stiles, Albert JacLson. 

McGee, Michael B. Crystal Falls. 

Munroe, Thomas Muskegon. 

Winsor, Lou B Reed City. 

Montross, Richard W Galien. 

Jewott, William E Adrian. 

Heald, Charles M Grand Rapids. 

Harris, L. D Grand Rapids. 

Osborn, James W Kalamazoo. 

Indiana. 

Hess, .James W Indianapolis. 

Fish, George H New York City. 

Bonsall. Nathaniel F New Albany. 

Thayer, Henry G Plymouth. 

Davis, Gilbert W Indianapolis. 

Rice, Martin II Indianapolis. 

Douglas, Sydney W Evansville. 

Smith, Jacob W Indianapolis. 

Vail, Walter Michigan City. 

Butler, John L Vincennes. 

Robie , William J Richmond. 

Brown. Austin II Indianapolis. 

Elliott, Byron K Indianapolis. 

Brush, John T Indianajwlis. 

Adams, Henry C Indianapolis. 

McKinley, Thomas S Terre Haute. 

Sweet, Samuel B Fort Wayne. 

Smythe, William H Indianapolis. 

Cole, Cyrill B Seymour. 

Cruft, John W Terre Haute. 

Smith, Joseph L Richmond. 

Safford, James B Craflou, Pa. 

Hawkins, Roscoc Indianapolis. 

Nye, Mortimer La Porte. 

Long, Thomas B Terre Haute. 

Moycr, Henry A Kendall ville. 

Manning, Jo.seph A ^lichigan City. 

Pixley, George W Fort Wayne. 

Geake, William Fort Wayne. 

Farrington, George E Terre Haute. 

Leighty, Jacob D St. Joe. 

Ilutciiinson, Charles L Indianapolis. 

White, Ahira R Indianapolis. 



66 



FREEMASONRY 



Jndiana. — CotiHnued. 

McKee, William J Indianapolis. 

Niblack, Mason J Vincennes. 

Butler, ]\Ijih]on D Indianapolis. 

Lancaster, Ilcnrv H Lafayette. 

Sciiinidt, W. II Indianapolis. 

Sloan, George White Indianapolis. 

Ilulliday, J. 11 Indianapolis. 

Elliott, Nathan Kelley Terre Haute. 

Coulter, James P Aurora. 

Bass, John H Fort Wayne. 

Wood, Julius C Muncie. 

Nichols, Alonzo S JMiehigan City. 

Gillett, Simeon P Evansville. 

Mordhurst, II. W. Fort Wayne. 

Marshall, Thomas R Columbia City. 

Illinois. 

Turner, William H Chicago. 

Ranney, Ilenry C Chicago. 

Gale, William H Chicago. 

Patrick, Benjamin F Boston, Mass. 

Munn, Loyal L Freeport. 

Myers, Eugene B Chicago. 

Egan, Wiley M Chicago. 

Purdy, Warren G Chicago. 

Getty, Ilenry PI Chicago. 

Pond, Ilenry 11 Chicago. 

Cregier, DeWitt C Chicago. 

Skinkle, Jacob W Chicago. 

O'Neil, John Chicago. 

Brad well, James B Chicago. 

Clarke, Haswell C Kankakee. 

McLaren, John Chicago. 

Russell, Alfred Chicago. 

Church, James E Chicago. 

Bannister, James Peoria. 

Johnson, Robert M Chicago. 

Poulson, W^illiam E Chicago. 

Pace, Edward Coleman Ashley. 

Pearson, John Mills Godfrey. 

Hitchcock, Charles Freeman. .Peoria. 

Miller, De Laskie Chicago. 

Milligan, William Lee Roy. . .Ottawa. 

Moulton, George M Chicago. 

Bliss, Eliakim R Chicago. 

Edwards, Isaac C Peoria. 

Warvelle, George W Chicago. 

Herrick. Charles K Chicago. 

Gunther, Charles F Chicago. 

MuUiner, Edward S Quincy. 

Stoskopf, Michael Freeport. 

Stoker, Eugene Le C Centralia. 

Spies, Joseph Chicago. 

Curtis, George W Peoria. 

McLean, Alexander Macomb. 

Luce, Frank M Chicago. 



McLellan, Archibald Chicago. 

Works, Charles A Rockford. 

Walshe, Robert J Chicago. 

Lorimer, George C Boston, Mass. 

Wiltse, Hiram L Chicago. 

Spring, Sylvester O Peoria. 

Smith, Robert A Chicago. 

May, John A Chicago, 

Norton, John E Chicago. 

Blocki, William F Chicago. 

Knight, William M Chicago. 

McFatrich, James B Chicago. 

Drake, Chester T Chicago. 

Goddard, Leroy A Chicago. 

Rhodes, Henry L Centralia. 

Rankin, Charles S Chicago. 

Roundy, Frank C Chicago. 

Ramsay, Frederic M Chicago. 

Montgomery, Isaac S Rockford. 

Haskins, Seth F Peoria. 

Wisconsin. 

Youngs, Melvin L Milwaukee. 

Palmer, William T Milwaukee. 

Greeley, Samuel F Chicago, 111. 

Wilkinson, Francis M Milwaukee. 

Haisler, Michael J Milwaukee. 

Suessmilch, Frederick L. von Delavan. 

Rogers, Charles D Milwaukee. 

Bracken, Henry S Milwaukee. 

Benzenberg, George H Milwaukee. 

Brazier, William H Milwaukee. 

Libbey, Oliver Green Bay. 

Crosby, Francis J Milwaukee. 

Watrous, Jerome A Milwaukee. 

Cole, Sidney H Milwaukee. 

Stark, Edwards J Milwaukee. 

Jackson, E. Gilbert Oshkosh. 

Fifield, Samuel S Ashland. 

Bingham, Joel W Milwaukee. 

Storke, Eugene F Milwaukee. 

Laflin, John W .Milwaukee. 

Golley, Frank B Milwaukee. 

Miller, Daniel McL Oconomowoc. 

Caufy, Luther L Milwaukee. 

Daniels, Norman C Milwaukee. 

Leuzarder, Benjamin T Milwaukee. 

Wagner, Adolph H Milwaidcee. 

Hooley, George T Milwaiikee. 

Wechselberg, Julius Milwaukee. 

Littlejohn, Newton M Whitewater. 

Whitney, LeRoy C Milwaukee. 

Kenny, William P Milwaukee. 

Non-resident Honorary Ilembers. 

Wadsworth, James C. L San Francisco, Cal. 

Filmer, William San Francisco, CaL 

Stevens, Enoch B Southport, N. C. 



FREEMASONRY" AMONG THE CHINESE 



67 



Millard, Alden C Iiulej)oiulcnce, Mo. 

Wheeler, Frederick A Baltimore, Md. 

Brown, Edward H Grass Valley, Cal. 

Richardson, Lloyd D Hot Springs, Ark. 

Concordant Orders. 

Royal Order of Scotland. Provincial Grand 
Lodge, U. S. A., W. Oscar Roome, Washington, 
D. C. 

Knights of the Red Cross of Constantine. Chap- 
ter General, U. S. A. ; Secretary General, Chas. K. 
Francis, 425 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Knights of the Red Cross of Rome and Constan- 
tine, Sovereign Grand Council ; Registrar General, 
Thomas Leahy, Rochester, N. Y. 

Non-Masonic Bodies to which only Freemasons 
ARE Eligible. 

Modern Socieli/ of Rosicrucians. Thomas J. 
Shryock, Treasurer General, Baltimore, Md. 

Ancient Arabic Order of Xohles of the Mystic 
Shrine. Imperial Recorder, Benj. W. Rowell, 28 
School Street, Boston, ^lass. 

Sovereign College Allied Manonic Degrees. Grand 
Recorder General, Charles A. Xesbitt,Richmond, Va. 

Mystic Order, Veiled Projihets of the KncJianted 
Realm. Grand Secretary, Sydney D. Smith, Ham- 
ilton, X. Y. 

Independent International Order of Owls. Ad- 
dress John M. Sears, Xashville, Tenn. 

Irregular or Spurious Masonic Bodies. 

Various Grand and Subordinate Lodges, "An- 
cient and Honorable Order, Free and Accepted 
Masons''; Grand and Subordinate Chapters of 
Royal Arch Masons, and Grand and Subordinate 
Encampments of Knights Templars. (See Free- 
masonry among Xegroes.) Enoch R. Spaulding, 
Most Worshipful Grand Master, Oswego, X. Y. ; 
Edward B. Irving, Past Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of the State of Xew York, and John 
H. Deyo, Grand Secretary, Albany. 

Supreme Council, A. A. S. R.. ^^ Northern Juris- 
diction," U. S. A. (Xegro). S. C. Scottron, Grand 
Commander, Brooklyn, X. Y. 

Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., for the U. S. A., 
its Territories and Dependencies (Seymour-Cerneau 
rite). Charles II. Benson, Grand Commander, 
Jersey City, X. J. 

Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., U. S. A., its Ter- 
ritories and Dependencies (Thompson-Cerneau). J. 
G. Barker, Grand Secretary General, 63 Bleeeker 
Street, Xew York. 

Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., U. S. A., Southern 
and Western Jurisdiction (Xegro). Thornton A. 
Jackson, Grand Commander. Washington, D. C. 



Supreme Council, A. A. S. R., U. S. A., North- 
ivestern Jurisdiction (Xegro). M. F. Fields, Grand 
Commander, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic 
Shrine of North and South America (Xegro). Ad- 
dress Robert Hncless, Xew York ; John G. Jones, 
Chicago. 

" Freemasonry " among the Chinese. 

— There is no such thing as Freema.sonry 
among the Chinese, although there are Chi- 
nese secret societies in the United States 
which have been described as organizations 
of Chinese " Freemasons." This is because 
the word Freemasonry has been associated so 
many years in the minds of the public with 
a particular secret society that it has become 
almost generic or descriptive of all things 
regarded as similar. !Mauy terms and 
j^hrases have crept out of Masonic Lodges 
and into the American vernacular, of which 
"On the square," "A square man," and 
" On the level," are perhaps the best illus- 
trations. Even the word Freemasonry itself 
has acquired a specialized meaning, and is 
frequentl}^ iised to characterize associations 
which are secret, members of which have 
private means of making themselves known 
to each other, and to explain why those 
engaged in a similar work or profession, or 
those having like training or sympathetic 
temperaments, are so quick to recognize the 
fact. Thus it is that whether referring to a 
Russian, Hottentot, or Arabic secret society 
one finds the average essayist describing them 
as Masonic. There are Masonic Lodges in 
China, but they Avork under foreign war- 
rants, and are made up almost exclusively, 
if not entirely, of others than Chinese. 
There is, however, a shadow of an excuse 
for referring to some Chinese secret societies 
as Chinese "Freemasonry," owing to the 
striking resemblances between their rites 
and ceremonies and those of the Freema- 
sons. This is the more remarkable when 
one recalls the antiquity of both, and the 
lack of opportunity for either to have pat- 
terned after the other. The Chinese Em- 
pire is honeycombed with secret societies, 
nearlv all of which are revolutionarv. hav- 



68 



FREEMASONRY " AMONG THE CHINESE 



iag in view the downfall of the T'sing dyn- 
asty, a most efficient incentive to secrecy. 
There is generally present a nominally ben- 
evolent or philanthropic object, veiling the 
political ends of these organizations, the 
names of the best known of which are the 
Hung League, from which came the Kolao 
Hui, the White Lily, or White Lotns, or 
"Do Nothing" Association; the Society of 
Heaven, Earth, and Man ; the Triad Soci- 
ety ; the Yellow Caps ; and the Golden Lily 
Hui, which are arranged in military form 
under four flags, whence they have come to 
be known as the "White Flags, " "Black 
Flags," "' Eed Flags," and " Yellow Flags. " 
It was due to the action of the Hung League 
that the Mongol dynasty of Genjhiz Khan 
was overthrown, and without British aid the 
present or Manchu dynasty would probably 
have come to an end at the time of the strug- 
gle with the T'ai Pings. The most power- 
ful of these societies is the Kolao Hui, which 
numbers more than 1,000,000 members, as 
related by a writer in " Blackwood's Maga- 
zine " in 1896, recruited from the dregs of 
society, " time expired soldiers," unem- 
ployed laboring people, and professional 
thieves. This accounts for the disorder, 
crime, and violence for which it is noted. 
The sect known as the Vegetarians, with 
rites and ceremonies showing traces of 
"some early and debased form of Christian- 
ity," is responsible for several massacres of 
Christian missionaries. It was after being 
hard jsressed by the authorities that it en- 
deavored to sink its identity under the name 
of the "Do-Nothing Party." The Kolao 
Hui is governed by three chiefs, and mock- 
ingly inscribes the words "Faith" and 
" Eighteousness " upon its banners. The 
religious claims of this and like societies 
have induced the Chinese Government from 
time to time to proscribe as dangerous or- 
ganizations all religious sects (except Con- 
fucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism), notably 
the Roman Catholics, by the Emperor Yung 
Ch'eng. 

Lodges of the Hung League and of its 



offspring, the Kolao Hui, meet in remote 
and heavily wooded mountain districts. On 
entering, members proceed to the first, or 
Heaven-screen Pass, next to the Earth-net, 
and thence to the Sun-moon Pass, after 
which they cross a bridge to the Hall of 
Fidelity and Loyalty, to the shrines of the 
five ancestors, on the right a council room 
and on the left a court. This account, con- 
densed from the one "discovered by Pro- 
fessor Schlegel," adds that from the court 
extends a long road, between mountain and 
sea, leading to the Moss Pass, or Pavilion of 
the Black River, and thirteen Chinese miles 
farther is the Golden Sparrow frontier, 
where there are four buildings, the last of 
which is " the Lodge," or " city of willows. " 
Recruits, sometimes secured under threats 
to kill for refusal to join the society, are 
received into the Lodge by "passing the 
bridge," marching under an arch, or bridge, 
formed by the swords of the brethren, when 
they are addressed as to the objects of the 
association and listen to a lengthy catechism, 
in Avhich they are supposed to make the re- 
plies. The questions and answers are sig- 
nificant of the aims of the society, abound- 
ing in acrostics and Kabbalistic meanings 
which are employed as passwords. The 
candidates wash their faces, and after being 
divested of their ordinary clothing are at- 
tired in white robes. Then follows a long 
oath, in which are invoked Father Heaven, 
Mother Earth, the three lights — sun, moon, 
and stars — the gods, saints, genii, Buddhas, 
and all the star jirinces, to keep and per- 
form which the candidates bind themselves 
under a series of "dire pains and penal- 
ties." The oath is confirmed by drinking 
tea and wine from a bowl in which are 
mixed a few drops of blood pricked from 
the middle fingers of the candidates. The 
oath is registered by burning a copy of it 
that the smoke may ascend to the gods as 
testimony. Each newly-made member re- 
ceives a cryptographical certificate of mem- 
bershiiJ which is held to possess talismanic 
powers, and is enjoined to " learn the secret 



"FREEMASONRY" AMONG THE CHINESE 



69 



signs and mystic sayings by whicli the breth- 
ren are known to one another — how to lift 
his tea-ciip witli tliree fingers, place his feet 
in certain positions, liow to wind his hand- 
kerchief round the end of his umbrella, to 
ask and answer mysterious catch questions, 
to speak of the government as " the en- 
emy," of government soldiers as " a storm," 
of men as "horses," and of other common 
objects in Hui slang. The Triad Society 
claims to be the oldest existing Chinese 
secret organization, dating " back to 16G4 
A.D," It Avas the cause of the T'ai Ping 
rebellion, which was suppressed by Li Hung 
Chang aided by ''Chinese" Gordon. Its 
secret ceremonies are similar to those of the 
Hung League, and among the penalties for 
treason, one is to have the ears lopped ofE, 
and another the head cut off. Members al- 
ways halt on entering a house, and then 
proceed with the left foot first. When sit- 
ting, they place their toes together and spread 
their heels apart. They also recognize one 
another by the way they place their tea- 
cups on the table and the manner in which 
they hitch their trousers. Their motto is, 
"Drive out the Tartar." The "Black- 
wood" article on "Secret Societies in 
China," reprinted in the St. Louis "Globe 
Democrat," .January 17, 1897, says further: 

It is impossible to study these rites and cere- 
monies without recognizing a strong resembhmce 
between them and some of those of the Freemasons. 
" The Bridge of Swords " is common to both socie- 
ties, as are also the formation of Lodges and their 
Orientation. In both societies the members are 
entitled brothers, and confirm their oatli with 
blood. During the ceremony of affiliation the 
recruits, both among the Freemasons and the Hung 
League, attire themselves in white garments and go 
through the form of purification l)y washing. In 
the Cliinese Lodges the triangle is a favorite emblem, 
and lamj)s, steelyards, and scales form part of the 
ordinary paraphernalia. It is curious to observe, 
also, that the three degrees of Apprentice, Fellow- 
craft, and Master among the Freemasons find their 
analogues in the Sworn-Brother, Adopted-Brother, 
and Righteous L^ncle in use in the Chinese Society. 

AVith the foregoing outline of secret soci- 
eties in China, it becomes easier to arrive at 



an intelligible idea of secret societies of Chi- 
nese in the United States, members of which 
have been refen-ed to as Chinese Freema- 
sons. An Associated Press despatch from 
San Francisco, November 14, 1894, read in 
part as follows : 

The police have obtained evidence of the exis- 
tence of a lawless and strongly organized band of 
Chinese Highbinders, said to be 3,000 in number, 
in this city. This society is not only an organiza- 
tion of blackmailers, murderers, and thieved, but 
also has for its purpose the overthrow of the present 
Tartar dynasty. 

This suggests what is well known to many 
on the Pacific Coast, that whether the High- 
binders, as they are called, are members of 
the Kolao Hui or of the Triad Societies or 
not^ they are gradtiates of the same school, 
and many members of the Triad Society and 
Kolao Hui are evidently associated with the 
Highbinders. The different associations of 
the latter are knoAvn as Tongs, and it is said 
that some reputable Chinese belong to them 
in order to secure protection from " levies " 
by rival Tongs. Business disputes and jeal- 
ousy lead to fights between Tongs, in which 
blued (never nickeled) 44-caliber Colt re- 
volvers, carried in the ample sleeves of the 
Highbinders, are the almost universal weap- 
ons. Evidence to convict those guilty of 
assaults or murder is not easy to obtain, and 
when cases do get into the courts, perjury 
is the rule and difficult to detect. One of 
the bitterest feuds between these organiza- 
tions in San Francisco is that which has 
raged for years between the Suey Sing Tong 
and the Suey on Tong, causing much blood- 
shed and work for the courts. 

The Spokane " Peview," August 21, 
1897, outlined an imitation ceremony at a 
Chinese " Masonic " Lodge in that city, at 
which it was said four white men. Free- 
masons, were present by invitation. The 
ceremonies seemed to parallel those of the 
Hung League and Kolao Hui, already re- 
ferred to, from which it nuiy be inferred the 
Spokane Chinese Lodge represents a benevo- 
lent branch of the Kolao Hui, of which less 



70 



FREEMASONRY AMONG THE MORMONS 



is heard in China than of the main or revo- 
hitionary and violent section of that society. 
There Avere references to "the immortal 
three," circumambulation, four stations at 
Avhich questions were asked and answers 
returned, kneeling on crossed swords, tea- 
drinking, burning incense, a " traditional " 
season of refreshment, and signs in which 
the head and hands Avere used ; yet the " oc- 
cidental Masons present Avere unable to de- 
tect anything that resembled the Masonry 
with Avhich they Avere familiar." 

Chinese secret societies in the United 
States originated in one or more of those in 
China, and are found at almost all Ameri- 
can centres of jiopulation Avliere there are a 
considerable number of Chinese, more par- 
ticularly at NcAV York city and at cities on 
the Pacific Coast. ISTearly all of them east 
of the Eocky Mountains are rather more 
reputable than the Tongs of San Francisco, 
but none of them is Masonic in character or 
has any affiliation Avith Masonic bodies. 

Freemasonry among the Mormons. — 
Whether the so-called t\velve Mormon apos- 
tles were Freemasons or not, and Avhether 
or not the Mormon hierarchy utilized vari- 
ous Masonic forms in their endowment 
house ceremonies at Salt Lake City, have 
long been matters of controversy; but the 
following extracts from replies to letters of 
inquiry on these points leave them no longer 
in doubt. 

From Christopher Diehl, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, 
A. F. and A. M., of Utah, May 4, 1896: 

I have been a resident of this city since 186G, and 
a Mason since 1868. ... In the early days 
much was said about Mormon Masonry in Nauvoo 
(Illinois), but whether there was any such thing, I 
could never tell. We never admitted Mormons to 
our Lodges in those days. ... It was, however, 
reported that there were Masons among them, more 
especially B. Young, who was then alive, and I 
doubt not he was, but could not swear to it. . . . 
In the early days I made a study of Mormon Ma- 
sonry, and wrote considerably about it in my reports 
on correspondence, because the stand of Utah Ma- 
sons was attacked for refusing Mormons admission 
to our Lodges. 



From J. H. C. Dill, Bloomington, Illi- 
nois, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, 
F. and A. M., of Illinois, May 11, 1806 : 

I have no way of telling whether or not any of 
the twelve Mormon apostles were members of the 
(Masonic) Lodge at Nauvoo. Possibly returns were 
made, but this office has twice been burned out, 
and all records destroyed. I can give the names 
and addresses of two old and prominent Masons 
who know a great deal about the Mormon troubles, 
and were present when " old Joe Smith " was killed: 
B. Mendenhall, Dallas City, and William R. Hamil- 
ton, Carthage, 111. 

From Theodore S. Parvin, Cedar Kapids, 
Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, F. and 
A. M., of Iowa, May 6, 1896 : 

I personally and officially know that the Mormons 
had a (Masonic) Lodge at Nauvoo (Illinois) in the 
years 1840 to the period they removed from Illinois 
to Kanesville, Council Bluffs, la., and later to Salt 
Lake City. I know, further, that the Grand Lodge 
of Illinois revoked the charter of that Lodge, but 
the Mormons refused to surrender it . . . and 
took it with them, and worked a Lodge in Salt Lake 
City under that charter. I know very well, also, 
from attendance upon the Grand Lodge, that it was 
distinctly stated then and there . . . that Jo- 
seph Smith was a Mason ; and I have no doubt, also, 
that Brigham Young was a member of the same 
Lodge. 

From William E. Hamilton, Past Master 
of Hancock Lodge, ?fo. 20, F. and A. M., 
Carthage, 111., May 26, 1896 : 

At the time of the Mormon era in this county I 
was but a boy of eleven years, and could only know 
about Masonry by hearing men that I knew to be 
Masons talk about it. It was claimed and believed 
that spurious Masons were being made (at Nauvoo) 
about 1842-43, and the Lodge at this place ceased to 
work on that account. . . . Brother Edmunds 
resided at Nauvoo for many years, . . . and, in 
all probability, is the only man in this county who 
was a Mason at that time. 

From G. Edmunds, attorney, Carthage, 
111., to W. K. Hamilton of the same place. 
May 25, 1896 : 

The charter of what was known as the Mormon 
Masonic Lodge at Nauvoo had been surrendered 
before I settled there, in 1845, and I only know 
from hearsay and talk with members of that Lodge, 
who afterwards became members of Reclamation 
Lodge, No. 54 (where I was made a Mason), who 



FREEMASONRY AMONG THE MORMONS 



71 



were members of the original Lodge at Nauvoo. 
Dr. John P. Weld, a member of Reclamation 
Lodge, No. 54, informed me he was a member of the 
original Nauvoo Lodge; also that Brigham Young, 
Orson Hyde, Wilford WoodruiT, IleberC. Kimball, 
William Smith, and others of the " Twelve 
Apostles" were members of the said original 
(Nauvoo) Masonic Lodge, as were also Joseph the 
prophet, and Iliram Smitli, his brother. There 
was no connection between the IMormon endow- 
ment house and Masonry, none whatever. 

Contributed by B. Mendenbiill, Dallas 
City, 111. (District Deputy Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge, F. and A. M., of Illinois 
in 1882), May 23, 1896 : 

In the year 1839-40 the Mormons began to 
gather at Nauvoo, 111., and build a town, or, as 
they religiously called it, the "Zion." Among so 
large a number of men from all parts of the world, 
there were some who were Freemasons, and natur- 
ally they conceived the idea of instituting a Lodge 
at Nauvoo. Accordingly, they applied to the 
Grand Master for a dispensation to form and work 
a Lodge to be called Nauvoo Lodge, U. D. On the 
loth day of October, 1841, a petition signed by 
the requisite number of Master Masons at Nauvoo 
was sent to Grand Master A. Jonas, residing at 
Quincy, for a dispensation to form a lodge at 
Nauvoo. The prayer of the petition was granted, 
and the dispensation was duly forwarded to the 
brethren. They went to work during the winter 
following and did a wholesale business. Li Octo- 
ber, 1842, when the Grand Lodge met, the Commit- 
tee on Lodges, U. D., reported that the returns of 
Nauvoo Lodge were not as required, but it was 
thought best to continue the dispensation for an- 
other year. At the meeting of the Grand Lodge 
in 1843, the committee found many complaints 
against the Lodge at Nauvoo. As no returns had 
been sent in, the Grand Master sent a committee to 
Nauvoo to examine into the work and doings of the 
Lodge. Grand Master Meradith Helm wascr officio 
chairman of the committee, and went to Nauvcxj 
and attempted to make an investigation, but both 
he and the committee were treated with contempt 
by the Mormons and their leaders. Why the 
Grand Master did not take the dispensation away 
with him has been a matter of comment ever since. 
When the Grand Lodge met in October, 1844, it ex- 
pelled all the members of Nauvoo Lodge, decla'red 
the Lodge irregular and clandestine, and annulled 
the dispensation. No charter was ever granted 
them. Some of the irregularities were in voting 
on eight or ten candidates at one ballot, holding 
clandestine meetings, and initiating candidates 



who were notorious outlaws or men of bail ri'puto. 
After expulsion the Nauvoo Lodge continued to 
hold clandestine meetings and to make innovations 
to conform to Mormon teachings. 

When the Temple was mostly finished at Nauvoo, 
the Mormons instituted the endowment ceremonies 
and incorporated tlierein some of tlie ritual of Ma- 
.sonry. To-day, at Salt Lake City, they still prac- 
tise these eeremoi\ies. A visitor to the old town 
of Nauvoo to-day will see a three-story brick build- 
ing standing on the low land adjoining the sliores 
of the Mississippi River. It is a quaint, old-style 
building, with the gable end to the east and a rep- 
resentation of the All-Seeing Eye painted on the 
eastern end. The foundation, which is of stone, is 
graced by a square-cut stone, aljout three feet each 
way, in which is cut, in well-defined letters, the 
words, "Grand Master A, Helm, 1843." It is at 
the northeast corner. The building, which was 
always known as the Masonic Temple, is fast falling 
into ruins. 

The witnesses to the "Book of Mormon" were 
three, to-wit: P. P. Pratt, or Parley P. Pratt, an 
Englishman by birth, and one of the twelve ; 
Martin Harris, afterwards an apostate, and Oliver 
Cowdery, also one of the twelve. The first or 
original twelve apostles of the Mormon Church 
were: Sidney Rigden, who was president ; Parley 
P. Pratt, Oliver Cowdery, Orson Hyde, John Tay- 
lor, William Richards, Amasa Lyman, Daniel 
Wells, Hyrum Smith, William Smitli, Brigham 
Young, Orson Pratt, and David A. Wyman. After 
the death of Joe Smith the propiu't, Brigham 
Young succeeded as Chief of the Twelve Apostles, 
and finally to the head of the Churcli at Salt Lake 
City. All the leaders of the Mormon Church were 
Masons, that is, according to their own peculiar 
views, which, of course, meant under the control 
and direction of the Mormon Church. It seems 
that Masonry was not to flourisli in Nauvoo, for 
when another Lodge was chartered by our Grand 
Lodge, in 1848, founded on the ruins of the 
Nauvoo Lodge, Reclamation, No. 54, althougli 
appearing prosperous at first, and doing a fair 
amount of work, yet the reputation and associations 
of the first Nauvoo Lodge clung to it ; and the 
writer hereof, in the year 1882. being then Deputy 
Grand Master of the district, was ordered by the 
Grand Master to take up its charter for unmasonic 
conduct. That was done, and tliere has been no 
Masonic Lodge at Nauvoo since. Tlie Grand Lodge 
of Utah of A. F. and A. M. never would admit 
Mormons to membership in any of the Lodges in its 
territory. 

Kevelations of the inuer religious cere- 
monial life of the Mormons, jniblished 



72 



FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES 



years ago, stated that the Mormon leaders 
were violently anti-Mason in their preach- 
ings and teachings prior to their hegira from 
New York State, which may be explained 
by the fact that the sect was founded not 
only during the period of anti-Masonic 
excitement, but in the very region from 
Avhich Morgan, the apostate Freemason, 
disappeared. When the Mormons went 
West, it is singular, but perhaps not signifi- 
cant, that Morgan's wife (widow?) went with 
them; and in an interview between the first 
wife of Orson Pratt and Kate Fields, pub- 
lished in the St. Louis " Globe Democrat," 
December 4, 1892, Mrs. Pratt tells of the 
presence at Nauvoo, 111., 18-40-46, of the 
widow of Morgan, where she had married a 
Mormon. From what has been made pub- 
lic concerning Mormon endowment house 
ceremonies by such apostate Mormons as 
Mrs. Pratt, and others, there would appear 
to be no Freemasonry in them. Those who 
invented them drew heavily on "Paradise 
Lost'' and the Old Testament for a ritual, 
and, by paralleling certain forms and situa- 
tions in Craft Masonry, succeeded in con- 
structing what proved to most of their 
followers to be an impressive, if not in- 
spired, ceremonial. 

Freemasonry among Negroes. — 
Among more than 1,300,000 affiliated and 
unaffiliated white Freemasons in the United 
States, comparatively few have familiarized 
themselves with the details of the history 
of the Fraternity, and to such it will j)rove 
in the nature of a surprise to learn that there 
are probably 60,000 negro Freemasons in 
the country, whose Freemasonry comes from 
the same source as their own, the Grand 
Lodge of England. The average white 
Freemason knows there are so-called negro 
Freemasons, but has generally regarded 
their Freemasonry as a spurious variety, 
and the possessors, at best, as clandestine. 
As to the first inference he is mistaken, and 
as to the second he might substitute the 
word irregular. Early in 1775 Prince Hall, 
an educated negro, twenty-seven years of 



age, was made a Freemason at Boston, in an 
English army Lodge connected with Gen- 
eral Gage's command, and on March 6th, 
the same year, fourteen other Boston negroes 
were made Freemasons in the same Lodge, 
at Castle William, Boston Harbor, now Fort 
Independence. Each is declared to have 
paid a fee of twenty-five guineas for the 
three degrees. The motive of the members 
of the army Lodge in initiating, passing, 
and raising these fifteen negroes may best 
be conjectured. If it was to secure the 
cooperation of negroes in the prospective 
struggle with the colonists, it failed so far as 
Prince Hall is concerned; for the latter sided 
with the colonists, shouldered a musket, and 
remained a useful and prominent citizen of 
Massachusetts until his death in 1807. 

At the annual session of the (white) 
Grand Lodge of Freemasons of Ohio, in 
1875, the following conclusions were re- 
l^orted by a committee of eminent members 
(among them Enoch T. Carson) on that 
portion of the address of the Grand Master 
which referred to ''colored Masonry": 

Your Committee deem it sufficient to say that they 
are satisfied beyond all question that colored Free- 
masonry had a legitimate begimiing in this coun- 
try, as much so as any other Freemasonry ; in fact, 
it came from the same source. 

Your Committee have the most satisfactory and 
conclusive evidence that these colored Freemasons 
practise the very same rites and ceremonies and 
have substantially the same esoteric or secret modes 
of recognition as are practised by ourselves and by 
the universal family of Freemasons throughout the 
world. 

Prince Hall and his brother (negro) Free- 
masons continued to meet socially and other- 
Avise, and (as declared and not disproved) as 
a Lodge, although they did no Masonic 
work, until some time between 1781 and 
1783, when they applied to the Massachu- 
setts Grand Lodge for a warrant. The re- 
quest was refused. Application for a war- 
rant was made to the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, March 7, 1784, and on September 29, 
1784 (shortly after the close of the War of 
the Eevolution), the Grand Lodge of Eng- 



FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES 



73 



land issued a warrant to Prince Hall and his 
fourteen associates at Boston, constituting 
African Lodge, No. 454, of Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons. But it was not until 1787 
that the fee for the warrant was received 
in England, the Avarrant delivered, and tlie 
Lodge name entered on the roll of Lodges 
holding obedience to the Grand Lodge of 
England. Tt will be borne in mind tli,at 
the present American Masonic doctrine of 
exclusive territorial jurisdiction was not rec- 
ognized abroad at that time, and was not 
being enforced here. African Lodge con- 
tinued a regular, working Lodge of the 
Cirand Lodge of England as late as ]797, 
making anuual or other returns, with con- 
tributions to the charity fund of the Grand 
Lodge of England, as required by its war- 
rant. That it was really active is shown 
by its establishing a Lodge at Philadelphia 
in 1797, and one at Providence, concerning 
Avhicli the late Albert Pike wrote, September 
13, 1875, to the Grand Secretary of the 
(white) Grand Lodge of Ohio: 

Prince Hall Lodge was as regular a Lodge as any 
Lodge created by a competent aulhoilty, and had a 
perfect right (as other Lodges in Eiu'opc did) to es- 
tablish other Lodges, making itself a mother Lodge. 
That's the way tlie Berlin Lodges, Three Globes and 
Itoyal York became Grand Lodges. 

As to the question of the strict Masonic 
legality of all that African Lodge and some 
of its successors did, T. S. Parvin, Grand 
Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Iowa wrote 
to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge 
of Ohio : 

The negroes can make as good a show for the 
legality of their Grand Lodges as the whites can. 
It's only a matter of taste, not laws. I am satisfied 
that all the world outside the United States will, 
ere long, recognize them. 

Upon the union of the Grand Lodges of 
England, in 1813, African Lodge was re- 
moved from the list, and has iicver been 
recognized by the Grand Lodge of England 
since. African Lodge, however, must have 
ignored this treatment, for its records are 
declared to show that eighty candidates were 



initiated between 1807 and 1826. In 1808 
delegates from the negro Lodges at Boston, 
Providence, and Philadelphia met at Bos- 
ton and formed African (frequently called 
" Prince Hall ") (J rand Lodge (referred to 
by Pike in a preceding quotation), which 
body is the source of all .Masonic authority 
among negro Freemasons in the United 
States to-day. In 1827 African Lodge de- 
clared itself indepemlent of the Grand 
Lodge of England. In 1847 there were 
three negro (J rand Lodges: one in Massa- 
chusetts, and two in Pennsylvania, delegates 
from which met at Boston that year and or- 
ganized the " National Grand Lodge of the 
United States of North America," to be 
the Supreme Masonic power in the United 
States. Grand Lodges were formed in New 
York, New Jersey, Maryland, and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia in 1848, in Ohio and 
Delaware in 1849, in Indiana, Ehodc Island, 
and the Province of Ontario in 1850, in 
Louisiana in 1863, and Liberia in 1867. 
Louisiana refused allegiance to the National 
Grand Lodge, and three years later Ohio 
Avithdrew from it, followed by the Grand 
Lodge of the District of Columbia. By 
1880 all the Grand Lodges except Missis- 
sippi had withdrawn, and not long after the 
National Grand Lodge practically ceased to 
exist. In 1890 there were Sovereign Grand 
Lodges of Free and Accepted negro Ma- 
sons in thirty-two States, and one each in 
the District of Columbia, the Province of 
Ontario, and in Liberia. 

S. R. Scottron, Brooklyn, writes, July 27, 
1897, that the National (irand Lodge " still 
exists," with subordinate Lodges '*in sev- 
eral States," but it is doubtful whether this 
is anything more than an attempt of former 
officials to revive it. One of the best known 
negroes formerly connected with the Na- 
tional Grand Lodge is Richard Gleaves, 
of Washington, D. C, Lieutenant-Governor 
of South Carolina during the reconstruc- 
tion period, and National Grand blaster of 
negro Freemasons for many years. The 
"negro question" in American Masonic 



74 



FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES 



Grand Lodges has naturally been promi- 
nent during the latter half of the century. 
In New Jersey it took a crucial form when 
Alpha Lodge, No. 16, at Newark, made a 
number of negroes Freemasons. The re- 
sult, for a time, was no inconsiderable dis- 
satisfaction among the Craft, but the Lodge 
continues to this day on the roll of the 
Grand Lodge of New Jersey, the only in- 
stance in the United States of a regular 
Masonic Lodge of negroes attached to a 
white Grand Lodge. In 1875 the white 
Grand Lodge of Ohio became interested 
in the subject of the universality of Free- 
masonry, and an eifort was made to recog- 
nize the negro Grand Lodge of that State. 
The matter was referred to a committee, 
and a report was made in favor of the 
project. When it came to voting on the 
adoption of the report, a point of order was 
raised, which the Grand Master decided not 
well taken. On appeal, the Grand Master's 
decision was reversed by a vote of 390 to 332, 
and so the whole matter came to naught. 
E. B. Irving, Grand Master of "the Most 
"Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most -An- 
cient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and 
Accepted (negro) Masons, State of New 
York," writes from Albany, March 16, 
1896, that "the Prince Hall Grand Lodge 
of Massachusetts, from which all negro 
Grand Lodges obtain their authority, is in 
fraternal relations with white Grand Lodges 
in Germany and Hungary," and that "in 
foreign countries colored Masons are received 
and accorded all the rights of a brother in 
Masonic Lodges, although (even though ?) 
he may hail from the United States," and 
that he has "yet to learn of one who has 
been refused." S. W. Clark, Grand Mas- 
ter of (negro) Free Masons in Ohio in 1886, 
whose pamphlet, "The Negro Mason in 
Equity," is well worth careful reading, adds 
that in France, Italy, Germany, Hungary, 
Peru, and Dominica "our representatives" 
are "received, and accredited as such." 
Mr. Clark makes an able plea for the recog- 
nition of the regularity of negro Masonic 



Lodges in America, and, while he seems to 
have demolished those of his adversaries 
who rely upon the American Masonic doc- 
trine of " exclusive territorial jurisdiction," 
he appears to rely too much upon proving 
irregularity on the part of early white Grand 
bodies, to excuse the irregularity of like 
negro organizations, overlooking the fact 
that the irregularity of the former was 
subsequently healed. His argument is, of 
course, that the faults of the early grand and 
subordinate negro bodies could be healed by 
competent Masonic authority with quite as 
much propriety; the only reply to which is 
that it has not been done. Yet, when all 
else is said, the quoted comment by the late 
Albert Pike cannot be ignored, that the first 
African Grand Lodge, formed by represent- 
atives of three subordinate Lodges, two of 
which Lodges were created by the first, was 
no more irregular than were the Berlin 
Grand bodies, the Three Globes, and the 
Royal York, which were formed in a similar 
manner. 

In 1898 the Grand Lodge of the State 
of Washington took an advanced view of 
this subject, going so far as to suggest the 
propriety of the recognition of the legiti- 
macy of colored Freemasons, the origin of 
the charters of whose Lodges is found, of 
course, in the charter granted to African 
Lodge of Boston by the Grand Lodge of 
England, in the last century. As a conse- 
quence the Grand Lodge of Kentucky has 
adopted a resolution declaring non-inter- 
course with Washington ; the Grand Lodges 
of Arkansas, New Jersey, and South Caro- 
lina have also severed relations with Wash- 
ingbon, and the Grand Master of New York 
has requested the Grand Eepresentative 
of Washington to resign his commission. 
Maryland and Rhode Island contented them- 
selves by expressing the hope that Wash- 
ington will reconsider its action. 

There are, therefore, two streams of Free- 
masonry coursing through the United 
States. Each started from the same source 
and both are running in the same direction.- 



FREEMASONRY AMONG NECJROES 



75 



One forms a mighty torrent, while the other 
is only a brook. But their routes to the 
great sea of universal brotherhood are paral- 
lel, divided only by the embankment of con- 
ditions and race prejudice. 

Negro Freemasons in America have flat- 
tered white possessors of various jMasonic 
rites and ceremonials by imitating or paral- 
leling all of them. Thus we find among 
the negroes symbolic Lodges, Koyal Arch 
Chapters, and Commanderies of Knights 
Templars, corresponding to the American 
system, as well as five or more so-called Su- 
preme Councils of a "thirty-third degree 
Ancient, Accepted Scottish Eite," each 
claiming exclusive jurisdiction and the ab- 
solute lack of authority on the part of rival 
Supreme Councils. 

The Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Com- 
mander of the Philadelphia Negro Supreme 
Council, George W. Koper, wrote John H. 
Deyo, Grand Master of negro Freemasons 
in New York, in 1895, that the first negro 
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was organ- 
ized at Philadelphia in 1819 or 1830, by the 
aid of the white Koyal Arch Chapter of the 
State of Pennsylvania, and that the first 
negro Grand Royal Arch Chapter was formed 
in Pennsylvania in or about 1826. Little 
more was done in this direction until long 
after the anti-Masonic agitation died out 
(1836), and it was not until 1879, according 
to Macoy, that a Grand Royal Arch Chapter 
was organized in New York. Statistics re- 
garding '■ Chapter Masonry "among negroes 
are difficult to obtain, but from inquiry 
among a number of those best informed it 
seems probable that negro Royal Arch Chap- 
ters number more than 5,000 members. 
The statement is also made that the first 
Commandery of negro Knights Templars 
was formed at Philadelphia (some time, but 
not long after the first Royal Arch Cha])- 
ter) by the white Grand Encampment of 
Knights Templars of Pennsylvania (1816- 
25). Whether it was the Grand Chajiter 
and the Grand Encampment of Pennsyl- 
vania, or merely white Royal Arch Masons 



and Knights Templars who were responsi- 
ble for these acts may never be known. In 
fact, this explanation of the origin of 
Capitular and Templar Freemasonry among 
negroes seems to rest on the declarations of 
the men named. Negro Knights Templars 
were not known out of Pennsylvania for 
many years, when they appeared in Balti- 
more and Washington. The first negro En- 
campment in New York was organized, ac- 
cording to Macoy, as late as 1872, and the 
Grand Encampment there in 1875. The 
writer is informed by those who should 
know that there were nineteen negro 
Grand Encampments in the L'nited States 
in 1895, with nearly 3,000 Sir Knights. 

African Supreme Council, " Ancient, Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite for the American 
Continent," is declared to have been estab- 
lished at Philadelphia in 1820 by authority 
of the Grand Orient of France, whicli body, 
Masonic students will recall, did not, and 
does not, authorize the working of degrees 
of that rite. It is of interest to note, how- 
ever, that while negro Royal Arch Masons 
and Knights Templars claim that the first 
negro Chapter and Encampment were 
formed at Philadelphia by members of the 
Pennsylvania white Grand Chapter and 
Grand Encampment, respectively, their tra- 
ditions as to the founding of the first negro 
Supreme Council (Scottish Rite) attribute 
it to a foreign supreme body — strangely 
enough, to the one of the two French Ma- 
sonic supreme bodies which, in 1820, recog- 
nized only the French Rite of seven degrees. 
African Supreme Council is not known to 
have done much more than to exist on paper 
until 1850, when it was succeeded by the so- 
called David Leary Supreme Council. The 
latter did not exhibit much activity until 
after the Civil War, and when questioned as 
to tbe warrant for its authority, presented a 
document purporting to have been issued 
by the (Jrand Orient of France, in 1850, to 
David Leary of Philadelphia, through its 
Deputy, one Larine, and signed by certain 
persons as officers. On comparing the names 



76 



FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES 



with those laid down in the aunual calen- 
dars of the Grand Orient and in its bulle- 
tins, it was found that no such men had 
held office at that or any other time, nor did 
the name of Larine appear in its tableau of 
membership, nor was the seal appended 
thereto the seal of the Grand Orient. T^liis 
warrant, when examined by representatives 
of a rival negro Supreme Council, was found 
to be sealed with the letters "A. Y. M." 
and '' a Good Templar's Seal." It may be 
well to explain that the Scottish Rite de- 
grees in France are conferred exclusively 
by the authority of the Supreme Council, a 
body having no connection with the Grand 
Orient. The latter, although j)ossessing 
these degrees, discountenances their use, as 
it does the rites of Misraim, Memphis, and 
other products of Masonic degree-makers of 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

An outgrowth of the revival of this so- 
called Scottish Rite Freemasonry at Philadel- 
phia was the formation of a rival known as 
King David Supreme Council. It claimed 
direct descent from African Supreme Coun- 
cil, which died in 1850. There was also 
a King Frederick Supreme Council there, 
twenty years ago, established by the founder 
of the Baltimore Supreme Council, who 
claimed to have authority for that purpose 
from the negro Supreme Council for the 
United States, its Territories and Dependen- 
cies, established at New York city in 1864 by 
Baron Auguste Hugo de Bulow, a member 
of the Supreme Council of France. As that 
New York Supreme Council repudiated the 
placing of Supreme Councils at Baltimore 
and at Philadelphia, little remains to be said 
in reference to them. So far as learned, the 
only existing negro Supreme Councils are 
the David Leary of Philadelphia, with which 
the King Frederick Supreme Council united 
in 1881 under the title S. C, etc.. Northern 
Jurisdiction, U. S. A.; that referred to at 
New York city; the " Supreme Council for 
the Southern Jurisdiction of the TJ. S. A.," 
with headquarters at Washington, Thornton 
A. Jackson, M. P. S. G. C, which bases its 



authority on "a charter for a Council of 
Princes of Jerusalem, purporting to have 
been issued by the African Council," Phila- 
delphia, and is in affiliation with the Phila- 
delphia consolidated (Northern) Supreme 
Council, and the " Supreme Council for the 
Northwestern Jurisdiction of the United 
States," with its "Grand East" at St. 
Louis, an organization of schismatic origin. 
The Washington Supreme Council (South- 
ern Jurisdiction) was formed in 1869, and 
soon became dormant, but was revived in 
1879. There are, therefore, four negro Su- 
preme Councils professing to confer Scottish 
Rite degrees in the United States. They 
are spasmodically active, usually dormant, 
exhibitions of life, being usually confined to 
a gathering of officers to reelect each other, 
or to make a few "thirty-seconds" and 
"thirty-thirds." The St. Louis Supreme 
Council, which claims Northwestern Juris- 
diction, has about 150 members, but noth- 
ing in the nature of what, by even a stretch 
of courtesy, conld be called authority for 
existence. The Washington Supreme Coun- 
cil's existence rests, it is declared, on a char- 
ter for a Council of Princes of Jerusalem 
(a subordinate Scottish Rite body), granted 
by African Supreme Council years before 
the Washington organization appeared. Its 
own claim to a warrant from the Grand 
Orient of France refers, probably, to the bare 
allegation that the African Supreme Coun- 
cil was chartered by the Grand Orient, a 
statement which is its own refutation. The 
spurious character of the warrant of the 
Philadelphia Supreme Council has been re- 
ferred to. This leaves only the New York 
Supreme Council to deal with — that of 
Avhich Peter W. Ray, M.D., and S. R. Scot- 
tron of Brooklyn, N. Y., are leaders. The 
Baron de Bulow, 33°, a member of the 
Supreme Council of France, came to New 
York in 1862, accredited as a Representa- 
tive to the Supreme Council of the United 
States, Northern Jurisdiction (white) — as 
related by negro Freemasons, members of 
the negro Supreme Council of New York, 



FREEMASONRY AMONG NEGROES 



77 



and, as also admitted, he returned to France 
accredited b}- the (white) Supreme Council 
named, as Representative to the Supreme 
Council of France — the body controlling 
Scottish Eite grades or degrees in France. 
On a second visit to this country, in 18G4, 
the Baron, finding no Scottish Kite Masonry 
among negro Freemasons here, declared the 
(that ?) territory vacant, and by his claimed 
prerogative, as Sovereign Grand Inspector 
General of the Supreme Council of France, 
he organized a Supreme Council of negroes 
who had been created thirty-third degree 
Freemasons by himself for that purpose. 
The first to receive the degree was Patrick 
H. Reason, then Most Worshipful Grand 
Master of the negro Grand Lodge of Free- 
masons of the State of New York. De 
Bulow never returned to France, but re- 
mained until his death, in the endeavor to 
firmly establish Scottish Rite Freemasonry 
among colored men. In vieAV of the Baron's 
action, it is proper to jioint out that by 
the law of all recognized Supreme Coun- 
cils of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite 
(of which the Sujoreme Council of France is 
one), no Inspector General is permitted to 
establish a Supreme Council of the rite in 
any country where such a body already ex- 
ists, except by special patent issued for the 
2)urpose. The question, then, is, did De 
Bulow know of the existence of a Supreme 
Council in the United States at the time he 
took this step — one recognized by the Su- 
preme Council of France ? The answer is, 
of course, that as he had visited such a 
Council here — that for the Northern Juris- 
diction — and had beeii appointed by it a 
Representative to the Supreme Council of 
France; one, therefore, did exist, and un- 
less he had a special patent from France 
empowering him to do what he did in 18G4 
— which he never had or claimed to have — 
his action in establishing a negro Supreme 
Council was, Masonically, illegal and void. 
De Bulow was evidently a visionary, un- 
doubtedly a philanthropist, and on what he 
conceived to be the ethics of a situation, a 



law unto himself. He showed his sincerity 
in what he did by creating his son and ten 
negroes "thirty-third degree Masons," who 
with himself — nine black and two white 
men — were the original members of the 
negro Sujireme Council "for the United 
States, its Territories and Dependencies." 

All the negro Supreme Councils men- 
tioned are, for reasons given, irregular; 
some of them spurious, and none of tliem 
has ever been accorded recognition by any 
regular Supreme Council in the world. 
Their total membership is about 1,000, 
of which about 600 belong to the Philadel- 
phia and Washington bodies, and 250 
to the New York Supreme Council. An 
effort was made, in 1881, to unite the 
negro Supreme Councils, but, with the 
exception noted, it failed, and the strife 
for office, for decorations, and for recog- 
nition of the regularity of one over another 
is likely to keep them apart. 

Little remains to be added in a brief 
historical sketch of Freemasonry among 
negroes, except that a schismatic Scot- 
tish Rite body existed for a brief period 
at New York, a few years ago, known 
as the "Joe Smith " Supreme Council, and 
that nearly twenty-five years ago one Robert 
Cowes (negro) claimed to have received the 
ritual of the Rite of Memphis from the 
Grand Orient of France for propagation 
among negroes in the LTnited States. It is 
not known that he ever received authority 
to do that. On the contrary, there is good 
reason to believe that the Grand Orient of 
France did nothing of the kind. (See Free- 
masonry, Rite of Memphis.) In any event 
no bodies of that rite exist here. About 
twenty years ago there was a negro Supreme 
Council established at Baltimore (not the 
one already referred to) by Charles P. Daly 
of Ocala, Fla., who claimed authority from 
some body in the British West Indies. The 
first negro Su])reme Council at Baltimore was 
established by Lemuel G. Griffin, as stated, 
an Inspector General of the New York Su- 
preme Council, who afterward organized 



78 



FREEMASONRY : RITE OF MEMPHIS, ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE 



King Frederick Supreme Council at Phila- 
delphia. Nothing is known of these organi- 
zations to-day. 

Freemasonry : Rite of Memphis, An- 
cient and Primitive. — No account of this 
Masonic rite would be complete which ig- 
nored its parent, the Rite of Misraim. The 
latter was founded at j\rilan in 1805. Prom- 
inent among its members were Lechangeur, 
Joly, and Bedarride. Lechangeur, on being 
refused admission into the Supreme Council 
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, 
compiled and organized the Rite of Misraim 
in opposition to the former. It consisted 
of eighty-seven degrees at first, later of 
ninety degrees, which included nearly all 
the numerous Scottish Rite degrees in ex- 
istence — degrees borrowed from other rites, 
from floating material, or invented for the 
purpose. It was introduced into France in 
1814, where recognition was refused it by 
the Grand Orient. In 1817 the Supreme 
Council of the Rite of Misraim was dis- 
solved, but Lodges continued to exist, and 
finally, in 1822, the Rite became dormant, 
although it has been practised by a few Eu- 
ropean Lodges at intervals almost ever since. 
The ninety degrees were conferred (most 
of them, probably, communicated) in four 
series and seventeen classes; the first being 
entitled Symbolic, the second Philosophic, 
the third Mystical, and the fourth Kabbalis- 
tic. This Rite claimed the privilege of con- 
trolling all other Masonic rites, which, aside 
from its being very complicated, was enough 
to condemn it. Some of its degrees were 
based on the ancient Egyptian mysteries, 
hence Misraim, an ancient name for Egypt. 
It differs from ail other Masonic rites in 
that it abolished the legend of the third de- 
gree, and introduced the story of the death 
of a son of Lamech, who was killed by three 
ruffians. An attempt to revive the rite in 
France in 1856 failed, and Gould, in his 
" History of Freemasonry," says that for 
several years after its few Lodges continued 
a precarious existence. A ponderous ac- 
count of the Rite was published by Mark 



Bedarride in 1835, entitled " The Order of 
Misraim." 

Jacques Etienne Marconis was initiated 
into the Rite of Misraim in April, 1833, and 
expelled therefrom in June following. In 
1839, in association with Moullet and others, 
he founded the Rite of Memphis at Paris, 
and soon after established Lodges at Mar- 
seilles and Brussels. It consisted of ninety- 
one degrees, later of ninety-two degrees, and 
afterward of ninety-six degrees, with a 
ninety-seventli degree for the official head 
of the Rite. It should require little special 
information to properly infer that this rite 
was based on that of Misraim. It appro- 
priated bodily degrees of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite, those peculiar to the 
Rite of Misraim, and supplemented them 
with inventions. Gould states that Mar- 
conis, who had been expelled in 1833, estab- 
lished a Lodge of the Rite of Misraim in 
1836, and in 1838 was again expelled. Then 
he fabricated the Rite of Memphis, the first 
Lodge of which was formed at Paris in 1838. 
In 1840 the Paris Lodges of the Rite were 
closed by the police, but were revived in 
1849. The Rite was unrecognized by the 
Grand Orient of France during all that 
period, and, therefore, was irregular. Late 
in the fifties it became dormant. Mackey 
states that in 1862 Marconis applied to the 
Grand Orienr of France for recognition for 
the Rite of Memphis, and got it by divest- 
ing himself of all authority over it and plac- 
ing it entirely in the hands of the Grand 
Orient, which absorbed and shelved it, 
where, so far as the Grand Orient is con- 
cerned, it remains to-day. As this rite util- 
ized the third degree of Craft Masonry, sev- 
eral of its Lodges were revived after 1862, 
but worked only the symbolic degrees. 

In 1873 one Carence, with Marconis, con- 
ferred the Rose Croix (Memphis) degree on 
several Freemasons who were officially in- 
formed that no power or authority permitted 
such an act, as Marconis had divested him- 
self of all claim to the rite in May, 1862, 
and again, formally, in 1863, 1864, 1865, and 



FREEMASONRY: RITE OF MEMPHIS, ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE 



79 



18G6. In reply to an inquiry from tlie Su- 
preme Council of the Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite of England, in 1872, the Grand 
Secretary of the Grand Orient of France ex- 
plained the foregoing, and stated that at the 
time the treaty was negotiated with Mar- 
conis, 18G2, II. J. Seymour of New York 
city was at Paris; but that he, the latter, 
received no power to confer degrees of the 
Rite of Memphis, although, owing to the 
bad faith of ^larconis, the latter pretended 
he had ceded the rite to the Grand Orient 
for France alone. Seymour assumed the 
title of Grand Master of the Rite of Mem- 
phis for America, and founded a Sovereign 
Sanctuary in New York, Avhich, strangely 
enough, in 18G7 appeared on the Calendar 
of the Grand Orient of France for that year. 
The Grand Secretary of the latter body adds 
that after learning Seymour was conferring 
more than the three symbolic degrees, the 
Grand Orient "' broke off all connection with 
this power and personally with Brother Sey- 
mour," who never had ''either a char- 
ter or power from the Grand Orient of 
France." 

On the other hand, Gould says that in 
1850 and 1854 a Chapter and a Council of 
the Rite of Memphis had been established 
in New York city, and that in 1860 Mar- 
conis went to America and established a 
Grand Lodge of " Discij^les of Memphis" 
at Troy. In 1857 the rite was known in 
New York, and in 18G2 a Sovereign Sanc- 
tuary v.as chartered. It was taken from 
America to England in 1872, where the 
number of degrees was reduced from ninety- 
five tp thirty-three. The same authority 
explains that in 1862 Marconis, in response 
to a circular sent out by the Grand Orient 
of France, demanded recognition for "'one 
of his dormant French Lodges," which was 
granted; that his symbolic Lodges then be- 
came a part of the Grand Orient, and his 
Avhole system was supposed to have come 
under the supervision of that Grand body. 
According to this, the rite had been estab- 
lished in the United States before ^larconis 



ceded anything to the Grand Orient of 
France. Robert Morris, in the " Freema- 
sons' Almanac," January 1, 18G5, says that 
the Rite of Memphis has a beautiful and im- 
pressive ritual; that it was introduced here 
November 9, 185G, by Marconis, who estab- 
lished a Supreme Council, ninety degrees, 
Avith John Mitchel at its head, and a Sover- 
eign Grand Council, ninety-four degrees, 
with David McLellan as Grand blaster. 
But for some reason the system did not 
flourish, not even after Seymour was in- 
vested with the highest degree in Paris in 
1862, and Avith authority to establish a Sov- 
ereign Grand Sanctuary of Conservators 
General of the Order in America. A Sov- 
ereign Council General was established in 
New England, but that and the various 
State organizations made slow headway, and 
had only a few hundred working members. 
Seymour, who had a pyrotechnical, but un- 
enviable, career in several Masonic rites, is 
declared by members of a so-called Scottish 
Rite among negroes in the United States 
to have received the ritual of the Rite of 
Memphis from Robert Cowes, a negro, to 
whom it was committed by the proper au- 
thorities for propagation among his race, 
and to have used it for his (Seymour's) 
benefit. This is probably an error, due to 
Marconis's having been nicknamed " De 
Negre," owing to his dark complexion. 
H. C. Goodale of Jamaica, L. I., for sev- 
eral years the chief secretarial ofticer of the 
Rite of Memphis in America, adds that Sey- 
mour did not condense the Rite of Memphis 
to form his Cerneau Rite. Mr. Goodale 
wrote, in 1895, that the Rite of Memphis 
still existed, but that it was " very inac- 
tive," practically dormant, "waiting for 
better times." In addition to the Sover- 
eign Sanctuary established in 1862, there 
had been formed six Mystic Temples, twelve 
Councils, S. M. G. W., twenty-three Sen- 
ates of n. P.. and forty-one Chapters of 
R. C, with a membership in 1895, which, 
while not large, was scattered through many 
States. The roll of Grand Conservators was 



80 



FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE 



declared to include " many Past Grand Mas- 
ters and high dignitaries in Masonry." 
The official organ of the Rite, '' The Lybic 
Chain/' was published at New York in 
1883, and continued to appear for a num- 
ber of years. S. C. Gould, Manchester, 
N. H., states that a body was organized at 
TJtica, N".Y., in 1880, under the title, " The 
Antient and Primitive Oriental Rite of Mis- 
raim," but Goodale says the Rite of Misraim 
was represented at l^^ew York city in 1895 
by about twenty-five members of the Rite 
of Memphis, who "thought of obtaining 
a charter and continuing the work." Evi- 
dently .the '' Oriental Rite " of Misraim was 
something else. 

There was also an Egyptian Masonic Rite 
of Memphis for the Cosmos in Boston, in 
1881, which was not long-lived, and there 
a,re records of an Antient and Primitive 
(Spanish) Oriental Rite of "Memphis and 
Misraim " at New York, Philadelphia, and 
Chicago in recent years, which had no con- 
nection with the Ancient and Primitive 
Rite of Memphis established here by ]\Iar- 
conis. Sovereign Sanctuaries of the origi- 
nal Rite of Memphis have been established 
in America (now dead). Great Britain (at 
"Withiugham, Manchester, address .John 
Yarker, editor of the official organ, "The 
Knepli "), Italy, Roumania, Egypt, and (it 
is said) in India. 

Spanish and Roumanian branches have 
been a source of trouble to American Free- 
masons, by granting permission to irrespon- 
sible or other persons to propagate the so- 
called Oriental Rite of " Memphis and Mis- 
raim " in the United States, a hodge-podge 
of those Rites and of the vagaries of those 
disseminating them. 

Jacques Ochs, a Roumanian, claimed au- 
thority, between 1890 and 189G, from the 
National Grand Lodge of Roumania to es- 
tablish Masonic Lodges in the United States. 
His authority was revoked, and he then ap- 
peared as a Representative of the Grand 
Orient of Spain for the Rite of "' Memphis 
and Misraim," and established Lodges of 



something in New York, which he told the 
initiates were regular Masonic bodies in 
which they could get all the degrees at low 
rates. His operations extended to Philadel- 
phia and Chicago, where he found many 
dupes at so much per capita. He was de- 
nounced by regular Masonic authorities, and 
soon found himself under arrest, after which 
the bodies created by him died out. It was 
the old story of a clever degree-peddler prey- 
ing upon credulity and ignorance. The 
Ochs Rite of " Memj^his and Misraim " Avas 
not the Marconis Rite, which became dor- 
mant here about 1895, and in which a num- 
ber of prominent Masons were interested for 
a brief period. The death of the latter was 
due to structural weakness and dry rot. 
Seymour, who was something of a degree- 
peddler himself, induced many acquaint- 
ances to join the Rite under the impression 
they were uniting with the Ancient and 
Accej^ted Scottish Rite, and, so long as he 
could sell them paraphernalia, costumes, 
etc., he was willing to let the members rule 
and govern the Rite, although he himself 
was the Grand Hierophant. Notwithstand- 
ing this, which is learned from those to 
whom it was a matter of personal experi- 
ence, a number of prominent Freemasons be- 
came identified with the Ancient and Prim- 
itive Rite of Memphis, only to lose interest 
and drop out. This Rite is a masquerad- 
ing Rite of Misraim, originally founded as 
a rival degree-shoj), and was very properly 
smothered by the , Grand Orient of France 
in 1SG2, Avhich body, it would seem, was 
deceived into believing the founder had 
delivered up all authority over it. It went 
from the L'nited States to England and 
elsewhere abroad, where it was apparently 
dressed up or down, so that not even Mar- 
conis, its own father, would know it under 
such a title as an " Oriental, Scottish Rite 
of Memphis and Misraim." The rituals of 
the Rites of Misraim and of Memphis prop- 
erly belong in a library of Masonic curios. 

Freemasonry : Order of Knights of 
Rome and of the Red Cross of Con- 



FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF COXSTANTINK 



SI 



stantine.* — Sometimes called the Order of 
the Red Cross of Constantine, said to be the 
oldest Order of Knighthood conferred in 
connection with Freemasonr}'. The origin 
of the Order is attributed to Constantine the 
Great, who, just before the battle of Saxa 
Rubra, October 28, a.d., 312, beheld a 
vision of the Passion Cross in the heavens, 
with the inscription (usually given in 
Greek) : "Hoc Vince " (Conquer by This), 
genera,lly rendered : " In Hoc Signo 
Vinces," whereupon he vowed that, if suc- 
cessful against the enemy and his life was 
spared, he would create an Order of 
Knighthood to champion the Christian 
religion and commemorate his victory. 
This he is declared to have done at Rome, 
December 25, a.d. 312. Constantine, at 
the time of the vision, was not a believer 
in the Christian religion, and he and his 
friends believed that the Cross in the 
heavens was a divine omen. To emphasize 
his conversion to Christianity, Constantine 
caused each of his officers who had em- 
braced tiie Christian religion and received 
at his hands the new Order of Christian 
Knighthood to wear a Red Cross on the 
breast or on the right arm, and on the 
Roman Imperial standards he placed golden 
wreaths, and within them monograms com- 
posed of the Greek letters " Chi " {X) and 
''Rho" (P), the first of the two letters of 
the name Christ. Constantine, the first 
Christian Roman Emperor, was further 
identified with the cause of Christianity 
through his mother, Helena, who, in the 
year 32C, discovered and brought out of the 
Hoh' Land the remains of the true Cross, 
and by reason of his having convened the 
Council of Nice in 325, where Constantine 
was received by Bishop Eusebius with a 
panegyrical oration. Thus it is that a recent 
writer describes the Order as commemo- 
rating "the first elevation of Christianity 

* This Christian Order is not to be confoinuk'il 
with the Jewish and Persian degree, known as the 
Order of the Red Cross, conferred in American 
Commanderies of Knights Templars, 
6 



from the position of a despised and pro- 
scribed heresy to that of a legally recog- 
nized and honored religion." One of the 
first acts of the Original Knights of the 
Red Cross of Constantine was to replace 
the heathen vsymbols on the public build- 
ings in Rome with representations of the 
Red Cross. In 326 Emperor Constantine 
instituted the Order of Knight of the 
Grand Cross, to be conferred only on 
Knights of the Red Cross who had become 
distinguished in the sciences, the learned 
professions, or in the army. The number 
of Knights of the Grand Cross created by 
Emperor Constantine was fifty, and in 1119, 
at a Grand Assembly of Knights of the 
Order at Rome, it was made a statute of 
the Order that only fifty Knights of the 
Grand Cross should be created in any king- 
dom or independent country. After the 
death of Constantine, in 337, the Popes of 
Rome claimed and exercised sovereign 
authority over the Order for many years. 
It is related that in 765 the Order had 
among its members emperors, kings, and 
princes, when the first jiilgrimage was made 
to the Holy Sepulchre under its banners. 
This was in accord with the obligations of 
its members, for in 314, when Constantine 
instituted the Order of Knights of the Holy 
Sepulchre at the prayer of his mother, 
Helena, they were especially commissioned 
to protect the Holy Sepulchre from the 
attacks of enemies of the Christian faith. 
During the Crusades, the Order of Knights 
of Rome and of the Red Cross of Constan- 
tine were widely known. In 1119 Em- 
peror ^Michael Angelos Com menus was 
elected Sovereign Grand Master of the 
Order, and that title was retained in his 
family until 1699. The Order was revived 
in England in 1688 by the Venetian am- 
bassador at the Court of St. James, Lon- 
don, and in 1692 the Abbe Giustiniani, a 
learned Italian priest, conferred the Orders 
of Knights of the Red Cross of Constantine, 
Holy Sepulchre, and of St. John the Evan- 
gelist on several members of the English 



82 



FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE 



Court. It is to the Abbe that the Order is 
indebted for the preservation of its tradi- 
tions, hmdmarks, and rituals, and it was 
from the hitter that Walter Rod well Wright, 
Provisional Grand Sovereign of the Order 
in England in 1804, doubtless gained ma- 
terial for the preparation of the modern 
ritual. Baron Huude, in his " History 
of tlie Templar System of Strict Observ- 
ance,'*' 1750, states : " The great and rapid 
progress of Freemasonry on the European 
Continent is largely due to the efforts of 
the Knights of Eome and of the Red Cross 
of Constantine." The claim is made that 
the Order was conferred in England as a 
Masonic degree as early as 1783, and that 
in 1788 it was conferred upon a number of 
English Freemasons, among others, officers 
of both of the Grand Lodges of England. 
That well-known Freemason, Thomas 
Dunckerly, was created a Knight of Rome 
and of the Red Cross of Constantine in 
1790, and was afterwards Sovereign Grand 
Master of the Order in England, and at 
the head of the Order of the Temple at the 
same period. Three succeeding heads of 
the Order of Knights of Constantine were 
likewise Grand Masters of the Order of the 
Temple. Hughan, the Masonic historian, 
states that while the Orders of the Red 
Cross of Constantine and of the Temple 
were for many years " worked " harmo- 
niously, side by side, they " were kept 
strictly separate,"' and the fact that the 
Constantine Orders of Knighthood have 
been conferred only upon Freemasons ever 
since the middle of the eighteenth century 
is probably due to that association. In 
1807 there was quite a revival of the Order 
in Europe and in the English colonies, 
and the Orders of this Christian Knight- 
hood were conferred upon many Freema- 
sons among the English nobility. The 
Grand Imperial Council of England was 
organized at London in 1808, and in the 
following year it claimed and exercised sov- 
ereignty over the Order throughout the 
world. In 1809 the London Encampment 



(Conclave) conferred the Orders of Chris- 
tian Knighthood on a class of "^ eight 
prominent high Freemasons,"' in the pres- 
ence of several Knights of the Grand 
Cross of the Order. Members of both the 
so-called Ancient and the Modern English 
Grand Lodges of Freemasons, who were 
members of the Constantine Orders, took 
active part in the negotiations which led to 
the union of the two Grand Masonic Lodges 
in 1813, when the Duke of Sussex was 
elected Grand Master of the United Grand 
Lodge of England, and also Sovereign 
Grand Master of the Grand Imperial Coun- 
cil of England of the Order ol Knights of 
Rome and of the Red Cross of Constantine. 
During the period 1813-43 the Order again 
became notable as " the first Order of 
Chivalry in Europe," some of its chroni- 
clers adding that the Grand Cross of the 
Order was considered as great an honor **as 
the Order of the Garter." In 1862 the 
Knights of the Grand Cross did much to 
attract attention to the Order through a 
ceremonial commemorative of the establish- 
ment of the Grand Imperial Council more 
than fifty years before, in which the Sir 
Knights taking part included members of 
the royal family and many other gentle- 
men of high rank, cabinet officers, members 
of Parliament, and representatives of the 
army and navy. 

From that period the English Grand Im- 
perial Council began to extend the Order, 
beginning in 1866, by reviving it in Ger- 
many, France, Italy, and in many of the 
English colonies. In 1869 it was introduced 
into the Dominion of Canada, and on May 
19, 1870, into the United States, at Phila- 
delphia. In 1871 Conclaves were instituted 
in New York, Massachusetts, Kentucky, 
Indiana, Vermont, Maine, New Jersey, 
Michigan, Virginia, Delaware, and Mary- 
land, in the order named. The Indepen- 
dent Grand Council of Pennsylvania was 
organized in 1872, the Grand Council of 
New York and Grand Imperial Councils 
of Illinois, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island 



FREEMASONRY : KNIGHTS OF ROME AXD RED CROSS OF COXSTANTINE 



83 



in 1872 ; the Imperial Grand Council of 
Michigan in 1874; of Kentucky, Indiana, 
Vermont, Maine, andof New Jersey in 1875; 
and of the Dominion of Canada in 187G. In 
1875, according to the " Memorabilia," etc., 
prepared, in 1895, by Thomas Leahy of 
Kochester, N. Y., Grand Registrar General 
of the Sovereign Grand Council of the 
United States, the Sovereign Grand Council 
of the United States was organized at New 
York city, by representatives of all the then 
existing State Grand and Imperial Councils 
of the Order, all of which gave i)ledges of 
"fealty and allegiance" to the new Sover- 
eign Grand Council, and each State Grand 
body surrendered ''all sovereignty within 
its territory." On this point George W. 
Warvelle of Chicago, representing the Im- 
perial Grand Council of Illinois, declares 
that " no such record exists.'' The "State- 
ment," published by the Imperial Grand 
Council of Illinois in 1895, describes the 
Sovereign Grand body of 1875 as merely 
a "confederation'' of State Grand Councils 
formed to "curb the pretensions of the 
mother Grand Council of England, who, 
thi'ough her Intendent General, was assum- 
ing powers which were deemed inimical to 
the American bodies." In support of this 
it quotes from Section 6 of the Constitution 
of the Sovereign Grand Council, United 
States of America, in part as follows: **Ifc 
(the latter body) can exercise no doubtful 
powers nor any powers by implication 
merely;" . . . tiiat all powers not ex- 
pressly delegated "are reserved to the 
Grand Councils and subordinate Con- 
claves," etc. ; it should have jurisdiction 
over "all Conclaves established by itself," 
. . . "where there is no Grand Council 
established;". . . but "no power of dis- 
cipline," etc., "over the State Grand 
Councils," . . . "nor any authority to 
suspend the proceedings of any State Grand 
Council," etc. 

Thomas Leahy, Registrar General of the 
Sovereign Grand Council of the United 
States, writes : 



This statement had not been made prior to 1895, 
and was never thought of until we had taken ac- 
tion to abolish the State Grand bodies in the inter- 
est of the general good of the Order. The first 
Article of the Constitution, Section 1, as presented 
by the Chairman of the Committee on Revision of 
the Constitution. Charles K. Francis (now the 
leader of the opponents to the Sovereign Grand 
Council), is in conflict with the statement by the 
Illinois people. It reads : " Sec. 1. The Supreme 
Governing Body in tlie United States of the Red 
Cross of Con.stantine, Knights, etc., shall be styled, 
etc." Is this section intended to imply a confed- 
eration? It recognizes a "Supreme Governing 
Body " and that of the Sovereign Grand Council. 

The importance of this lies in tlie fact that 
the Illinois, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, 
Vermont, and Maine Grand Councils con- 
tinue to maintain independent sovereign- 
ties and deny the right of the Sovereign 
Grand Council, United States of America, 
to claim or exercise sole, sovereign jurisdic- 
tion for tlie Constantine Orders of Knight- 
hood in this country. The independent 
Grand Councils explain that a i)rimary ob- 
ject of the confederation of State Councils 
was to acquire jurisdiction over the "un- 
occupied" portions of the United States 
then claimed by the Grand Council of 
England, and that the right of the Sover- 
eign Grand Council, United States of Amer- 
ica, to occupy American territory not under 
the jurisdiction of State Grand bodies was 
practically all that was made over to the 
Sovereign body. The " Memorabilia " sets 
forth that the Imperial Grand Council 
of England waived its right of sovereignty 
over any portion of the United States in 
1877, and entered into "a treaty of amity" 
with the Sovereign Grand Council, United 
States of America, in which it recognized the 
sovereign authority of the latter throughout 
this country. "The Statement" replies 
that when the Sovereign Grand Council of 
the United States was organized in 1875, 
" it was repudiated by tlie Grand Imperial 
Council of England," but that in 1877 two 
men, the Sovereign Grand Master of the 
Sovereign Grand Council, United States of 
America, and the Chief Intendent General 



84 



FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE 



for the United States, for England, con- 
cluded a treaty with the English (mother) 
Grand Council, "to unite into one Sui)renie 
Grand body all Grand and subordinate 
bodies in the United States." It is further 
declared in "The Statement" that within 
a year the treaty was " repudiated " by the 
English Grand Council, notwithstanding 
which the Sovereign Grand Council, United 
States of America, continues to point to the 
treaty as the basis and justification of its 
existence. In reply to this, officials of the 
Sovereign Grand Council deny that the 
treaty has been repudiated. The records of 
the Sovereign Grand Council, United States 
of America, seem to confirm "The State- 
ment" in its charge that the body was 
practically dormant between 1880 and 1891, 
when, as explained in "The Statement," 
"several members" met at Eochester, 
N". Y., and "assumed to open a Sovereign 
Grand Council and transact business." 
One year later it held a Conclave at 
Bloomsburg, Pa., and claimed exclusive 
authority over the Constantine Orders 
throughout the United States, basing the 
claim on the treaty of 1877. The Sover- 
eign Grand Council has continued to hold 
annual sessions ever since, but Imperial 
Grand Councils in Pennsylvania, Illinois, 
Vermont, Maine, and elsewhere refuse to 
recognize it. 

All of the State Grand Councils named, 
and the Sovereign body as well, declare that 
they have cordial relations with the English 
Grand Council. The total membership of 
the Sovereign Grand Council, it is claimed, 
exceeds 1,600. Including the five indepen- 
dent Imperial Grand Councils and those in 
Canada and the United Kingdom, it is esti- 
mated there are 5,000 American and foreign 
Knights of Rome and of the Red Cross of 
Constantine. On the introduction of the 
Order into the United States, Knights Tem- 
plars and thirty-second degree Scottish Rite 
Freemasons alone were admitted to it, but 
some years later Royal Arch Masons were 
rendered eligible. The Sovereign Grand 



Council changed its rules in 1897 so that 
Master Masons may become members, thus 
apparently seeking to popularize the Order. 
The view taken by the independent Grand 
Councils seems to be that there are enough 
popular Masonic Orders, and that this one 
should constitute " a purely intellectual 
branch of Freemasonry . . . devoted 
wholly to the cultivation of the higher fac- 
ulties," rather than to gaining recruits. 

Four Orders are conferred by Grand 
Councils of Knights of the Red Cross of 
Rome and Constantine — the first, the one 
having that title ; the second, the Order of 
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre ; the third, 
the Order of Knights of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, and, finally, as a mark of especial 
honor for high Masonic ofiicials or for zeal 
in Masonic work, the Order of Knight of 
the Grand Cross, membership in which is 
limited to fifty in each country. In addi- 
tion to these, the Order of Holy Wisdom, or 
Knight Templar Priest, is conferred by 
some Grand Councils. It is said to have 
been instituted in 1686, and when conferred 
in "old Encampments which practised the 
seven steps of chivalry " was the ceremony 
for constituting chaplains. After the re- 
organization of the Chivalric Orders it be- 
came an appendant to the Order of Con- 
stantine. The "seven steps of chivalry" 
are classified in " Masonry in Europe," by 
Witter, Berlin, 1832, as follows: "1st, 
Knights of Rome and of the Red Cross of 
Constantine and Knight of the Grand Cross, 
the oldest Order of Chivalry ; 2d, Knights 
Templars ; 3d, Knights of Malta ; 4th, 
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, appended 
to which is the Order of Knights of St. 
John of Palestine, or St. John the Evangel- 
ist ; 5th, Rose Croix ; 6th, Templar Priest- 
hood ; and 7th, Commander Elect, Knight 
of Kadosch. No one American Masonic 
body confers all of these Orders. The sec- 
ond and third are under the jurisdiction of 
the Grand Encampment of Knights Tem- 
plars of the United States ; the fifth and 
seventh are controlled by the Supreme Coun- 



FREEMASONRY: KNIGHTS OF ROME AND RED CROSS OF CONSTANTINE 



85 



cils of the Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite 
of Freemasonry for the Southern and North- 
ern Masonic Jurisdictions, United States of 
America, respectively; the fourth and sixtli 
by Imperial Grand Councils and by the Sov- 
ereign Grand Council of Knights of Rome 
and of the Red Cross of Constantino ; and 
the first by the Supreme Grand Chapter of 
the Grand Cross of Constantino, United 
States of America, composed of representa- 
tives of the independent Sovereign Grand 
Councils, and also by the Sovereign Grand 
Council, United States of America. 

The Supreme Grand Chapter of the 
Grand Cross of Constantino, of which 
Charles K. Francis, Philadelphia, is Regis- 
trar General, is the highest body of the 
Order in the country recognized by the 
independent Sovereign Grand Councils. It 
was organized June 21, 1877, under au- 
thority granted the late Colonel W. J. B. 
McLeod Moore, 33°, Grand Prior of Knights 
Templars of Canada, who established the 
Order of Coustantine in America by author- 
ity received from the Earl of Bective, then 
Grand Sovereign of the Grand Imperial 
Council of England. The Supreme Grand 
Chapter is to the independent State Im- 
perial Councils what the Supreme Council, 
Ancient, Accepted Scottish Rite is to the 
bodies holding allegiance to it, retaining 
exclusive right to confer the Order of the 
Grand Cross, as does the latter the right to 
confer the thirty-third degree. Among the 
officers and members of the Supreme Grand 
Chapter of the Grand Cross of Constantino 
are : John Corson Smith, 33°, of Illinois, 
its Grand Sovereign (Past Grand Master of 
Masons. Past Grand Higli Priest of Royal 
Arch Masons, Past Grand Commander of 
Knights Templars); Josiah H. Drummond, 
33°, of Maine, its Grand Viceroy (Past 
Grand Master of Masons, Past General 
Grand High Priest of the General Grand 
Chai^tcr, Past Grand Commander of Knights 
Tem])lars, Past Sovereign Grand Commander 
of the Supreme Council, 33°, A. A. S. R., 
Northern Jurisdiction); Gilbert "W. Barnard, 



33°, of Illinois (Grand Secretary of the 
various Masonic Grand Bodies in Illinois); 
Marquis F. King, 33°, of Maine (Past 
Grand Master of Masons); Hugh McCurdy, 
33°, of Miciiigan (Past Grand Master of 
Masons, Past Grand High Priest of Royal 
Arch Masons, Past Grand Master of the 
Grand Encampment of Knights Templars); 
Abraliam T. Metcalf, 33°, of Michigan 
(Past Grand Master of Masons); Francis 
A. Blades, 33°,D. Burnham Tracy, 33°, and 
Nicholas Coulson, 33", of Miciiigan; Marsh 
0. Perkins, 33°, of Vermont (Past Grand 
Master of Masons); George 0. Tyler, 33°, 
of Vermont (Past Grand Commander of 
Knights Templars); Silas W. Cummings, 
33°, of Vermont (Past Grand Commander 
of Knights Templars); D. N.Nicholson, 33^, 
of Vermont ; Millard F. Hicks, 33°, and 
Edward P. Burnham, 33°, of Maine ; 
Seranus Bowen, 33°, of Massachusetts 
(Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter of 
Royal Arch Masons); Benjamin W. Rowell, 
33°, of Massachusetts (Grand Recorder of 
Grand Commandery of Knigiits Templars); 
Caleb Saunders, 33°, Massachusetts (Past 
Grand Commander of Knights Templars); 
Frederick Webber, 33°, Washington, D. C. 
(Grand Secretary General of Supreme 
Council, 33°, A. A. S. R., Southern Juris- 
diction); Edward T. Schultz of Maryland 
(Masonic Historian, Past Grand High Priest 
of Royal Arcii Masons, Past Grand Com- 
mander of Knights Templars); Thomas R. 
Patton, 33°, of Pennsylvania (Grand Treas- 
urer of Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter); 
Charles Cary, 33^, of Pennsylvania (Grand 
Secretary of Grand Chapter of Royal Arch 
Masons and Grand Master of Royal aiul 
Select Masters); John Sartaiu, 33°, Penn- 
sylvania ; Edward S. Wyckofif, 33°, Penn- 
sylvania ; Edward B. S])cncer. Pennsylvania 
(Grand Scribe of Grand Ciiapter of Royal 
Arch Masons and Past Grand Commander 
of Knights Temi)lar8) ; Andrew J. Kaufif- 
man, Pennsylvania (Past Grand Commander 
of Knights Templars); Harvey A. McKillip, 
33°, Pennsylvania (Past Grand Master of 



86 



FREEMASONRY: SOCIETY OF MODERN ROSICRUCIANS 



Eoyal and Select Masters); Charles K. 
Francis, 33°, Pennsylvania (Past Grand 
Master of Royal and Select Masters). Charles 
F. Matier is Grand Representative of the 
Supreme Grand Chapter of the Grand Cross, 
United States of America, near the Grand 
Imperial Council of England, and Lord 
Saltsun is Grand Representative near the 
Grand Imperial Council of Scotland. 
At the meeting of the Supreme Grand 
Chapter at Boston, September 21, 1897, 
apjDropriate tributes were paid the mem- 
ories of deceased members, Charles T. 
McClenachan, 33°, Masonic Historian 
of the Grand Lodge of New York ; 
Anthony E. Stocker, 33°, Pennsylvania 
(Past Grand Commander of Knights Tem- 
plars); and Daniel Spry, 33°, Grand Repre- 
sentative near the Grand Imperial Council 
of Canada ; and the Registrar General read 
the following letter from the Masonic His- 
torian, W. J. Hughan, Torquay, England, 
himself a Knight of the Grand Cross : 

Your invitation to attend the Supreme Grand 
Chapter of the United States of America j ust at hand. 
I cannot attend, but wish it were possible, so as to grip 
you by the hand, and others of my valued brethren. 

These personal references would seem to 
indicate that many of the more distinguished 
Freemasons in the country oppose the 
claim of the Sovereign Grand Council to 
exclusive jurisdiction over the Constantine 
Orders in the United States. In reply to 
an inquiry as to the status of the Order of 
Rome and the Red Cross of Constantine in 
the United States, C. F. Matier, Registrar 
General of the English (mother) Imperial 
Grand Council, wrote as follows, September 
15, 1897 : 

I am directed and have the honor to say that a 
conference of the Imperial Grand Councils of Eng- 
land and Scotland will be held in Edinburgh in 
April, 1898, and that the whole question of the 
position of the bodies claiming to be the supreme 
governing bodies in America will be fully con- 
sidered. As it is believed that representatives 
from the U. S. A. will be present, it is sincerely 
hoped that the conference will settle the cause of 
disagreement in the Order forever. 



Freemasonry: Society of Modern Ros- 
icrucians. — Founded more than a score of 
years ago, according to the account pub- 
lished by the High Council of the Societatis 
Rosicruciana^, United States of America, by 
Robert Wentworth Little, of England, upon 
" the remains of an old German association 
which had come under his observation dur- 
ing some of his researches." The Angli- 
cized organization was created as a literary 
society, to collect ' " archgeological and his- 
torical subjects pertaining to Freemasonry ' ' 
and secret societies in general; to stimulate 
search for historical truth, particularly with 
reference to Freemasonry; and to revive in- 
terest in the work of certain scientists and 
scholars. In this effort Mr. Little, a dis- 
tinguished Freemason, was assisted by such 
well-known members of the Craft as William 
Robert Woodman, Thomas B. Whytehead, 
AYilliam James Hughan, and Cuthbert E. 
Peck in England, the Earl of Kintore and 
Robert Smith Brown in Scotland, Prince 
Rhodokanakis and Professor Emmanuel 
Gellanis in Greece; and Colonel W. J. B. 
Moore in the Dominion of Canada. Rosi- 
crucian societies were promptly established 
in England, Scotland, Greece, and, later, 
in the Dominion of Canada. Like or- 
ganizations may also be found in Ireland, 
India, China, and in Tunis. In 1879 the 
High Council of Scotland established a 
Rosicrucian Society at Philadelphia, and 
in 1880 one each at New York, Boston, 
and Baltimore, representatives from which 
met at Boston on September 21 the same 
year, and established a High Council for the 
United States, to hold jurisdiction within 
the same and regulate the relations of the 
society here with other independent jurisdic- 
tions. The constitution adopted provides 
that no aspirants shall be admitted except 
Master Masons of good moral character, in- 
telligent, '' free from prejudice, and anxious 
for instruction." Every f rater is required 
to choose a Latin motto, which is to be ap- 
pended to his signature in all communica- 
tions to the Society, which shall be registered 



FREEMASONRY: ROYAL ORDER OF SCOTLAND 



87 



and never be changed, and no two fraters 
are permitted to have the same motto. The 
Society, wliich is secret in form, confers four 
grades composing the first order, and three 
in tlie second, in colleges; and two grades in 
the third order, in High Council only. The 
grades are as follows: First, Zelator; sec- 
ond, Theoricus; third, Practicus; fourth, 
Philosophus; fifth, Adeptus Junior; sixth, 
Adeptus Senior; seventh, Adeptus Exemp- 
tus; eighth, Magister Templi (official); and, 
ninth, Chief Adept, held by appointment. 
Colleges are limited to seventy-two active 
members. In the publication referred to, 
Charles E. Meyer of Philadelphia is named 
as Supreme Magus ; Albert G, Goodale, 
New York, Senior Substitute Magus; Al- 
fred F. Chapman, Boston, Junior Substitute 
Magus; Thomas J. Shryock, Baltimore, 
Treasurer General; and Charles T. McClena- 
chan. New York, Secretary General. These 
gentlemen, some of whom are dead, may be 
regarded as the founders of the Modern 
Eosicrucian Society in the United States. 

The work and purposes of modern Eosi- 
crucian Societies only faintly resemble an- 
cient Eosicrucianism, as the latter is often 
understood. Neither, so far as learned, do 
they claim any connection with the latter 
beyond what may be inferred from the state- 
ment that the English Society was founded 
on the ""remains of an old German asso- 
ciation." 

The Eosicrucian Society of the seven- 
teenth century was supposed to be in some 
way related to Freemasonry, Avhich was prob- 
ably an error, as the former embodied a sys- 
tem of hermetic philosophy, while the Free- 
masons at that time were nearly all operative 
masons and builders. There is no relation 
whatever between the rose and the cross of 
the Eosicrucians and like emblems in the 
Masonic degree of the Eose Croix, which 
was invented about the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. The Eosicrucians employed 
a number of so-called Masonic emblems, but 
they interpreted them differently. The 
ancient philosophic sect took its rise in 



Germany shortly after the appearance of the 
religious, mystical, and philosophic works, 
" Fama Fraternis," '"Chemical Nuptials," 
and other books by John Valentine Andrae, 
in which he recounted the adventures of 
"Christian Eosenkreuz," a fictitious per- 
sonage, whom he makes the founder of the 
pretended Society of Eosicrucians. It is 
pointed out by Mackey that so great was 
the effect of these publications that a secret 
philosophic sect of Eosicrucians was formed, 
many members of which were found in Ger- 
many, France, and England in the seven- 
teenth century. The publication by the 
American Eosicrucian Society refers the 
origin of its ancient prototype to the thir- 
teenth century, which is manifestly an error. 
No association by the name has been traced 
back of Andrae's account of a fictitious so- 
ciety of that title. It was not strange that 
the general public of the seventeenth cen- 
tury and later should have attributed sor- 
cery, alchemy, and other occult gifts to the 
Eosicrucians, but at this day the names of 
such Eosicrucians as John Baptist von Ilel- 
mont, physician; Eobert Fludd, i)hysician 
and philosopher, who died in 1637, and 
Elias Ashmole, the English antiquary, 
among many others who were j)i"ominent, 
would suggest that they were leaders among 
mystical and iihilosophic thinkers two hun- 
dred and fifty years ago. 

Freemasonry : Royal Order of Scot- 
land. — A ]\Iasonic Order of Knighthood 
conferred upon Eoyal Arch ]\rasons. It 
consists of two degrees or orders, the Eoyal 
Orders of Herodem and of the Eosy Cross. 
The Eoyal Order of Ilerodem of Kilwinning, 
Scotland, which by its own legend is said 
to have taken its rise in the time of David 
I., King of Scotland, presents the sacrifice 
of the Messiah, whereupon the candidate is 
sent into the world to search for the lost 
word. Its traditions state that it was estab- 
lished at Icomkill. Scotland, afterward at 
Kilwinning, where Eobert Bruce, King of 
Scotland, presided in person, and in 1314 
"reinstated the Order," admitting into it 



88 



FREEMASONRY: ROYAL ORDER OF SCOTLAND 



such Knights Temphirs as had fled to 
Scotland after the dissolution of the Tem- 
plars and under his protection had taken 
part in the battle of Bannockburn. Its 
ritual is in antiquated Anglo-Saxon verse. 
The Order of St. Andrew of the Thistle, 
afterward amalgamated Avith the Royal 
Order of Ilerodem, was instituted by Robert 
Bruce, King of Scotland, on July 2-4, 1314, 
to be conferred, it is said, upon Scottish 
Freemasons who fought with him, among 
thirty thousand others, at the battle of 
Bannockburn, against an English army of 
one hundred thousand men. "^At aboiit that 
time/' says Thor}^ ''he formed the Royal 
Grand Lodge of the Order of Herodem, re- 
serving to himself and his successors forever 
the title of Grand Master." The Order of 
Herodem is said to have been introduced 
into Kilwinning at about the time that 
Freemasonry appeared in Scotland, and 
Mackey regards it probable that the Order 
was designed to make plain the rites and 
symbols used by the Christian builders in a 
truly catholic manner, adapted to all who 
acknowledge one Supreme God, whether 
Jew or Gentile. 

The second degree of the Royal Order of 
Scotland, the Order of the Rosy Cross, is an 
Order of Civil Knighthood, which, it is 
stated, was founded by Robert Bruce after 
the' battle of Bannockburn, and conferred 
upon certain Freemasons who had assisted 
him. It may only be conferred by the 
Grand Master, his Deputy, or a Provincial 
Grand Master. The number who may re- 
ceive it is limited. Formerly it was sixty- 
three, who were to be Scotchmen, but the 
number has since been increased, and dis- 
tinguished Freemasons in almost all coun- 
tries may now receive it uj'ion being 
•'adopted" as Scottish (not Scottish Rite) 
Freemasons. It has also been claimed that 
the Order of the Rosy Cross was practically 
made up of the ancient Order of the This- 
tle, and that the ceremonial of initiation 
into the latter was borrowed bodily. In 
any event, the Rosy Cross comes more nearly 



to being a genuine Order of Knighthood 
than almost any other conferred in connec- 
tion with Freemasonry, and in it is found 
the intimate connection between the sword 
and the trowel which is referred to in sev- 
eral others. Its ritual is distinctly Chris- 
tian. As in the Order of Herodem, the 
office of Grand Master is vested in the King 
of Scotland (now of Great Britain), and in 
his absence a seat is always kept vacant for 
him in whatever country a Chajiter is held. 
Owing to the similarity between names, the 
Order of the Rosy Cross and that of the 
Rose Croix of the Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite, the belief has prevailed that 
the latter, in some way, is based upon the 
former. This appeared to be true, because 
both claimed to have had their seats of gov- 
ernment at Kilwinning, near the Irish Sea, 
in Scotland, because both gave a Christian 
interpretation to the three symbolic degrees 
of Freemasonry, and because the names of 
both bear a striking resemblance. As a 
matter of fact, there is no further similarity 
and no connection whatever. Their cere- 
monials and essentials are entirely different. 

Provincial Grand Lodges of the Royal Or- 
der of Scotland, one of tlie oldest continu- 
ous appendent Orders of Freemasonry, are 
now held in Glasgow and Aberdeenshire, 
Scotland; Yorkshire, Northumberland, Dur- 
ham, Cumberland, Lancashire, Cheshire, 
and London, England ; Western India ; 
China; New Brunswick, Prince Edward Is- 
land, Ontario, and Quebec; Natal, Cape 
Colony, Switzerland, and the United States, 
where chairs are always kept vacant for the 
hereditary Grand Master. 

The Royal Order of Scotland was intro- 
duced into the United States at Washing- 
ton, D. C, May 4, 1878, in the rooms of 
the Supreme Council of the Ancient, Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite for the Southern Ma- 
sonic Jurisdiction, United States of Amer- 
ica, when the Provincial Grand Lodge for 
the United States was instituted by virtue 
of a charter issued by the Grand Lodge at 
Edinburgh, Scotland, in which Sir Albert 




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90 



FREEMASONRY: STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP 



Pike is named as the Provincial Grand Mas- 
ter; Josiab Hayden Drummond, Maine, 
Deputy Provincial Grand Master; Albert 
Gallatin Mackey, then of the District of 
Columbia, Senior Provincial Grand War- 
den; Samuel Crocker Lawrence, Massachu- 
setts, Junior Provincial Grand "Warden; 
William Morton Ireland, of the District of 
Columbia, Provincial Grand Secretary; Eob- 
ert McCoskry Graham, New York, Provin- 
cial Grand Treasurer ; John Robin Mc- 
Daniel, Virginia, Provincial Grand Sword- 
Bearer ; Vincent Lombard Hurlbut, Illinois, 
Provincial Grand Banner-Bearer; Enoch 
Terry Carson, Ohio, Provincial Grand Mari- 
schal; Henry L. Palmer, Wisconsin, Deputy 
Provincial Grand Marischal; Charles Roome, 
New York, Senior Provincial Grand Stew- 
ard, and James Cunningham Batchelor, 
Louisiana, Provincial Grand Steward. The 
meetings of the Provinpial Grand Lodge are 
held annually, at the same time and place 
as the Supreme Councils of the Scottish Rite 
for the Southern and the Northern Jurisdic- 
tion of the United States alternately. The 
present Provincial Grand Master is Josiah 
Hayden Drummond of Portland, ]\[e., who 
succeeded to that office upon the death of 
Albert Pike in 1891. • The secretariat, with 
the records, files, etc., is at the Cathedral 
of the Scottish Rite, Xo. 1007 G Street, N. 
W., Washington, D, C. The present mem- 
bership of the Provincial Grand Lodge of 
the United States is 284. 

Freemasonry : Statistics of Meinber- 
sliip. — Among the long list of secret soci- 
eties, the names of which are familiar to 
newspaper readers, there are eleven Avhich 
may be classed as international, statistics of 
membership of which are presented in a 
separate exhibit. These data, the most 
comprehensive of the kind ever prepared, 
have been compiled through the cooi:)era- 
tion of representatives of each of them. 
Unusually full particulars concerning the 
number of Freemasons in various coun- 
tries, states, and provinces throughout the 
world are to be credited to the researches of 



Stephen Berry and Josiah H. Drummond, 
Portland, Me. ; the late Charles T. McClena- 
chan of New York; to the Grand Secreta- 
ries of Grand Lodges and other Masonic 
Grand bodies throughout the United States 
and British North America; to Grand Sec- 
retaries of nearly every foreign Grand Lodge; 
and many others distinguished as Masonic 
students or historians, with whom corre- 
spondence has been conducted. Similar 
recognition is due to Secretaries of Supreme 
or Grand bodies and other representatiA'^es 
of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Ancient Order of Foresters, Independent 
Order of Good Templars, Grand United Or- 
der of Odd Fellows (membership of which 
in the United States is composed of negroes). 
Independent Order of Rechabites, Ancient 
Order of Hibernians, Sons of Temperance, 
United Ancient Order of Druids, B'nai 
B'rith, and the Loyal Orange Institution. 
The Freemasons are shown to be the most 
numerous and by far the most Avidely dis- 
tributed throughout the world. If non-af- 
filiated Freemasons were counted, the total 
membershijD of the Masonic Fraternity would 
undoubtedly amount to about 2,000,000, be- 
cause those able to judge estimate that out of 
the whole number of living members of the 
Craft, about 40 per cent, are non-affiliates. 
The total of 11,000 Freemasons in Cuba re- 
fers to the period just before the outbreak 
of the revolution prior to the Spanish- 
American War, and includes non-affiliates. 
No one of the ten fraternities, statistics of 
membership of which are compared with 
those of the Freemasons, is very widely dis- 
tributed over the globe. In contrast with 
an exhibit which jioints to Masonic Lodges 
in almost every civilized part of the Avorld 
except Russia, Austria, and part of Asia 
Minor, accompanying comparative statistics 
show only three other, out of ten interna- 
tional secret societies, with anything like a 
cosmopolitan character — the Ancient Order 
of Foresters, Independent Order of Good 
Templars, and the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows. The stronghold of the An- 



FREEMASONRY: STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP 



91 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MEMBERSHIP OF ELEVEN INTERNATIONAL 

SECRET SOCIETIES. 



Mbmbkrship 
1895-1896. 


So 

< 


o 


o 5 


-a 

£-2=3 
o 


II 

►-1 


■2-2 

11 


United An- 
cient Onler 
of Druids. 


Bnai B'rith. 


Independent 
Order of 
Hechabites. 


Independent 
Order of Odd 
Fellows. 


Anc. Free and 
Aceepted 
Masons. 




16,000 
14,200 


158,788 

22,737 

523 

1,422 


33,390 
30,668 


72,039 
214 


100,000 
F 383,000 


165,000 


17,000 


.35,000 


'( 4,000 1 


745,508 
i3,460 


735,437 




31,487 










7(K) 


















125 


3,000 






1 














Totals 


30,200 


183,470 


64,058 


72,253 

r 

■ 704 


483,000 


165,000 


17,000 


35,000 


4,000 


779,093 


770,624 




700 








I 










200 










[ 










150 










! 










ISO 




35 







1 






1 


75 




















35 


















1,275 


















2ft4 


11,000 


Haj'ti .... 


;■ ■• 






















1 














,- 2,500 






j 














400 






















350 




193 


391 
















250 
















150 




aw 


















100 




















100 
























Totals 


437 


391 














264 


14,850 














12,000 






















3,000 






















2,200 






















2,000 


Ohue 


















154 
54 


600 




29 
23 
223 
















600 


















300 


The (.3) Guiueas .. 


















250 


















100 


Bolivia 




















100 
























Totals 


274 






704 
92,000 












208 
(■•••/ 

V.:::\ 

3,193 
89 


21,150 


England and Wales 

Scotland 


708,.582 

54,852 

1,628 


56,167 

45,886 

5,927 

1,723 


1 30,000 


760,000 


50,000 


66,000 
2,000 


1 

!- 2,000 


216,000 


3:}5.000 








44,000 














27,000 




520 














20,000 


Italy 
















100 

132 

600 

C243 


16.000 


Holland 


480 














5.000 




3.504 
73,321 












4.000 














4,000 












3,500 
















■{ 




3,500 






476 












500 


2,900 






1 


1 




2.000 








1 


1 








1.500 


Turkey 








1 








1,000 


















400 




















200 


Malta 


130 


















150 






















Totals 


760,192 
49 


177,004 
- 6,016 


30,000 


92,000 
■ 300 


760,000 


50.000 


68,000 


2,000 
• 700-j 


216,000 


4,857 


470,150 
7,000 














1,500 
















1,000 


Japan .... 












34 


400 












250 
















Totals 


49 


6,016 




300 








700 




34 


10,150 












C— Sweden onlv. 



F— British North America. 



92 



FREEMASONRY: STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MEMBERSHIP OP ELEVEN INTERNATIONAL 

SECRET SOCIETIES. —Continued. 



Membership 
1895-1896. 


o S 

1i o 

< 


c 
*i o 

lit 


3 

is. 




Mo 


II 


c 3 o 


M 

'S 
a 


C t- C3 
a> ^ o 

-Sow 


-BO g 

c - S 
o c o 

fll 


Anc. Free and 
Accepted 
MasonB. 


South Africa 


2,451 


1 
• 7,236 


r 

I 


1 r 

- 190- 

1 

J I 








- 300 -i 






6,000 
500 

2.000 
300 


" " Islands 












Egypt 














Algiers 














Liberia 


70 












250 


Canary Islands 












200 
50 


Azores " 


Incl. in 
Liberia. 












Tunis " 












150 


Madeira " 














150 


Morocco 














100 


Senegal 


Incl. in 
Liberia. 












100 


St. Helena 












100 


















Totals 


2,521 

31,188 


7,236 
1 20,081 


9,944 


190 
16,000 








300 






9,900 


Australia 


( 




18,000 




i 19,433 


Tasmania 


1 








26,000 


New Zealand 


9,862 


V:::."" 
























Totals 


41,050 


20,081 


9,944 


16,000 






18,000 






19,433 


26,000 
100 


New Caledonia 










Fiji Islands 




















100 


Hawaiian Islands 


28 
30 
















179 


700 


Other Oceana 


] 




































Totals 


58 


i 














179 


900 




















Grand Totals 


880,707 
D 


397,043 
A 


104,002 


221,447 
E 


1,44;3,000 
G 


215,000 


103,000 


38,000 


230,000 


912,500 
B 


1,324,929 





A— Includes 2,200 in Iceland, 100 in Isle of Man, and 545 in Channel Islands— in all, 2,845. 

B— Includes 108.4.32 Daughters of Rebekah in United States. 

D— Including 19,405 honorary members at large and 20,486 women members and contributing widows. 

E— Including 40,000 Daughters of Euth in the United States. 

G— Includes 200,000 in other British possessions. 



cient Order of Foresters (the parent Forestic 
body) is naturally in the United Kingdom, 
only one-eighth of its membership being 
found elsewhere, j)rincipally in Australia, 
Tasmania, New Zealand, the United States, 
and Canada, with very small totals in South 
Africa, Spain, Holland, the north coast of 
South America, and some of the larger West 
India islands. The Independent Order of 
Good Templars is strongest, of course, in 
the United States, but very nearly as strong 
in Europe, and constitutes the only large 
international secret society excepting the 
Freemasons which is widely distributed. 
It also has a large following in Norway and 
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Switzer- 
land, Mexico, India, tlie Orient, Africa, 
Australia, and New Zealand. The Inde- 



pendent Order of Odd Fellows has more 
members than the Masonic fraternity in the 
United States, but while the latter finds 
only one-half its total membership here, 
96 per cent, of all the members of this Or- 
der of Odd Fellows is in this country. The 
largest foreign membership of the latter is 
in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, 
where the total is nearly 20,000. In Ger- 
many, where the Order is growing, the total 
is about 3,200; but in France, Italy, Den- 
mark, Switzerland, Holland, and Sweden, 
Mexico, Ha}i;i, Peru, Chile, Jaj)an, and the 
Hawaiian Islands there are very few Odd 
Fellows. Less than two-thirds of the Sons 
of Temperance are found in the United 
States and Canada, less than one-third in 
the United Kingdom, and about one-tenth 



UNITED STATES 



OOM.CANADA 



iR^ji. 



-^c^^^y/^j 






UNITED 
KINGDOM 



AND 



IRELAND. 



GRAPHIC CHART SHOWING THE RELATIVE MASONIC MEMBERSHIP IN VARIOUS 

COUNTRIES. 



94 



FREEMASONS: DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS 



ill Australia aud New Zealand. About 40 
per cent, of the members of the Grand 
United Order of Odd Fellows (the parent 
English Order of Odd Fellows) are mem- 
bers of English, Scotch, and Irish Lodges; 
nearly 50 per cent, (negroes) are in the 
United States; about 8 per cent, in Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, and the remainder 
widely scattered, totals for South Africa, 
India, West Indies, and Central and South 
America being very small. More than 
two-thirds of the members of the Ancient 
Order of Druids are found in the land of its 
birth, the United Kingdom; about one-sixth 
in Australia and New Zealand, and nearly 
as many in the United States. The Inde- 
pendent Order of Eechabites reports that 
2 per cent, of its membership is in the 
United States, and the rest in the United 
Kingdom. The total membership of the 
United Ancient Order of Hibernians, in the 
United States and in the United Kingdom, 
is difficult to obtain ; but the figures given, 
best obtainable estimates of representative 
members, show that nearly 80 per cent, of 
the Order is in the United States. The 
B'nai B'rith, smallest of international secret 
societies in the list, numbers only about 
38,000 members altogether, of which 35,000 
are in the United States, 700 in Asia Minor 
and elsewhere in the far East, and 300 in 
Africa. The surprisingly large number of 
members of the Loyal Orange Institution is 
given on the authority of a prominent mem- 
ber, high in official rank. A total of 100,- 
000 in the United States does not look large, 
but it is difficult to believe there are 383,- 
000 Orangemen in British North America, 
and it is still more unexpected to learn 
there are as many as 760,000 in the United 
Kingdom, and 200,000 in British posses- 
sions "not specified." 

These eleven societies are seen to have 
aggregated nominally 5,859,023 members in 
1895-96, or (omitting honorary and women 
members of some of them) about 5,060,000. 
Allowing for those counted twice or more 
times, owing to membership in more than 



one organization, these eleven international 
fraternities number probably 3,500,000 adult 
male members, in 100,000 Lodges, scattered 
along the paths of commerce and civilization. 
While the sun never sets upon the Brit- 
ish flag, it is also true that somewhere east 
of the horizon of daylight there is always 
a Masonic Lodge at labor, and, in English- 
speaking countries in particular. Lodges of 
other international fraternities at work to 
relieve the wants of the suffering and dis- 
tressed and to cultivate the ties of brotner- 
hood. 

Freemasons : Distinguished Ameri- 
cans. — Within a few years after the forma- 
tion of a Masonic Grand Lodge at London, 
in 1717, many members of the nobility, 
representatives of the professions and other 
learned men became members of the Craft, 
and between 1725 and 1735 Lodges of Eng- 
lish origin were established in many of the 
larger cities of Continental Europe, where, 
for a few years, they were composed almost 
exclusively of men of rank and learning. 
The growth of the Fraternity, as is well 
known, has long been along the lines of uni- 
versal brotherhood, and even two hundred 
and fifty years ago its" membership included 
distinguished men in various stations of life. 
In almost all European countries the Craft 
to this day continues to enjoy the patronage 
and cooperation of the reigning families and 
of the nobility, notably in Great Britain, 
Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and 
Germany. The like was true in France 
under the Bourbons, in the Napoleonic 
regimes, and under the Eepublic. Free- 
masonry also continues to enjoy great jaop- 
ularity among the followers of those who 
created a united Italy. In England the 
Fraternity is presided over by the Prince of 
Wales, and in Sweden and Norway by King 
Oscar. In Denmark the Crown Prince is 
at the head of the Grand Orient. The late 
Emperor Frederick was Grand Master of 
German Freemasons from 1855 until his 
death. The Emperor William, although 
a Freemason, has not attended Lodge 



FREEMASONS: DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS 



95 



meetings since he became Emperor. In 
Austria, Freemasonry is not patronized by 
the aristocracy or tlie reigning family, nor 
in Eussia or Belgium; but in Holland the 
nobility are nearly all members of the Craft. 

A list of the names of eminent foreigners 
who have been or are Freemasons would 
include hundreds of other notables besides 
Richard Steele, Lord Byron, Robert Burns, 
Voltaire, Montesquieu, Garibaldi, Victor 
Emmanuel, Wellington, Bliicher, many of 
Napoleon's generals, and the late King 
Kalakaua of the Hawaiian Islands, and it 
will interest students of the progress of the 
Craft in the United States to read the names 
of some of the more distinguished Ameri- 
cans who are credibly reported to be or to 
have been Freemasons. 

The character of those whose names follow 
sufficiently attests the extent to which Free- 
masonry has been linked witli the careers 
of prominent Americans, notwithstanding 
it is not true, as has often been stated, 
that " one-half the Presidents of the United 
States," and that " all but four of the sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence were 
Freemasons." Following the identification 
of Benjamin Franklin with the Craft early 
in the last century are the names of Jeremy 
Gridley, Attorney-General of the Province of 
Massachusetts, Grand Master of St. John's 
Provincial Grand Lodge in 1755; and James 
Otis, Master for the Crown in the Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts, who argued against 
the famous Avrits of assistance in ITGl, when 
" Independence was born. " The only sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence who 
were Freemasons, so far as Grand Lodge 
records show, were Benjamin Franklin, 
John Hancock, William Hooper, Philip 
Livingston, and Thomas Xelson, Jr., five in 
all. Not only Washington, but nearly all 
of his generals were Freemasons; such, at 
least, was the case with respect to Generals 
Nathanael Greene, Richard Henry Lee, 
Israel Putnam, Francis Marion, Baron Steu- 
ben, Baron De Kalb, and the Marquis de 
Lafayette, with whom should be included 



General Jose[)h AVarren and Paul Revere. 
Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), a Mohawk 
Indian chief in the British service during 
the lievolutionary War, and Tecumseh, 
chief of the Shawnee Indians, an ally of the 
British in the War of 1812, who attempted 
to incite the Indians against the whites, were 
both Freemasons. In the period between 
the close of the War of the Revolution 
and the end of the century are found the 
names of F. A. Muhlenburg, Speaker of the 
House of Representatives in 1789; William 
R. Cox, Secretary of the Senate in 1796; 
Robert R. Livingston of New York; and 
Peyton Randolph, who was Grand Master 
of Masons of Virginia. Only eight Free- 
masons have been elected President of the 
L^nited States, out of twenty-four men who 
have had that honor: Washington, Jack- 
son, Polk, Fillmore (who recanted during 
the anti-Masonic excitement), Buchanan, 
Johnson, Garfield, and McKinley. A cor- 
responding list of Vice-Presidents includes 
six names: Aaron Burr, D. D. Tompkins, 
Richard M. Johnson, George M. Dallas, 
John C. Breckenridge, and G. A. Hobart; 
and among defeated candidates for the 
Presidency, John Hancock, John Marshall, 
Henry Clay, Lewis Cass, John Bell, Stephen 

A. Douglas, W. S. Hancock, and George 

B. McClellan were Freemasons, as were 
William II. English and Arthur W. Sewall 
among defeated candidates for the Vice- 
Presidency. Names of other prominent 
xVmericans who were or are Freemasons 
are grouped as follows: Cabinet Officers: 
James Guthrie, Kentucky (Secretary of the 
Treasury); Jacob Thompson, Mississippi 
(Interior); Howell Cobb, Georgia (Treas- 
ury); Zachariah Chandler, ^lichigan (In- 
terior); Edwin M. Stanton, Pennsylvania 
(AVar); Nathan Goff, West Virginia (Navy); 
Hoke Smith, Georgia (Interior); Benjamin 
F. Tracy, New York (Navy), and General 
R. A. Alger, ^fichigan (War). Ministers 
Abroad: William Richardson Davie to 
France (Grand Master of Masons in North 
Carolina at the close of the last century); 



96 FIFTH ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK AND EGYPTIAN SPHINX 

Anson Burlingame, Massachusetts, to China; Kane and Lieutenants E. E. Peary and 
MarshallJewell, Connecticut, to Russia; and A. W. Greely. Editors: Samuel Bowles 
Caleb Cushing, Massachusetts, to Spain. (1st), George D. Prentice, George W. Childs, 
Governors of States: Richard W. Caswell, Henry AY. Grady, and Colonel John M. 
Xorth Carolina; Edmund Randolph, Vir- Cockerill. Financiers: J, Edward Sim- 
ginia; DeWitt Clinton, New York; Leon mons, Henry W. Cannon, John W. Mackey, 
Abbett, New Jersey; Lucius Fairchild, Wis- AVashington E. Connor, and William Sherer, 
cousin; Roswell P. Flower, New York; Manager of the Clearing House, New York; 
James B. Gordon, Georgia; J. M. Rusk, Joseph Smith and Brigham Young of the 
Wisconsin; Thomas M. Waller, Connecti- Mormon Church; General Albert Pike of 
cut; General Benjamin F. Butler, Massa- the Confederate Army; Stephen Girard, 
chusetts; J. B. McCreary, Kentucky; D. H. philanthropist; Josiah Quincy (President 
Hastings, Pennsylvania; and George W. of Harvard College, 1829-40, during the 
Peck, Wisconsin. United States Senators: anti-Masonic agitation); Jacob Quantrell, 
Rufus Choate, Massachusetts; Thomas H. guerrilla leader in the Civil War; Richard 
Benton, Missouri; John Rowan, Kentucky; Vaux of Philadelphia; Rt. Rev. Bishop 
General John A. Logan, Illinois; Oliver P. H. C. Potter of New York; Rt. Rev. Wil- 
Morton, Indiana; Leland Stanford, Call- liam Stevens Perry of Iowa; Rev. Stephen 
fornia; Marion Butler, North Carolina; H. Tyng; Rev. Robert Collyer, New York; 
F. T. Du Bois, Idaho; J. N. Dolph, Ore- Chauncey M. Depew, 0. H. P. Belmont, 
gon; George F. Edmunds, Vermont; C. J. Samuel M. Gompers, Joseph D. Weeks, 
Faulkner, West Virginia; Arthur P. Gor- Marshall P. AYilder, John Brougham, Ed- 
man, Maryland; H. C. Hansbrough, North win Forrest, William J. Florence, and Ed- 
Dakota; 0. H. Piatt, Connecticut; M. S. win Booth. 

Quay, Pennsylvania; G. L. Shoup, Idaho; The fact that nearly all the names are 
Henry M. Teller, Colorado; John M. Thurs- of men who have become distinguished in 
ton, Nebraska; Daniel W. Voorhees, In- politics, war, or the professions was to have 
diana; Z. B. Vance, North Carolina; John been expected. It is less often that one 
J. Ingalls, Kansas; John T. Morgan, Ala- acquires a national or international repu- 
bama; Charles T. Manderson, Nebraska; tation in commercial, manufacturing, or 
John M. Palmer, Illinois; William A. Pef- agricultural pursuits, and it is among fol- 
fer, Kansas; Thomas C. Piatt and Warner lowers of the latter, of course, that by far 
Miller, New York. Congressmen: David the larger proportion of the nearly 1,400,000 
Wilmot, Pennsylvania; Robert Toombs, affiliated and unaffiliated American Free- 
Georgia; Thomas Corwin, Ohio; AVilliam masons are to be found. 
D. Kelley, Pennsylvania; R. P. Bland, Fifth Order of Melcliizedek and 
Missouri; Samuel J. Randall, Pennsyl- Egji>tiaii Sphinx. — This secret organiza- 
vania; William S. Holman, Indiana; James tioaof men and women, the last known public 

D. Richardson, Tennessee, and Jeremiah appearance of which was at Boston in 1894, 

E. Simpson, Kansas. Judiciary: John was also known as the '' Solar Spiritual Pro- 
Marshall, of Virginia, Chief Justice of the gressive Order of the Silver Head and Golden 
Supreme Court of the United States; George Star." The Order claimed to have been 
M. Bibb, Chief Justice of Kentucky; Rob- founded several thousand years "A. M.," 
ert Trimble, Kentucky, Chief Justice of the which may signify either ante-Melchizedek 
Supreme Court of the United States; and or after Melchizedek. 

John M. Harlan, Kentucky, Associate Jus- Genii of Nations, Knowledges, and 

tice of the United States Supreme Court. Religions. — A mystical association which 

Among Arctic Explorers: Dr. Elisha K. seeks to conduct its neophytes from the 



ORDER OF AMARANTH 



97 



Seen to the Unseen, a sort of esoteric col- 
lege, familiarly known to its members as the 
G. N". K. E. It was organized at Boston 
in 1888, and contains three branches, the 
Laws of the Ens, Movens, and Om, " in- 
cluding the secrets connected therewith." 
The Hieroiihant is reported to reside in Ap- 
plegate, Cal. 

Hermetic. Brothers of Luxor. — Said 
to be ancient, mystical, and of Oriental ori- 
gin. The head of tlie Exterior Circle in 
America recently resided in Illinois. It 
teaches "that the divine scintillations of 
eternal spirit will each complete its own 
* cycle of necessity.'" It is sometimes re- 
ferred to as " Isis Unveiled." 

Intlependent Iuteri»ational Order of 
Owls. — Organized by William Richardson, 
G. A. Meacham, and others. Freemasons, 
at St. Louis, Mo., in 1890, a secret society 
having sociability and recreation for its ob- 
jects. Only Freemasons (Master Masons) 
are eligible to membership. The presiding 
officers of subordinate bodies are called SajDi- 
ent Screechers, and instead of Lodges, places 
of meeting are called Xests, the governing 
body being the Supreme Nest of the World. 
The Order numbers about 2,500 members. 

Mystic Order, Veiled Prophets of the 
Enchanted Realm. — Founded by Hon. 
Thomas L. James, ex-Postmaster-General 
of the United States, who was the first 
Grand Monarch of the organization ; Pro- 
fessors Oren Eoot of Hamilton College, 
Clinton, N. Y. ; and J. F. MacGregory of 
Madison University, Madison, N. Y. ; Gen- 
eral William M. Nest and LeRoy Fairchild, 
both of Hamilton, N. Y.; with Rt. Wor. 
George H. Raymond, Grand Lecturer of the 
Grand Lodge of Freemasons of the State 
of New York ; Lieutenaut W. C. Eaton, 
U. S. N. ; and many others, all Freemasons, 
as a social and recreative secret society. 
The Order announces that in order to con- 
serve its own interests and secure the most 
desirable material none but Master Masons 
are made eligible for membership. One 
of its objects "is to benefit the symbolic 
7 



(Masonic) Lodge," and "although in many 
cases the government may be guided by 
Masonic usage as the most perfect system 
extant, it is to be strictly understood that 
in itself this is not a Masonic Order, and 
the degree is in no sense a Masonic degree." 
It is further announced tliat, as in addition 
to the abstruse and comi)licated teachings 
of Freemasonry which go to make up a 
part of life, we also " need sunshine," so 
these Freemasons have built up a new 
Order, Avhich is " Mystic " in its subtle les- 
sons, as in its form ; "Veiled," because no 
human heart stands all revealed ; and in 
an ''Enchanted Realm," because "duties 
wear" and "sorrows burden in any unen- 
chanted realm." The cornerstones of the 
Order, therefore, as may be inferred, are 
sociability and goodfellowship. The first 
Grotto was formed at Clinton, N. Y., wliere 
Hamilton College is situated. The organi- 
zation spread rapidly, there being ten 
Grottos in existence five years later, with 
two thousand members. Like the Benevo- 
lent and Protective Order of Elks, the 
Mystic Order, Veiled Prophets of the En- 
chanted Realm establishes only one Grotto, 
or subordinate body, in any one city. The 
total number of Grottos in 1897 was ten, 
the principal ones being at New York, 
Rochester, and Buffalo, and the total mem- 
bership about 2,000. The head covering of 
a Veiled Prophet is a turban with a silver 
tissue veil, the color of which is selected by 
each Grotto, with the exception that purple 
veils are reserved for members of the Su- 
premo Council, or governing body. 

Order of Amaranth. — OrigiiuiUy in- 
tended as higher degree in the Order of the 
Eastern Star, to form the third of a series 
of which the Eastern Star degree and the 
Queen of the South should be respectively 
the first and second. x\s Chapters of the Or- 
der of the Eastern Star did not approve that 
plan, the Amaranth remains a distinct Order, 
to which only Master Masons in good stand- 
ing and women who are members of the Or- 
der of the Eastern Star are eligible. The 



98 



ORDER OF MARTINISTS 



ritual upon which its present work is 
fouuded is said to have been written nearly 
forty years ago by J. B. Taylor of Newark, 
N. J. This, Robert Macoy of New York is 
said to have amplified and improved, until 
it had substantially the form used to-day. 
The institution of Courts of the Order of 
Amaranth began about five or six years ago, 
but the growth of this Order has not been 
rapid, total membership to-day not exceed- 
ing five hundred. The ritual is based on 
incidents in the lives of several characters 
in the New Testament. In the beginning 
an attempt was made to incorporate a mu- 
tual assessment beneficiary feature, but it 
was abandoned soon after. The objects are 
largely benevolent and social. (See Order 
of the Eastern Star.) 

Order of Martinists. — One -of the nu- 
merous Masonic rites which made its 
appearance in France about the middle of 
the last century. It is also called the Eite 
of Martinism. It appeared at Lyons in 
1767, with ten degrees, fathered by Louis 
Claude de St. Martin, a disciple of Martinez 
Paschalis. The latter's rite of nine degrees 
formed the basis of the ''rectified rite" of 
St. Martin, who was a deeply religious man, 
a student of Eosicrucianism, of Sweden- 
borg, and of the teachings of the Kabbalists 
and hermetic doctors of the middle ages. 
His rite was naturally filled with what has 
been described as "reveries of the mystics." 
The Order was jiopular for a time, and 
spread into Oermany and Eussia, where it 
had a brief career. The only excuse for 
this reference is the statement by S. 0. 
Gould, in his " Arcane Fraternities," Man- 
chester, N. H., 1896, that the Order, ''re- 
duced to three essential and four accessory 
degrees," was introduced into America in 
1887, where it is "being conferred by estab- 
lished and recognized Masonic authorities." 
He adds that its chief officer for the United 
States "resides in Missouri," and that its 
disciples " are residents of more or less of 
the States." 

Order of the S. E. K. — Composed of 



students of Esotericism, Egyptology, and 
Symbolism. Membership is limited. The 
Order is known to exist in Massachusetts. 
Order of the Eastern Star. — A chari- 
table and benevolent society to which only 
Master Masons, their wives, widows, sisters, -r^cu^ 
and daughters are eligible. Its teachings 
are founded on the Holy Bible. Chapters of 
the Order exist in nearly all/ if not quite 
all, of the States of the Union, in the Prov- 
ince of Ontario and elsewhere in the Do- 
minion of Canada, Scotland, and at one 
time in Mexico, Central America, and in 
South America. Its total membership is 
nearly 200,000, about 160,000 in the 
United States, and very small elsewhere, 
the majority being women. Its symbolism 
centres about the five-pointed star and the 
pentagon, or signet of Solomon. It is re- 
lated that, originally, the first point of the 
star suggested Obedience; the second. At- 
tachment; and so on ; but the modern ritual 
teaches that the first point represents the 
binding force of a vow, illustrated by 
Jephthah's daughter ; the second, devotion 
to religious principles, as exemplified in the 
character of Euth ; the third, fidelity to 
kindred and friends, as personified by Es- 
ther ; the fourth, faith in the power and 
merits of a Eedeemer, as manifested by 
Martha; and the fifth. Charity, illustrated by 
Electa. There is also a symbolism expressed 
through the signet, and there are other 
emblems, shown within the star. The so- 
ciety has the customary sign language found 
in kindred organizations. It is proper to 
explain that this Order is not Freemasonry, 
and is in no way connected with it. It was 
created by Freemasons, and only members 
of the Masonic Fraternity and women rela- 
tives of the latter may join it. It affords no 
especial means by which women members 
may prove themselves relatives of Free- 
masons, except to Freemasons who are 
members of the Order of the Eastern Star. 
The Order is quite popular in the West, 
where almost every city and town has one 
or more Chapters. Its membership is also 



ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR 



99 



largo at the East and is growing. In mauy 
instances, in addition to performing its 
function, that of inculcating various moral 
and religious principles, it operates in 
practice as a social club, or rallying point 
for women members of families of Free- 
masons, their husbands, and, if also Free- 
masons, their brothers and fathers. Not 
many yours ago it was generally supposed 
the Order was originated in 1850 or 1851 by 
Robert Morris, the well-known poet and 
Freemason. Through the courtesy of Alonzo 
J. Burton of New York, the writer has 
been shown a printed ritual of an '^ Ancient 
and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star,'' 
together with an account of its proceedings 
at a session in Boston, Mass., May 18, 
1793, which explains that the Society per- 
formed a most cflBcient work of charity 
during the wars of tlic Revolution and 1812. 
The idea of what has been called an Adop- 
tive or an Androgenous rite goes back, of 
course, even farther tlian that. A reference 
to the writings of Mackey, Oliver, and oth- 
ers, indicates that shortly after the in- 
troduction of Freemasonry from England 
to the Continent of Europe (one account 
says as early as 1830), so-called ''Masonic " 
Lodges for women made their appearance. 
To the mere statement of Mackey that there 
is a trace of these as early as 1649, nothing 
can be added. But in 1843 we find a 
French society of this variety, entitled 
"Ordre des Felicitaires ; " in 1847, the 
*' Order of Wood Cutters;" and, later, a 
number of others. These were formed in 
Germany, Poland, Russia, and, notably, in 
Franco, during the middle of the last cen- 
tury, where, for the next twenty-five years, 
they flourished and were popular among the 
nobility and otliers in the higher ranks of 
society. " Lodges of Adoption " appeared in 
France in 1750, to which only Master Masons 
and women relatives wore eligible, and were 
so called from their being taken under the 
nominal protection of or being '' adopted " 
by regular Masonic Lodges. But there was 
no further connection than that between 



them and the Freemasonry of one hundred 
and forty years ago, although rather more 
than that which exists between the Order of 
the Eastern Star and Freemasonry to-day, 
for there is no such thing in the United 
States as even an " adoption '' of an Eastern 
Star Chapter by a Masonic Lodge, or even 
the recognition of the existence of a body 
known as the Order of the Eastern Star by 
a Masonic Grand Body. The rituals of the 
Ordre des Felicitaires, the Wood Cutters, 
and others of like character, are quite dis- 
similar from Masonic rituals, tending rather 
to poetic, scenic effects, and dramatic per- 
formances calculated to impress the (men 
and women) novitiates who invariably took 
part in them Avith the moral lessons which 
it was sought to inculcate. Some of these 
relatively ancient, appendant orders for 
Freemasons and women relatives of Free- 
masons exist on the European Continent 
to-day, though they have long ceased to at- 
tract the number of candidates or class of 
members for which they were formerly 
noted. 

Freemasonry was introduced into the 
American colonies nearly one hundred and 
seventy years ago, and in the latter half of 
the last century (population of the country 
and the lack of facilities for communication 
considered), had an extensive and, as his- 
tory informs us, distinguished membershij). 
There are fragmentary printed memoranda 
indicating that some of the continental 
degrees conferred in " Lodges of Adoption," 
or other men and women's Orders to which 
only Freemasons and women relatives were 
eligible, were introduced into this country 
as early as 1778. Whether any of these 
took the form of an Order of the Eastern 
Star, w^hich the published report referred 
to, may never be known. One may only 
admit its likelihood. With the brief state- 
ment in the Proceedings of the Ancient and 
Honorable Order of the Eastern Star, re- 
published in New York in 1850, that that 
society was conspicuous for deeds of charity 
in the War of the Revolution and in the 



100 



ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR 



War of 1812, one is forced to rest content, 
until Kobert Morris invented and costumed 
his Order of the Eastern Star. Morris was 
born at Boston in 1818, was made a Free- 
mason at Oxford, Miss., March 5, 1846, and 
in 1847, with his wife, received the so-called 
*'side^' or unsystematized Masonic degree, 
the "Heroine of Jericho.'' This is said to 
have greatly interested him, and in Febru- 
ary, 1850, when confined to his bed with 
rheumatism, he is described as having de- 
vised the Order of the Eastern Star. He 
writes of his having "hesitated for a 
theme " on which to build such an Order, 
having " dallied over a name " and pondered 
long over the selection of the five-pointed 
star and jjentagon as its chief emblems. 
This would indicate originality on his part, 
and suggests that his calling it the Order of 
the Eastern Star was merely a coincidence. 
The writer is unable to learn that Morris 
ever heard of the Eastern Star of 1793. 
This, then, is the slender thread upon 
which hangs the claim of antiquity for the 
modern Order. Morris wanted this society 
to become a branch of Freemasonry, so as 
to permit women members to prove them- 
selves relatives of Freemasons to members 
of the Masonic Fraternity anywhere, and to 
enable them to share in the charitable work 
of that Fraternity. His plan excited great 
opposition, and failed. In 1853 he con- 
ferred the Order on a number of acquaint- 
ances, and in 1855 instituted Constellation 
No. 1, Purity, at Lodge, Fulton County, 
Kentucky. The headquarters were at Lex- 
ington, Ky., and Morris, of course, was the 
Grand Luminary, About two hundred 
Constellations were formed throughout the 
United States, one being in New York city, 
somewhere on Spring Street. This arrange- 
ment of the Eastern Star ritual met with 
disfavor from Freemasons, and as the 
ceremony was "too complicated," Morris 
revised it in 1859, calling the bodies " Fam- 
ilies of the Eastern Star." A number of 
Families Avere instituted, but the revised 
ritual evidently did not possess elements of 



success. When Morris sailed for the Holy 
Land, in 1866, he turned over all his rights 
to the Order of the Eastern Star to Robert 
Macoy of New York. In 1866 a church 
stood at the corner of Grand and Crosby 
Streets, in New York, the property of the 
Freemasons of the State of New York, and 
in December of that year a fair was held 
there for the benefit of the proposed Masonic 
Hall and Home. At its conclusion the 
ladies who had presided over the tables were 
loath to break their i^leasant associations, 
and a ball was given a month or two later, 
and a thousand dollars more realized for the 
fund. On January, 17, 1867, eighteen of 
the ladies organized a society and called it 
the Alpha Chapter of the Order of the 
Eastern Star. They met occasionally and 
performed works of charity, but, lacking a 
ritual, the society did not prosper. About 
a year later one of the ladies met Robert 
Macoy, an eminent Freemason, and told 
him that if the society had a ritual she 
thought it would be successful. Mr. Macoy 
set to work rearranging the old ritual, and 
on October 15, 1868, in the presence of the 
eighteen ladies referred to, conferred the 
degree, with his own wife as the candidate. 
Macoy simplified the work of the Constel- 
lations and amplified that of the Families 
by a dramatic rearrangement which was at 
once successful. From that time the Order 
began to increase, and New York State 
to-day has 125 Chapters and about 10,000 
members. The Grand Chapter of New 
York was organized November 3, 1870. 

In 1866 Albert Pike printed^ a version 
of the French ritual of an Order of the 
Eastern Star of a century ago, using the 
forms intact, but augmenting the parts. 
The ritual is composed of three degrees, 
Apprentice, Companion, and Mistress. The 
work is now exceedingly scarce. The de- 
grees are so complicated that it would be 
impracticable for the ordinary assembly to 
work them, and there is no record that they 
were ever exemplified in this country. 
Whether either Morris or Macov ever saw 



ORDER OF THE PALLADIUM 



101 



this work or the original is not known. 
Macoy, as Supreme Head of the Order, 
began chartering chapters and issuing new 
warrants to such Families as existed, and 
1869, 1870, 1871, and 1872 witnessed the 
extension of the Order into nearly every 
State in the Union, Cuba, Mexico, Central 
and South America, superseding a species 
of ** Adoptive Freemasonry'^ which had 
grown up in Michigan and in New York in 
1867 and 1868. AVhat was called the 
Supreme Council of the Adoptive Rite of 
the World was instituted at New York 
city, June 14, 1873, at a time when a 
meeting of the General Grand Council of 
Royal and Select Masters (American Rite 
of Freemasonry) was held at that city. 
Morris presided, and Macoy was elected 
Supreme Patron ; Mrs, Frances E. Johnson, 
Supreme Matron ; Andrew Cassard, Asso- 
ciate Supreme Patron ; Laura L. Burton, 
Deputy Supreme Matron; Robert Morris, 
Supreme Recorder ; William A. Prall, Su- 
preme Treasurer ; and P. M. Savary, 
Supreme Inspector. This was not long- 
lived. The General Grand Chapter of the 
Order was formed in 1876 at Chicago, and 
has jurisdiction over the entire Order, ex- 
cept in Vermont, Connecticut, New York, 
and New Jersey, reporting 27 Grand Chap- 
ters in all. In 187-4 Alonzo J. Burton of 
New York originated a floral ceremony to 
supplement the general work of the Soci- 
ety, which is in quite general use. At the 
session of the Grand Chapter, held in New 
York city, June, 1895, the Order of the 
Sisterhood was exemplified by a selected 
corps from Utica, N. Y., and the degree 
was adopted as an auxiliary. It was com- 
posed in the latter part of 1878, and is 
founded on the Biblical account of Jacob's 
ladder and a history of the life of Mary 
the mother of the Saviour. (See Order of 
Amaranth.) 

Order of the Majji. — A mystical Chi- 
cago Society, the practices and preachings 
of which are ''open to all who can appre- 
ciate them,'' but which is in reality a secret 



Order in that its teachings are imparted by 
means of " secret machinery." Its so-called 
" religion " is referred to as that of " the 
stars." No one but members profess to 
know the cause of its existence or its 
underlying principles. 

Order of the Mystic Star. — Founded 
about 1872 or 1873, at New York city, by 
A. J. Duganne and others. It was designed 
to rival the then rapidly growing Order of 
the Eastern Star, and, like it, was open 
only to Master Masons, their wives, widows, 
mothers, daughters, and sisters. It did not 
live long. 

Order of the Oinali Laiij^uage. — 
Founded at Washington, D. C; year not 
given. It describes the original universal 
language, the root, as the Omah tongue, 
the primal language " which allied man to 
Yahveh," and alleges tliat through confu- 
sion of sounds much that was known to man 
is lost ; that the Omah language revealed to 
man the secrets of material life ; and tliat 
''this language now' upon this planet has 
once more reached the identical point from 
which it was diffused," so that " men daily 
pronounce the magic words, having no con- 
ception of their occult power and meaning." 
S. C. Gould, in his "Resume Arcane Asso- 
ciations," adds that "a word to the wise is 
sufficient;" from which some may infer 
that the Order thinks it has much it could 
teach, even to the most erudite students of 
high grade Masonry. 

Order of the Palladium.— Said by S. C. 
Gould, in his "Resume of Arcane Associa- 
tions," to have been "instituted in 1730," 
and "introduced into the United States at 
Charleston, S. C," where it remained dor- 
mant until 1884, when it was revived in 
1886, as the new and reformed Palladium, 
" to impart new force to the traditions of 
high grade Masonry." It admits men and 
women, the former to the grades of Adelphos 
and Companion of Ulysses, and the latter to 
that of Penelope. As its Councils are " held 
incognito," its proceedings never printed, 
and its membership is greatly restricted. 



102 



ORDER OF THE S. S. S. AND BROTHERHOOD OF THE Z. Z. R. R. Z. Z. 



little is kuown of it by others than mem- 
bers. It publishes the "Free and Eegen- 
erated Palladium,*' by Avhicli title it is now 
known. 

Order of the S. S. S. and Biotlier- 
liood of the Z. Z. R. R. Z. Z.— Head- 
quarters ''for this country" at Boston. 
Its motto is: *'A11 things come from 
within." Its seal is a circle, formed of 
three cobras " separated by three swastikas, 
encircling two interlaced triangles," which, 
in turn, enclose "the crux ansata," from 
which its theosophic temperament and 
mystical tendencies may be inferred. It 
declares that Love with Wisdom is the 
secret of Life, and that the Torch of Life 
is fed by the Oil of Love. Among its relics 
is said to be a " large cube of cream-white 
stone," of great antiquity, j^resented by " a 
Mexican chief." Membership is small. 

Order of the Siifis. — Philosophical and 
theosophical, based on the Unitarian doc- 
trines of the Persians. The word Sufi 
refers to the Arabic word Suf, wool, and 
alludes to the dress of the Dervishes who 
originally taught the princij)les the Order 
seeks to elucidate, which are alleged to 
reconcile jihilosophy with revealed religion 
by means of mystical interpretations of doc- 
trine. The candidate for its mysteries 
represents a traveler in search of Truth, 
"a hidden treasure," and passes through 
eight stages or grades. Worship, Love, Se- 
clusion, Knowledge, Ecstasy, Truth, Union, 
and Extinction, or absorption into the 
Light. S. C. Gould, of Manchester, N. H., 
states that representatives of the Order re- 
side in New York and Missouri. 

Order of the White Shrine of Jerusa- 
lem. — Founded at Chicago a few years ago 
by Charles D. Magee, Supreme Chancellor. 
Men and women are eligible to member- 
ship. 

Queen of the South. — See Order of 
Amaranth. 

Rite of Swedenborg-. — A mystical, 
theosophical Masonic rite, consisting of six 
degrees, which grew out of the Rite of the 



Illuminati (Avignon, 1760), into which 
the reveries of both Boehme (founder of 
the latter) and of Swedenborg (who was 
not a Freemason) were incorporated. It 
has been presumed to have long been ex- 
tinct outside of a few Swedish Lodges ; but 
S. C. Gould, in "Arcane Fraternities," Man- 
chester, N. H.,1896, says that the Eite flour- 
ished in a Lodge in New York from 1859 
until 1863, and that it is still practised 
as a distinct rite in the Dominion of 
Canada. 

Society of Eleusis. — Commemorative of 
its prototype, it is founded on a portion of 
the ceremonies of the latter, and occasion- 
ally holds a grand festival with appropriate 
exercises. It dates its birth 1356 B.C., and 
has for its motto. Quod hoc sibi vuU f Com- 
mune bonum. Its duodecennial celebration 
was held at Boston in 1884. 

Society of the Illuminati. — A seced- 
ing Mormon, religious secret society for 
men, with which was associated another 
organization, The Covenant, a secret so- 
ciety for Mormon men and women, which 
existed on Beaver Island, in Northern Lake 
Michigan, off the Grand Traverse regions, 
between 1850 and 1856. When the Mor- 
mons, under Brigham Young, left Council 
Bluffs for Utah, James J. Strang, at the 
head of a party of seceders (New York 
" Sun " Grand Rapids correspondence, 
January 21, 1895, published January 27), 
journeyed to Beaver Island, founded the 
village of St. James, " naming it after him- 
self," erected a tabernacle, and, with the 
assistance of " a dozen young men as ajaos- 
tles," conducted religious services. By 
1850 St. James had a population of about 
600. In 1850 Strang had a revelation from 
" an angel of the Lord," directing him to be 
crowned "King of the Mormons," and en- 
joining upon him and his jieojile the isractice 
of polygamy. He was accordingly crowned 
king in what might be described as "ample 
form," and took unto himself a number 
of wives. The account referred to adds 
that "in the Church" were two secret 



SOVEREIGN COLLEGE OF ALLIED MASONIC AND CHRISTIAN DEGREES FOR AMERICA 103 



societies, one called tlie Society of the 
Illuminati, for men only, and the other for 
both men and women, called " The Cove- 
nant," from which it is easy to perceive he 
paralleled the work of Young, Kimball, 
Hyde, Pratt, and other Mormon leaders, 
then in Utah, where the secret "work'' of 
the Mormon Cluirch centred largely in the 
endowment house ceremonials. (Sec Free- 
masonry among the Mormons.) It is fur- 
ther explained that "in The Covenant 
iron-clad oaths were taken to defend tlie 
Church, even to the shedding of blood, and 
to stand by one another through thick and 
thin." The "secret obligations and work 
of the Illuminati were never made i)ublic." 
Strang's career was brief. In 1856 he 
was shot by one of his followers who had 
been iiublicly whipped, by order of the 
"king" for refusing to compel his wife to 
wear " bloomers " in compliance with an 
"edict" that all women in the kingdom 
should dress in that manner. Learning of 
Strang's death, neighboring fishermen in- 
vaded the island, razed the tabernacle, and 
dispersed the piratical Mormon population, 
■who fled to Chicago, Milwaukee, and else- 
where. 

Sovereign College of Allied Masonic 
and Christian Degrees for America. — A 
"Grand body," founded by Hartley Car- 
michacl, 33°, William Eyan, 33% and C. A. 
Xesbitt, 33°, at Eic]imond,Yirginia,in 1890, 
having rituals of some so-Citlled "side" or 
unsystematized degrees, which are conferred 
only upon Freemasons, and several aca- 
demic degrees which are conferred upon 
distinguished Freemasons, hoyioris causa, 
or to members of the Fraternity "who have 
passed satisfactory examinations and jxiid 
the necessary fees." Its highest academic 
degree is entitled "Doctor of Universal 
Masonry," and only five Freemasons are 
said to have received it — Josiah H. Drum- 
mond, of Maine, Past Most Puissant Sover- 
eign Grand Commander of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite for the Nortiiern 
Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States 



of America ; William James Hughan, the 
well-known English Masonic historian ; D. 
Murray Lyon, the Scottish Masonic his- 
torian ; the Earl of Euston ; and Prince 
Demetrius Rhodocanakis of Greece. The 
Sovereign College is in amity with the 
Royal Ark Council of England, the Grand 
Conclave of Secret Monitors for Great 
Britain, the Colonies and Dependencies of 
the British Crown, and the Grand Council 
of the Allied Masonic Degrees for England, 
Wales, and the Colonies and Dependencies 
of the British Crown, at which the Earl of 
Euston is the representative of the Sovereign 
College in America. The allied Masonic 
and Christian degrees conferred by the Sov- 
ereign College are the Ark Planner, cor- 
responding to the English Royal Ark Mari- 
ner ; Secret Monitor, Babylonish Pass, Great 
Higii Priest, St. Lawrence the Martyr, 
Tylers of Solomon, Knight of Constanti- 
nople, Holy and Tdesscd Order of Wisdom, 
and Trinitarian Knight of St. John -of Pat- 
mos. In recently published announcements 
the Babylonish Pass and Great High Priest- 
hood are omitted. The Ark Mariner degree 
is popular in England, where the candidate 
must have taken the Mark Master Mason 
degree in order to be eligible to receive it. 
It is conferred upon Master Masons here. 
The language of the degi-ee is peculiar. The 
Su]>reme body is called a " Grand Ark ; " 
subordinate bodies are "Vessels." All its 
references are nautical, and allude to the 
Deluge and the Ark of Noah. Members 
profess to be followers of Noah, and there- 
fore call themselves Noachidae, or Sous of 
Noah. The degree, which was invented in 
England about the close of the last century, 
sheds no light upon Freemasonry. Tlie 
degree of Secret Monitor, conferred upon 
Ark Mariners, is thought to have been de- 
rived from a Masonic society which was 
formed in Holland, about 1778, to teach 
the meaning of Brotherly Love. The latter 
was called the Order of David and Jonathan, 
and inculcated unfaltering friendship even 
in the presence of the most appalling danger. 



104 



TALL CEDARS OF LEBANON 



The degrees of Tylers of Solomon, St. Law- 
rence the Martyr, and Knight of Constanti- 
nople are conferred only upon those who have 
taken the two preceding degrees, and that 
last named upon those only who are willing to 
repeat and sign the Apostles' Creed. Mackey 
says of the degree of Knight of Constanti- 
nople, that it has no connection with Free- 
masonry, teaches an excellent lesson in hu- 
mility, and that it was probably instituted 
by some Masonic lecturer. The Babylonish 
Pass used to be conferred in Scotland in 
Eoyal Arch Chapters. It jjossesses some- 
thing in common with the Masonic Order 
of the Red Cross conferred in Commanderies 
of Knights Templars. It is thought that the 
Holy and Blessed Order of Wisdom is allied 
to one of a similar name referred to under 
the sketch of the Order of Knights of the 
Red Cross of Rome and Constantine (which 
see), particularly as the candidate must 
be either a Knight Templar or a thirty- 
second degree Freemason of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite. The Trinita- 
rian Degree of Knight of St. John of Pat- 
mos is conferred only upon Freemasons of 
mark and learning who have received the 
thirty-second degree of the Ancient and Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite. It is Christian and 
Trinitarian, and its possessors declare it 
equivalent to a patent of Masonic nobility. 
The ritual refers to the banishment of St. 
John. It is believed to be allied to the 
Order of Knights of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, conferred in Grand Councils of 
Knights of the Red Cross of Rome and 
Constantine. The Sovereign College is still 
situated at Richmond, Va., and its three 
founders continue among its principal of- 
ficers. Total allied membership about 
2,100, of whom about 560 are in the United 
States. 

Tall Cedars of Lebanon. — The name 
of a so-called Masonic '^ side degree." The 
ceremony is said to be amusing. The de- 
gree has no oflBcial standing, and there is 
no regular or authorized method of confer- 
ring it, beyond the fact that it has been 



handed down to be passed along. Its finale 
is sometimes a banquet. 

Temple of Isis. — Situated at Chicago. 
Lectures are delivered before its members 
monthly, on such subjects as the Mysteries, 
the Sphinx, the Pyramids, and Hermetic 
Teachings. Its symbol is a four-winged 
kneph surrounded by a cobra. Dr. W. P. 
Phelon is named as the founder of the So- 
ciety, in which much is made of the Tetra- 
grammaton, or combination of Hebrew let- 
ters representing the great and sacred name 
of Deity. 

Tlieosopliical Society. — (Contributed 
by Mrs. Annie Besant.) The Theosophical 
Society is an international brotherhood, the 
formation of which was suggested on Sep- 
tember 7, 1875, in the rooms of Madame 
H. P. Blavatsky, 46 Irving Place, New York 
city, U. S. A., and the definite organization 
of which was completed on November 17th 
of the same year. On that day the duly 
elected President, Colonel Henr}^ Steele 
Olcott, delivered the inaugural address, and 
the official year of the Society is reckoned 
from November 17, 1875. The first officers 
have an historical interest. President, Henry 
Steele Olcott; Vice-Presidents, Dr. S. Pan- 
coast and G. H. Felt; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky; Record- 
ing Secretary, John Storer Cobb; Treasurer, 
H. J. Newton ; Librarian, Charles Sotheran ; 
Councillors, Rev. J. H. Wiggin, R. B. West- 
brook, Emma Hardinge Britten, Dr. C. E. 
Simmons, H. D. Monachesi; Counsel to the 
Society, W. Q. Judge. Of all these, but 
one remains to-day, the President-Founder, 
H. S. Olcott, who, after twenty-two years 
of loyal service as President, remains still at 
the head of the Society, the symbol of its 
unity and the custodian of its unbroken tra- 
ditions. The rest are all swept away by death 
or desertion, the death of H. P. Blavatsky, 
the co-founder, having occurred in 1891. 

Organization. — The organization of the 
Society is copied from that of the United 
States, so far as federal and local govern- 
ments are concerned. It has a president. 



THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



105 



elected for a term of seven years (the Presi- 
dent-Founder holds his office for life, the 
seven years' term applying only to his suc- 
cessors). He appoints a vice-president, but 
the appointment must be ratified by the So- 
ciety; and he appoints a recording secretary 
and treasurer. There are no other officers 
belonging to the Society as a whole. The 
general control and administration of the 
Society is vested in a General Council, con- 
sisting of the President, the Vice-President, 
and the General Secretaries of the Sections 
into which the Society is divided. Its head- 
quarters are at Adyar, Madras, India, and 
consist of a lai'ge and beautiful building, 
containing a spacious hall for meetings, a 
fine library, the offices of the Society, and a 
number of living apartments; this building 
is surrounded by extensive grounds, pictur- 
esquely planted, and has several smaller 
bungalows connected with it for the work 
of the Society and the reception of visitors. 

The library, Avhich was opened in 188G by 
a remarkable ceremony in which Hindu, 
Buddhist, Mohammedan, and Zoroastrian 
priests officiated, contains a valuable collec- 
tion of some 10,000 Eastern palm-leaf manu- 
scripts and printed literature, some of the 
former being exceedingly rare. It bids fair 
to grow into an institution of very great 
importance, and plans are on foot to make 
it a great teaching centre and a resort for 
students from all parts of the world. Its 
beauty, seclusion, and quiet — while only 
seven miles distant from the city of ^ladras 
— combine to render it an ideal spot for the 
student. The anniversary meetings of the 
Theosophical Society are held at Adyar at 
the end of each December, and on that occa- 
sion a vast gathering assembles of members 
and friends from all parts of India and from 
other lands; the twenty-first anniversary 
was celebrated there on December 27, 28, 
29, and 30, 1896. 

Branches of the Society not belonging to 
any Section, and members unattached to 
any Branch or Section, are connected di- 
rectly with the headquarters at Adyar; but 



as soon as circumstances permit of their 
being organized under local governments 
they are encouraged to thus group them- 
selves. 

Any seven members of the Society may 
apply to be chartered as a Branch, all char- 
ters deriving their authority from tlie Presi- 
dent. Every Branch, or Lodge, of tlie So- 
ciety elects its own officers and makes its 
own by-laws, subject to the provision that 
such by-laws must not conflict with the gen- 
eral rules of the Society. Any seven or 
more chartered Branches can be formed by 
the President, on their application, into a 
Section, and this Section enjoys local auton- 
omy; it elects a General Secretary, who is 
ex-officio a member of the General Council, 
the governing body of the whole Society, 
and who is the official channel of communi- 
cation between the President and the Sec- 
tion. Each General Secretar}'^ sends an- 
nually to the President a report of the year's 
work of his Section, and these are summar- 
ized by the President in his annual report, 
and are preserved as part of the records of 
the Society at Adyar. There are at present 
(1897) seven Sections of the Theosophical 
Society: the American Section, chartered in 
188G, General Secretary, Alexander Fuller- 
ton, 5 University Place, New York city; it 
contains 40 Branches and is growing I'ap- 
idly; the European Section, chartered as 
the British Section in 1888, and extended 
to Europe in 1890, General Secretary, G. 
P. S. ^lead, 10 Avenue Koad, Regent's 
Park, London, England, with 79 Branches 
and Centres (groups not yet chartered); the 
Indian Section, chartered in 1890, General 
Secretaries, Bertram Keightley and L''pen- 
dranath Basu, Benares, India, with 181 
Branches and Centres, of which 47 are in- 
active; the Australasiaii Section, chartered 
in 1894, General Secretary, J. Scott, 42 
Margaret Street, Sydney, N. S. W., with 
12 Branches; the Xew Zealand Section, 
chartered in 1895, General Secretary, Lilian 
Edger, Mutual Life Buildings, Auckland, 
with 8 Branches; the Scandinavian Section, 



106 



THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



chartered in 1895, General Secretary, A. Zet- 
tersten, ISTybrogatan 30, Stockholm, Sweden, 
with 13 Branches; the Netherlands Section, 
chartered in 1897, General Secretary, W. B. 
Fricke, 76 Amsteldijk, Amsterdam, Hol- 
land, with 7 Branches. 

Ceylon has 22 Branches, bnt they are not 
organized into a Section; the chief work of 
the Society in Ceylon has been that of edu- 
cation. Under the inspiring energy of the 
President-Founder the Sinhalese Buddhists 
have built and now maintain 100 schools 
and two large colleges, educating between 
3,000 and 9,000 Buddhist children. These 
22 Sinhalese Branches and four others are 
the only Branches outside the Sections. 

Objects. — The objects of the Theosophical 
Society are three in number: 1. To form a 
nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of 
Humanity, without distinction of race, 
creed, sex, caste, or color. 2. To encourage 
the study of comparative religion, j)hiloso- 
phy, and science. 3. To investigate unex- 
plained laws of nature and the powers latent 
in man. Only the first of these objects is 
binding on all members, and the Society 
embraces members of all faiths, demanding 
no assent to any formula of belief as a quali- 
fication of membership. Its members are 
connected by an ethical rather than by an 
intellectual bond, and their unity rests on a 
sublime spiritual ideal, not on a formulated 
creed. The Society has no dogmas, insists 
on no beliefs, indorses no church, supports 
no party, takes no sides in the endless quar- 
rels that rend society and embitter national, 
social, and personal life. It seeks to draw 
no man away from his faith, but helps him 
to find in the depths of his own religion the 
spiritual nourishment he needs. That each 
should show to the religion of others the 
respect he claims for his own is understood 
as an honorable obligation in the Society, 
and perfect mutual courtesy on these mat- 
ters is expected from members. More and 
more this leads to cooperation in the search 
for truth, to softening of prejudices, to lib- 
eralizing of minds, and to the growth of 



a gracious friendliness and willingness to 
learn. 

Doctrines Studied. — The leading doc- 
trines studied in the Theosophical Society 
are : the unity of existence ; the three Logoi; 
the nature of the universe and of man, as 
macrocosm and microcosm, evolving in a 
sevenfold order; the One Self as the root of 
Being, its infoldment in matter and the un- 
foldment of its powers therein; the inherent 
divinity in man, his constitution and pow- 
ers; his evolution by reincarnation, treading 
in turn the physical, astral, and mental 
worlds, time after time, under the law of 
causation, or karma, until perfection is 
gained; the quickening of evolution by the 
study and practice of the science of the 
soul; the present existence of men who have 
attained perfection, and who remain on 
earth to help onward the evolution of their 
less advanced brethren; the presence of such 
men in all ages, as custodians of a body of 
knowledge respecting God, the universe, 
man, and their relations to each other, lead- 
ing to a knowledge of the Self, the divine 
wisdom; the existence and continual activ- 
ity of Intelligences — spiritual and others — 
engaged in carrying on and directing all the 
processes of nature, with whom man can 
come into contact by virtue of the spiritual 
intelligence latent within himself. It is 
asserted that these doctrines are common to 
all religions, and that where any of them 
have become overlaid by efflux of time, it is 
necessary, in order to preserve the religion, 
that they should be restored. Their jDres- 
ence in the various religions can be proven 
by the common language of symbolism, in 
which they are expressed, the leading sym- 
bols of great religions being identical. The 
study of symbolism is carefully pursued in 
the Branches of the Society. 

Inner Grades mid Teachings.— Mhile 
everyone who recognizes the universal broth- 
erhood of man is welcomed within the Theo- 
sophical Society, its inner grades, comprised 
witliin the Eastern School, or Esoteric Sec- 
tion, are open only to those members of not 



THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



107 



less than a year's standing, who have made 
sufficient jsrogress to have become convinced 
of the truth of the fundamental theosophi- 
cal doctrines, and who, already striving to 
lead a pure and unselfish life, desire to ad- 
vance more rapidly in the evolution of the 
inner nature. Such members, on approval, 
enter the Eastern School, and commence a 
regular course of study and jH'actice, de- 
signed to prepare them for admission into 
successive stages of the path which leads up 
to definite discipleship under one of the 
great Masters, or Adepts, who are the cus- 
todians of the divine wisdom, and who are 
ever ready to welcome the neophyte who 
proves himself worthy of accei)tance. This 
School opens up once more, in the sight of 
the modern Avorld, the ancient pathway to 
Initiation, the function performed in an- 
cient Greece by the Schools of Pythagoras, 
between which and the TheosoiJhical Society 
there is an occult tie. Its lowest grades 
correspond to the classes of Pythagorean 
scholars who were learning to practise in 
family and social life the lower classes of 
virtues, and its higher ones, in ascending 
order, lead the earnest aspirant to the very 
gateway of the great Initiations. This res- 
toration to the modern world of the cher- 
ished privilege of antiquity — the knowledge 
where the beginning of the pathway can be 
found that leads from the life of the world 
to that of the Adept, or the perfected Man, 
is perhaps, to earnest and aspiring souls, 
the greatest boon bestowed by the Theo- 
sophical Society. 

History. — The history of the Theosophi- 
cal Society is one of struggle against appar- 
ently insurmountable obstacles, of crushing 
attacks and betrayals from which it has ever 
emerged the stronger and the purer, of tem- 
porary reverses followed by swifter progress. 
It is as though it were watched over by a 
Power which subjects it to the rudest trials, 
in order to shake out of it every member 
who is not strong enough to stand alone, 
and intuitional enough to discern the 
right pathway amid bewildering cross-roads. 



Some think that the Society is being shaped 
for a great work in the future, and that the 
unfit are therefore from time to time sifted 
out. 

Two figures stand prominently out as the 
Founders of the Society, Colonel Henry 
Steele Olcott and Madame Helena Petrovna 
Blavatsky. 

Colonel Henry Steele Olcott is a native- 
born American, and obtained his colonelcy 
during the great Civil War between Xorth 
and South. He received high praise from 
his government for his services, and was well 
known, in addition, as a scientific agricul- 
turalist; but his cravings after knowledge 
of the invisible worlds drove him into in- 
vestigations that led him far away from offi- 
cialism and agriculture, and when he met 
Madame H. P. Blavatsky at the Eddy farm- 
house, whither he had gone to investigate 
the spiritualistic manifestations tlirough the 
Eddy brothers, he was drawn to her by her 
obvious occult knowledge, and a bond was 
formed between them which united them in 
a common work on the physical plane till 
her passing away in 1891. According to 
her belief and his the bond remains un- 
broken on the higher planes of existence, 
and tliey are still co-workers, though not in 
the physical body. Together they founded 
the Theosophical Society, and traveled 
through the world to organize it. 

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky was a Kus- 
sian of noble family related to the imperial 
house of Russia. She was married in ex- 
treme youth to his Excellency General Xice- 
phore Blavatsky, governor of a district in 
the Caucasus, but left him ere their married 
life had well begun, driven by an insatiable 
thirst for occult knowledge, and traveling, 
on means provided by her father, through 
Egypt and various Eastern lands, in search 
of a Teacher whom she knew to exist, but 
knew not where to find. At last she suc- 
ceeded in the object of her search, and be- 
came the pupil of a great Hindu sage, re- 
ceiving from him the knowledge with which 
she returned to the Western world. She 



108 



THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



made her wa}^ to America, where she was 
directed to begin her teaching work, met 
Colonel Olcott, and accepted him as the col- 
league she Avas seeking, and announced her- 
self to the world through the publication of 
two large volumes, " Isis Unveiled,'' a work 
showing a vast range of occult knowledge, 
but a collection of notes for a book rather 
than the complete book itself. 

These two remarkable persons were the 
founders and the sustainers of the Theo- 
sophical Society: Colonel Olcott the execu- 
tive officer, the organizer, presiding over all 
its otiter activities; and Madame Blavatsky 
the teacher, the expounder of occult mys- 
teries and the wielder of occult forces. They 
were the twin suns round which the whole 
system revolved. 

The Society did not flourish in America 
after its foundation. Little interest was 
aroused by its teachings. Spiritualism being 
then in the ascendant, and it appeared as 
though the Society were fated to perish still- 
born. But its organization was just kept 
going by its founders, and the great spirit- 
ual forces behind it ensured its continuance 
through these early days. On July 16, 
1877, at a meeting of the Society, the Presi- 
dent was authorized to form branches of the 
Society in Great Britain, India, and else- 
where at his discretion, to transfer the So- 
ciety's headquarters to any country in which 
he might himself be established, and to tem- 
porarily appoint anyone he might select to 
an}^ executive office necessary for the trans- 
action of business. These arrangements 
were made in view of the approaching de- 
parture of the Founders for India; the New 
York headquarters were broken uji on their 
sailing for Liverpool on December 17, 1878, 
but a nucleus appointed by the President re- 
mained to carry on the life of the organiza- 
tion in America — General Abner Donbleday, 
David A. Curtis, G. V. Maynard, and W. Q. 
Judge. 

The first offshoot of the Theosophical So- 
ciety appeared in Great Britain, and was 
chartered on June 27, 1878. This Branch 



changed its name in 1883 from the "Brit- 
ish Theosophical Society '' to the " London 
Lodge of the Theosophical Society.*' It 
still bears this name, and has Mr. A. P. 
Sinnett, the well-known writer, as its Presi- 
dent. It is the premier Lodge of the So- 
ciety, as holding the oldest charter. 

The Pounders left England for India on 
January 19, 1879, and landed in Bombay 
on February 16th. There the Indian de- 
partment of the Society was founded, and 
branch after branch rapidly sprang up. 
The movement spread to Ceylon in 1880, 
nine branches being formed there. In Eu- 
rope, the Ionian Branch was founded in 
Corfu in 1882, followed by the formation of 
branches in France in 1883, and in Scot- 
land and Germany in 1884. 

In America the movement languished. 
An apparently abortive attempt to form a 
Branch at Los Angeles, Cal., was made in 
April, 1879, and under date April 30, 1881, 
Mr. Judge writes of the one group in New 
York city that it is "suspended," and 
" ought to remain torpid for some time 
yet." But General Donbleday and Dr. 
J. D. Buck were elected among the Vice- 
Presidents of the whole Society in April, 
1880, and Mr. Judge was elected as a re- 
cording secretary in 1879, and reelected in 
1880. In January, 1882, a slight renewal 
of life appeared at Eochester, and a Branch 
was chartered, followed on May 5, 1883, by 
a Branch at St. Louis. On December 4, 
1883, the original New York group, long 
suspended, dissolved itself, and the "New 
York Branch of the Theosophical Society " 
was formed under the name of the " Aryan 
Theosophical Society," with Mr. Judge as 
President. A " Board of Control " for the 
movement in America was chartered by the 
President-Founder on May 13, 1884. It 
lasted until October 30, 1886, when it was 
dissolved by the order of the President, and 
the nine Branches of the Theosophical So- 
ciety then existing in America were formed 
into the first territorial Section of the So- 
ciety. This Section was definitely organized 



THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETV 



109 



ou October 30, 188G, at the residence of Dr. 
J. D. Buck, Cincinnati, 0. Mr. AV. Q. 
Judge was unanimously elected General Sec- 
retar}' and Treasurer, and from that time 
forward he devoted himself to the work of 
building up the Section with indomitable 
courage, perseverance, and energy. So well 
he wrought that in nine years he had estab- 
lished a Section of nearly one hundred 
Branches, and though at the end he de- 
serted the Society and struck at it a fratri- 
cidal blow, the errors of his later years may 
be forgotten in the lustre of his earlier ser- 
vices, when the schism he caused is healed 
by the gentle hand of time. 

The American revival followed close ou 
the heels of one of the most ruthless attacks 
ever made on the Society. Two employes 
of the Society, accused of wrong-doing, 
concerted Avith certain missionaries in Mad- 
ras an elaborate accusation against Madame 
Blavatsky, when she and the President were 
absent in Europe, charging her with fraud 
in connection with abnormal manifesta- 
tions produced by her. ]\Iadame Blavatsky 
promptly resigned her position in the Soci- 
ety, in order that it might not be compro- 
mised in the eyes of the public, and de- 
manded an investigation into the charges. 
A large and important committee was 
formed to look into the matter, and cleared 
her from the charges made, conclusively 
proving that they were based entirely on 
false and slanderous statements made by 
enemies of the Society with the view of de- 
stroying it. Madame Blavatsky's resigna- 
tion was refused, and the Society declared 
its full confidence in her integrity, so that 
the attempt to ruin her only enthroned her 
more securely in the hearts of its members. 
As with King Solomon's judgment, which 
proved the true mother of the dispiited child 
by her readiness to surrender it as hers in 
order that it might live, so did H. P. Bla- 
vatsky's prompt and entire self-abnegation 
prove her motherly devotion to the Society 
to which she had given birth. 

From this time (1884-85) onward the So- 



ciety seemed to be inspired with fresh life 
and energy. Mr. Judge, returning from 
India, threw himself into the work in Amer- 
ica with the results already noted. The 
President succeeded in obtaining from Lord 
Derby, then the head of the Colonial Office, 
various alterations in the government pol- 
icy in Ceylon, thus benefiting the Buddhist 
population of that island, while the govern- 
ment in India at last withdrew from the 
official persecution by police esi)ionage which 
it had carried on against the two Founders, 
under the pretence that they were engaged 
in j^olitical intrigues. ^ladame Blavatsky 
settled in Europe, at first in Germany and 
then in London, where she gathered round 
her a number of pupils, since well known 
in the movement, Bertram and Arcliibald 
Keightley, G. K. S. Mead, C. F. Wright, tlie 
Countess "Wachtmeister, Mrs. Isabel Cooper 
Oakley, Mrs. Annie Besant, all members of 
the powerful London group called the Bla- 
vatsky Lodge, while she was also in the close 
neighborhood of her old pupils, A. P. Sin- 
nett and C. AV. Leadbeater, two of the most 
widely knoAvn writers on Theosophy. (All 
these, except Dr. Archibald Keightley and 
Mr. AA'right, remained loyal to the Society in 
the great crisis of 1894-95.) The European 
movement grew rapidly under the impulse 
given by ^Madame Blavatsky's presence and 
writings, and her London pupils have re- 
mained the leading writers of theosophical 
literature, forming the literary heart of the 
Society. At the close of 1888 Madame Bla- 
vatsky, with her colleague's cordial assent, 
formed her personal pupils into the Esoteric 
Section, that she later named the Eastern 
School, thus publicly reo])ening the ancient 
pathway to the obtaining of the divine wis- 
dom. In 1891, on May 8th, she passed out 
of the body, bidding her pupils to expect 
her reappearance ere long in India, in an 
Indian body chosen by her Master as the 
vehicle for her next incarnation. She left 
the carrying on of her special department 
of work in the hands of her pupil, Mrs. 
Annie Besant, in whose charge she also 



110 



THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



placed the whole of her unpublished manu- 
scripts. 

The Society continued to spread in all 
parts of the world, but in 1892 and 1893 
many complaints were circulated accusing 
Mr. \\. Q. Judge — who had been made 
Vice-President of the whole Society — of 
forging messages which purported to come 
from the Masters. The scandal grew so 
great that it became necessary to investigate 
it, and Mrs. Annie Besant early in 1894 
presented a formal request to the President 
to appoint a committee for the investigation 
of the charges. The committee met in Lon- 
don in the July of the same year, but was 
foiled in its purpose by the legal ingenuity 
of the accused, who pleaded that it had no 
jurisdiction to try him. The abortive at- 
tempt to put things right only increased the 
scandal, and at the Convention of the In- 
dian Section in the following December a 
resolution was passed calling on the Presi- 
dent to obtain from Mr. Judge a vindication 
of his character within six months, or fail- 
ing that to expel him from the Society. 
The Australian Section followed suit, and 
the European called on Mrs. Besant to pub- 
lisli the evidence. At that time the Society 
cousisted only of four Sections, and three of 
these were resolute that Mr. Judge should 
clear his character or leave the Society. 
Meanwhile Mr. Judge had been planning a 
coup de theatre. He had circulated pri- 
vately documents denouncing Mrs. Besant, 
and claiming the right to remove her from 
the position as teacher she had been given 
by Madame Blavatsky. His American col- 
leagues supported him, and he induced 
them, at the Convention of the American 
Section at Boston, in April, 1895, to declare 
the American Society independent, with 
himself as President for life. He was sup- 
ported by 90 votes to 10, and the American 
Section was reduced to fourteen Branches, 
the remainder constituting themselves into 
a separate Society, leaving the international 
body, and, while retaining its name, casting 
off their allesfiance to its President and 



seceding from the original association. A 
couple of hundred members followed their 
example in Europe, under the leadership of 
Dr. Archibald Keightley, and about a score 
followed suit in Australasia. The fratricidal 
blow did not succeed in slaying the great 
international Society. Even in America a 
remnant stood firm and remained as the 
American Section, and the fourteen Branches 
to which it was reduced had increased to 
forty in July, 1897. In Europe the Society 
has grown rapidly in importance, and there 
are now three Sections in Europe instead of 
' one, while in Australasia New Zealand has 
become a separate Section, the Theosophical 
Society thus possessing seven Sections scat- 
tered over the world. The whole Society is 
the stronger and the purer for the lesson 
that no position in it, however high, no ser- 
vices, however great, can be held to condone 
deviations from the path of probity and truth 
in the Society's work. 

Bibliography. — The leading magazines in 
the Society are " The Theosophist," founded 
by H. P. Blavatsky and Colonel H. S. 01- 
cott, edited by the latter, and published at 
Adyar, Madras, India; " Lucifer," founded 
by H. P. Blavatsky, edited by Annie Besant 
and G. E. S. Mead, and published in Lon- 
don, England; " Mercury," edited by J. "W. 
Walters, published in San Francisco, Cal., 
U. S. A.; " Theosophy in Australasia," 
published in Sydney, N. S. W., Australia; 
" Theosophia," published in Amsterdam, 
Holland; " Le Lotus Bleu," edited by Dr. 
Pascal, and published in Paris; " Teosofisk 
Tidokrift," published in Stockholm, Swe- 
den; "Sophia," published in Madrid, Spain. 
Besides these, there are many smaller jour- 
nals in various languages, issued in Europe 
and in India,suitable to local work and needs. 

The chief works issued are — By H. P. 
Blavatsky: " The Secret Doctrine," 3 vols. ; 
"The Key to Theosophy; " "' Isis Un- 
veiled," 2 vols.; "The Voice of the Si- 
lence;" "' Panarion, or a Collection of 
Fugitive Papers;" "The Caves and Jun- 
gles of Hindostan;" "Nightmare Tales," 



THE ROCHESTER BROTHERHOOD 



111 



a collection of extraordinarily weird, occult 
stories. By H. S. Olcott: "Old Diary 
Leaves," a history of the Theosophical So- 
ciety; " Theosophy, lieligion, and Occult 
Science;" " Posthumous Iluinanity," trans- 
lated from the French; " A Buddhist Cate- 
chism; " '" Kinship between Hinduism and 
Buddhism." By A. P. Sinnett: "The 
Occult World;" "Esoteric Buddhism;" 
" The Growth of the Soul; " " The Ration- 
ale of Mesmerism;" "Karma," a novel. 
By Annie Besaut: Five of the series of 
" Theosojihical Manuals," expositions of 
Theosophical doctrines; "' The Ancient Wis- 
dom," an outline of Theosophy; "The 
Building of the Kosmos; " "The Self and 
its Sheaths;" "The Birth and Evolution 
of the Soul;" "In the Outer Court;" 
" The Path of Discipleship; " " Four Great 
Religions," expositions of Hinduism, Zoro- 
astriauism. Buddhism, and Christianity; 
"The Three Paths to Union;" a transla- 
tion from the Sanskrit of " The Bhagavad 
Gita." By G. R. S. Mead: "Plotinus;" 
" Orpheus; " "' The World Mystery; " " Si- 
mon Magus;" a translation of the " Pistis 
Sophia; " a translation from the Sanskrit, 
"The Upanishads," 2 vols. By C. W. 
Lead beater: Two of the series of "Theo- 
sophical Manuals;" "Dreams." By W. 
Scott-Elliot: "The Story of Atlantis," 
with maps. By M. C. : "' Light on the 
Path." By Franz Hartmann: "Magic, 
White and Black;" "The Secret Symbols 
of the Rosicrucians." By Dr. Pascal: 
"L"A. B. C. de la Theosophie; " " Les 
Sept Principes de I'llomme." By Alexan- 
der Fullerton: "' The Wilkesbarre Letters; " 
"The Indianapolis Letters." By Walter 
R. Old: "What is Theosophy?" By W. 
Kingsland: "The Esoteric Basis of Chris- 
tianity." By Rama Prasad: "Nature's 
Finer Forces." By T. Subba Row: "Dis- 
courses on the Bhagavad Gita; " " Esoteric 
Writings." There is a very large pamphlet 
literature. 

[The Theosophical Society has also had 



some of the ordinary secret society elements 
of secrecy in it; i.e., "certain signs, pass- 
words, and a grip." ^Irs. Besant writes 
that these "are still universally used in 
India," where every new member is for- 
mally received and invested with them. 
" In the West," she adds, " tiiey have been 
dropped — a mistake, I think. The Esoteric 
Section or Eastern School is a secret society. 
H. P. Blavatsky was often asked by Masons 
to give them the lost knowledge, and would 
sometimes surprise them by giving them 
their own grips. She had some pupils 
among them, but I am not aware that she 
offered them that which, as a body, they 
seek." The emblems selected by the Theo- 
sophical Society are familiar to all students 
of symbolism, particularly to those who have 
attained the haut grades of Scottish Rite 
Freemasonr3^ They consist of an Egyptian 
tau in the centre of two interlaced equilat- 
eral triangles encircled by a serpent holding 
aloft the swastika, or Phusnician tau. Fj'om 
the point of view of the Theosophical So- 
ciety it is explained that "the serpent sym- 
bolizes, as a serpent, wisdom, and as a ring, 
eternity; also the manifested universe de- 
scribed by the eternal wisdom. The swas- 
tika is the divine power in creative activity, 
by its motion producing or generating all. 
The tau is the symbol of the same power in 
its lower aspect, when in the Egyptian form 
the interlaced triangles are spirit and mat- 
ter, life and form, fire and water, indivisible 
during manifestation, and within these the 
tau works." — Editor.] 

Tlie Roehestor Brotlierliood. — 
Founded at Rochester, N. Y., in 1887, a 
religious, mystical society, which seeks to 
show that "the Perfect Man is the anthro- 
pomorphic God.'' Its symbol is a triangle 
with R. B. in the centre. The letters L L 
arc placed at the upper i)oint, S S at the 
left, K D at the right point, meaning re- 
spectively " Live the Life," " Search the 
Scriptures," and "Know the Doctrine."* 
Its membership is small. 



112 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



II 



MUTUAL ASSESSMENT BEJ^TEFIOIAET EEATEEISTITIES 

(GENEKAL) 



Fraternal Orders. — Within a dozen 
years this expression has come to have spe- 
cial reference to the beneficiary secret soci- 
eties, those which pay death, sick, funeral, 
disability, or other benefits, and which have 
become so popular. They are the natural 
outgrowth of tlie English friendly societies. 

The first English friendly societies act 
was passed in 1793. It designated them as 
societies of good fellowship. Their origin 
seems by common consent to be the burial 
club of the ancient Chinese, the Grrecks, and, 
after them, the Eomans, by whom the idea 
was transmitted to the Teutons, whence the 
Teutonic Guilds. There appears to be some 
doubt whether the earliest English friendly 
societies were of Eoman or Teutonic origin. 
Investigators declare that both the Greeks 
and the early English guilds followed 
burial relief with a system of mutual assist- 
ance in sickness and distress. Naturally, in 
the beginning, guilds were largely made up 
of neighbors, those living in a particular 
locality, from which it is but a step to 
guilds made up of members of the same 
trade, whence the early trades unions, or 
guilds. After the suppression of the re- 
ligious guilds in England in the sixteenth 
century, a system of organized relief was 
substituted, by means of the poor law of 
Elizabeth, after which followed the earlier 
of the present type of what in England are 
called friendly societies. The earliest of 
the known English friendly societies Avere 
formed in 1634, but authorities agree that 
no connection has been shown between 
them and the last of the medigeval guilds 
in 1628. After the first friendly societies 
act was passed, it is stated that thousands 
of clubs formed friendly societies, designed 



to promote good fellowship and relief dur- 
ing sickness, and burial at death. Some of 
those societies have maintained a continued 
existence to this day, more than one hun- 
dred years. The cutting down of the taxes 
for the relief of the poor in 1819 showed the 
appreciation of the British Government of 
the work done by the friendly societies in 
encouraging self-relief. The friendly so- 
cieties act was entirely reconstructed in 
1829, so as to take cognizance of the inten- 
tions and requirements of such societies. 
The act was further amended in 1834, 1846, 
1850, 1855, and in 1875 and 1876. By 1855, 
when friendly societies, notably the Eng- 
lish Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Manchester Unity, and the Ancient Order 
of Foresters, had become firmly established 
and extremely jDopular throughout the King- 
dom, there were 21,875 such organizations 
registered. Under the act as amended in 
1876, British friendly societies were divided 
into thirteen classes : 1. Affiliated Socie- 
ties, or Orders, such as Odd Fellows, For- 
esters, Rechabites, Druids, and the like, 
which have lodges, courts, tents, or divi- 
sions ; 2. General Societies ; 3. County So- 
cieties ; 4. Local Town Societies ; 5. Local 
Village Societies ; 6. Particular Trade So- 
cieties ; 7. Dividing Societies ; 8. Deposit 
Friendly Societies ; 9. Collecting Societies ; 
10. Annuity Societies ; 11. Female Soci- 
eties, such as the Female Foresters, Odd 
Sisters, Loyal Orangewomen, Comforting 
Sisters, etc.; 12. Workingmen's Clubs, for 
those in search of employment, or relief 
from special ailment ; and 13. Cattle Insur- 
ance Societies. By the amended act of 
1875 these Societies make annual reports 
of their condition and operations, and at 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



113 



five-year intervals statements of assets, lia- 
bilities, risks, and contributions. 

The Odd Fellows, Foresters, Recliabites, 
and Druids, all English friendly societies of 
the first class, had been introduced into the 
United States prior to the Civil War, up 
to which period native efforts to make 
secret societies had been confined largely 
to political organizations. Exceptions were 
the college fraternities and the Improved 
Order of Red Men, a veritable friendly 
society. At the close of the war tlie Knights 
of Pythias appeared, likewise a friendly 
society, and a few years later the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, the pioneer 
secret order founded to make practicable a 
system of cooperative life insurance. This 
it did, and has had several hundred imita- 
tors, of which many survive. Excei)t in 
that these Fraternal Orders, by means of 
mutual assessments, pay benefits to relatives 
of deceased members, they practically par- 
allel the English friendly societies named. 
The Mutual Underwriter Chart of Frater- 
nal Organizations shows that at the begin- 
ning of 1896 there were 1,833,304 members 
belonging to the fraternal organizations re- 
porting to various insurance departments. 
At the beginning of 1897 that total had 
increased to 2,048,092. The '^ amount of 
protection written" during the year 1896 
was $574,964,915, as against $517,512,481. 
That in force was $3,698,398,335, as against 
$3,392,016,474. The assets aggregated 
$12,078,710, against $9,604,974, the year 
before. The liabilities were $3,666,924; 
against $2,479,438. From assessments in 
1896 the sum of $39,896,618 was received, 
against $35,844,732 in 1895. Receipts, ex- 
clusive of assessments, were $6,278,397 in 
1896, and $2,617,206 in 1895. The total 
income was $42,678,120 in 1896, and $38,- 
851,727 in 1895; $38,067,676 losses paid in 
1896, and $34,575,927 in 1895. Ex]icnses 
in 1896 were $2,895,872, and $2,699,534 in 
1895. Total disbursements forl896 amounted 
to $40,985,084, while in 1895 they 
$37,338,157. 



Forty-eight of the larger and more suc- 
cessful Orders, those forming the National 
Fraternal Congress, are fewer than one- 
third of the total number of like societies 
still in existence, yet they report four- 
fifths of the total membership of all bene- 
ficiary secret societies, about 1,600,000 out 
of 2,000,000.* Their outstanding ccr- 
tificates represent about $4,000,000,000 of 
"protection,'' and during the last thirty 
years they, have disbursed nearly $150,000,- 
000. It is not known that writers on co- 
operation, in the United States have had 
their attention called to the progress made 
by cooperative or mutual assessment life 
insurance, beside which, cooperative buying 
among consumers, cooperative stores, and 
industrial cooperation, in this countiy, hide 
their diminished heads. 

* The following statistics of membership of 
various fraternal orders are furnished by Mr. Adam 
Warnock, Boston, Supreme Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Legion of Honor : 



Name of Order. 



were 



Almvas Israel, Independent Order 

American Henetit Society 

American (iuil<i 

American Lcf^'ioii nf Honor 

Ancient Order of tlic Pyramids 

Ancient Order United Worlvnien 

Artisans' Order of Mntiud Protection 

B'nai B'ritli, Independent Order 

Ben Hiir, Supreme Tribe of 

Bolieiniun C. C U 

Boliemian Slavonian Kniglits and Ladies.. 

Brotliei hood of the Union 

Canadian (Jrder of Foresters 

Catholic Benevolent l.cfiion 

Catholic Kniu'lits of America 

C'alhiilic Knijihts of WlKonsin 

Catholic Mutual r.enelit .\seociation 

Catholic Order of Koreslers 

Catholic Relief and Beneficiary Association. 

Catliolic Women's Benevolent Legion 

Chosen Friends, Order of 

Foresters of Illinois. IndependentOrder of . 

Fraternal .\id Association 

Fraternal Alliance 

Fraternal Tiihnnes 

Free Sons of Israel, Independent Order. . . . 

Foresters, Independent Order of 

Fraternal I>e<:ion 

Fraternal Mystic Circle 

Fraternal Union of America 

(i;ii. Assemhly of Uu- .Amer. Benev. Assn.. 

Golden Cross," X'nited ( )rder 

Golden Star Fraternity 

Good Fellows, Hoyal Society of 

Ileptasophs. IinjjroviMi ( )r(ler 

llerniann's Sons of Wisconsin 

Home Circle 

Ilonii' Forum Benefit OrdiT 



Mem- 
bership, 
1897. 



2,»J0.3 

4,381 

3,680 

21,31.') 

3,02f. 

.347,990 

4,54.5 

(i,15ti 

13,G95 

10,827 

1,211 

12,tii;6 

27,1G.5 

46.998 

22.878 

7,4as 

43,028 
5.-),4(-3 
4,077 
4,78« 
24,4:« 
15,13ti 
13,3.'>7 
2,519 
2,!)18 
12,185 
124.B85 
2.318 
12.1S1 
6,011 
2,445 
32,983 
2.097 
10.3:8 
38.2.5(> 
2.30S 
t'..293 
42.'.K« 



Auioiiiit 

Claims 

Paid, 

1897. 



$18,114 

32,750 

43.000 

l,98;i,.50O 

16,.'i00 

7,7()1,9:M 

38,000 

104,393 

74,700 

ltX).800 

20.(KX» 

.'>7..')00 

l.'->2,:i25 

1,081,407 

710.208 

1(H). 000 

t;90.(X)0 

327,200 

3f..:«3 

14,000 

K48,46R 

19(i.300 

93,500 

6,017 

4,060 

277,927 

9fl2.22<i 

42,l.'-.0 

173.250 

22.075 

11,3'.)0 

494,150 

23..'n5 

.324,370 

5>'3.4ij0 

(W.HOtJ 

328,608 



114 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



The enormous membership of the rela- 
tively numerous Fraternal Orders is ex- 
plained by their beneficiary or "'protec- 
tion " features, which Vary greatly, and not 
only include a death benefit varying from 
$100 to So, 000, but insurance against sick- 
ness, disability, and accident, and, in in- 
stances, a funeral benefit, and a benefit at 
the death of the wife of a member, while 
one Order erects a monument over the grave 
of everv deceased member, to cost 



Name of Ordek. 



Indepenrieiit Order Mutual Aid 

ludi'peiident Order of Foresters 

Indei)ciuleiit W'estern Star Order 

Knights and Ladies of Honor 

Kni^lits and Ladies of Security 

Knights and Ladies of the Fireside 

Knights and Ladies of the Golden Star 

Knights of Columbus 

Knights of Father Mathew 

Knights of Honor 

Iviiights of Pytiiias, Endowment Kank 

Knights of St. Jolm and Malta 

Kniglitsof Sobriety, Fidelity, and Integrity 

Knights of the Golden Eagle 

Knights of the Maccabees 

Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association.... 

Ladies of tlie Maccabees 

Legion of the Red Cross 

Loyal Additional Benefit Association 

Loyal Mystic Legion of America 

IjoW (Terinan (ir. Lodge of the U. S. of N. A 

Masonic Protective Association 

Modern Woodmen of America. ... 

Mutual Protection, Order of 

Mystic Workers of the World 

National Benevolent Society 

National Protective Legion 

National Provident LTnion , 

National Reserve Association 

National Union 

New England Order of Protection 

Northwestern Legion of Honor 

North .\merican Union 

Pilgrim Fatliers, United Order of 

Protected Home Circle 

Ridgehy Protection Association 

Roj-id Arcanum , 

Royal Circle 

Royal League 

Royal Neiglibors of America , 

Royal Temple of Temperance 

Royal Tribe of Joseph 

Scottish Clans, Order of 

Shield of Honor 

Supreme Council, Home Circle 

Sui>reme Council, Legion of Honor , 

Supreme Court of Honor , 

Supreme Lodge, Nat. Reserve Association.. 
Supreme Lodge, Order of Colutnbian Kts. , 
Supreme Ruling, Fraternal Mystic Circle.. , 

United Friends, Order of ." 

United Friends of Michigan , 

Women's Catholic Order of Foresters 

Woodmen of the World 

Workmen's Benefit Association , 



Mem- 
bership, 
1897. 


Amount 
Claims 
Paid, 

1897. 


4,950 


122,000 


124,685 


992,226 


2,973 


7.500 


66,437 


1,1 91, .500 


18,427 


168,967 


2,405 


12,333 


5,304 


60.8-J8 


17,576 


87,000 


3.480 


45,200 


89,679 


3,918,264 


51,715 


1,108,180 


3,788 


52,000 


4,273 


60,.598 


2,236 


43,000 


217,068 


1,754,926 


32,273 


179,500 


26,380 


131,450 


4,012 


36,200 


5.373 


86,000 


3,606 


11,000 


5,.560 


14.500 


4,060 


11,472 


259,584 


1,905,250 


4.."iK9 


54,930 


2..-,J5 


7,000 


2,.509 


8,468 


5,320 


79,952 


3,972 


163,850 


4,336 


18,.500 


46,602 


1,239,470 


21.950 


294.000 


2,496 


35,250 


2.717 


13,000 


23,039 


352.000 


23,652 


1.57,500 


10,078 


28,503 


195,105 


5,210,823 


3,199 


6,100 


15,100 


307,875 


12.120 


31,.50O 


12,435 


333,467 


3#7.S 


11,975 


4..335 


39.750 


9.6.59 


106,000 


6.293 


153,695 


3,396 


96,000 


24,217 


88,300 


3,241 


31,000 


4,594 


26,101 


12,181 


177,.500 


10,491 


41.5,fi0S 


3.246 


49.284 


13,869 


62,000 


97,811 


1,0S8„558 


5,341 


29.000 



The total membership of the foregoing list is 
2,557,374. Amount of benefits paid in 1897, $41,- 
070,746. Total payments from 1867 to 1897 were 
over $420,000,000. 



But these societies go farther by cultivat- 
ing a spirit of fraternity and by encourag- 
ing centres of intellectual, aesthetic, and so- 
cial development, which often take the place 
of the club. The names of many of the 
Orders are pretentious and some ridiculous. 
In many instances the titles of executive 
officers sound out of place ; but not more so 
than a few employed in older and larger 
societies. The tendency appears to still be 
for the multiplication of Fraternal Orders. 
In the latter half of the previous century 
very few new secret societies made their 
appearance, the fascination of Freemasonry 
for intelligent men leading them rather to 
amplify than to imitate. A result Mas that 
more than 1,000 Masonic and other degrees 
were invented, most of which are fortu- 
nately dead. But during the latter third of 
the nineteenth century activity in secret 
society lines has been transferred to Amer- 
ica, where the bent seems to have been to 
invent new secret societies, legions, circles, 
unions, or orders — most of them designed 
to provide machinery for collecting assess- 
ments and paying them over to those 
whose misfortunes and the terms of their 
contracts, policies, or certificates make 
them the recipients. These orders are still 
in the. formative period, and much remains 
to be done before any of the systems of 
levying assessments can be generally recog- 
nized as a near approach to perfection. As 
a result there are many weakling bene- 
ficiary societies, and a number are fore- 
doomed to failure. When the stronger and 
more progressive orders shall have demon- 
strated the character and extent of their 
work by employing substantially the same 
system of assessments, there will be fewer 
weak and imperfect. The tendency will 
then be to have less and less to do with the 
secrecy of which so much and yet so little 
is made to-day, and combination or con- 
solidation will appear to complete a suc- 
cessful, cooperative machine for ameli- 
orating the ills the human flesh is heir to. 
The beneficiary societies as constituted 



^MMARIES OP TOTALS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 




- 


' 


jro 

30- 

)n8. 


Ord. United 
American 
Mechanics. 


Sons of 
Temper- 
ance. 


Woodmen 
of tlie 
World. 


Anc.andlU. 

Knights of 

Malta. 


Pat. Order 
Sons of 
America. 


Ord. of the 

Am. Union 

and Un. 

Deputies. 


I 

"A. P. A." 


1898. 
Free- 
masons. 


100 
200 
200 
400 
250 
185 

,335 

!,100 
547 


619 
2,017 

198 
6,434 
3,273 
7,854 


1,428 
1,072 

42(i 
5.422 

584 
2,367 




100 


500 


- 100,000 


6,500 


22.085 




3,800| 9.111 








4,750| 7,758 




2,500 


1,000 


100,000 38,416 




2.700, 5.113 


93 




1,000 


3.800 


17.053 








20,395 

3,161 
4,111 
13,707 
449 
1,497 
2,360 


11,299 

2,054 
1,595 
9,832 


93 


2,600 

600 
1,800 
10,000 
700 
300 
100 


2,500 

1,500 

4,500 

60,000 

400 
2,000 

400 


100,000 

j 100,000 
65,000 

[ 25,000 


121,550 

150,000 

: 78.000 
165.000 
( 2,500 
i 18,000 
( 7,500 


99,544 

95,480 
16,543 


! 780 
409 


786 


51,031 
2,120 


1 665 


6S9 


33 
26 


7,474 
5,983 








f,713 

1,167 

I 599 


25,285 

4,054 

275 

26 

151 

153 


14,170 

812 


845 

511 
1,010 
1.U37 


18,500 
100 


68,800 190,000 

3,000 100,000 
2,500 60.000 


421,000 

163,500 
75,850 

125,000 
85,000 

125,000 

138,000 


178,637 

41,713 
29,387 


256 
719 


163 
237 
767 

50 


75 
50 


400 
400 




39,570 
18,4(i4 


^577 
087 


" " '4,474 


150 


3,000 
500 


80,000 
50,000 


53.285 

30,880 










1,435 

250 
108 


4,G59 


2,029 

375 
50 

40 


7,032 

539 

811 


375 

1,200 
600 


9,800 


290,000 712,350 

50,000 176,850 
25,000 12,500 


213.305 
16.946 




1,500 


15,691 






4,325 

3,000 

18,000 

7,500 


2,702 


1 




11 








4.308 


[■ 








1,000 




2,706 


ion 












1,175 


















458 

293 
400 
100 
589 
258 




465 


1,361 

3,438 
3,500 


1,800 


2,500 

500 
400 
300 


75,000 

60,000 
30,000 

j 20,000 


222,175 

76,000 

84.500 

j 19,000 

\ 65,325 

100,000 

10,500 


43,528 


327 


27,489 






11,763 








1,011 






1,252 




19,888 








2,500 


7,335 












790 










■ 1 






,640 

449 
,281 
983 


327 




8,190' 3.700 


110,000 


355.325 


68,276 






400 




5.114 


151 


246 S'^1 






5,600 

ErfiA 


12,803 




loa 


1 i 


■in o-A 




TOTAL MEMBERSHIP BY STATES AND TERRITORIES OP TWENTY-SIX OF 



THE LEADING SECRET SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES, TOGETHER WITH SUMMARIES OF TOTALS IN FOREIUN COUNTRIES. 




Total T'aDada 

Total Elsew'e N.Am, 

Total South America. 

Total Europe 

Total Ai*ia 

Total Africa 

Total Australasia . . , 

Total Oceanica 

Total 



■ Not organlaed Into separate State or Territorial Grand Bojlea. 



if KrN'kah Id lb<> C S 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



115 



lo-day may be divided into four general 
classes : 

(1) Those which bind themselves to 
bury their dead, and to furnish stated relief 
to members who may be sick, disabled, etc., 
irrespective of the need of such members 
for pecuniary assistance ; 

(2) Regular death benefit, mutual assess- 
ment societies ; 

(3) Death benefit orders of the short- 
term variety, which seek to couple mutual 
assessment life-insurance with the tontine 
plan and pay back to surviving members 
who shall have made regular payments, 
etc., for a certain number of years, the full 
amount of their assessments, or premiums, 
in some instances with interest added. The 
success which temporarily attended a few of 
the better-known short-term orders which 
are dead, appeared to be due to surviving 
members being relatively few, and lapsed 
memberships comparatively numerous. 

(4) The fourth group is not a large one, 
comprising the few orders which have 
sought to render the Building and Loan 
Association more attractive by reason of 
becoming a secret order. 

The accompanying tabular exhibit of 
statistics of membership of twenty-six of the 
larger and more important national and 
international secret societies in the United 
States, with totals arranged by States and 
Territories, in conjunction with those of 
membership abroad, must prove of interest 
to members of the organizations named, as 
well as to students of the sociological aspects 
of the growth and development of secret 
societies. This presentation has been pre- 
pared after prolonged correspondence with 
those best fitted to eon tribute data, and repre- 
sents the latest available comparative totals 
of all the organizations. The Loyal Orange 
Institution is omitted because of its prefer- 
ence not to make public details as to mem- 
bership. Totals for the Ancient Order of 
Hibernians refer to only one branch. Board 
of America, members of the Board of Erin 
preferring not to send totals by States. It 



should be added tliat both branches of the 
Hibernians are now united. The grouping 
includes, in addition to totals for the Masonic 
Fraternity, information from the following 
charitable and benevolent secret societies : 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Inde- 
pendent Order of Good Templars, Sons 
of Temperance, Knights of Pythias, Inde- 
pendent Order of Red Men, Foresters of 
America, Grand Army of the Republic, 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, Knights of 
Malta, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons 
(negro), and Grand United Order of Odd 
Fellows (negro). 

Among the so-called Patriotic Orders, 
official returns have been received from the 
following : Junior Order, United American 
Mechanics; Order of United American Me- 
chanics ; Patriotic Order, Sons of America ; 
Order of the American Union, and Ameri- 
can Protective Association (A. P. A.) 

Statistics of the Patrons of Husbandry 
have also been included, as well as details 
respecting membership of the following 
death and other benefit societies : Ancient 
Order of United "Workmen, Royal Arcanum, 
Modern Woodmen of America, Knights of 
the Maccabees, Knights of Honor, Knights 
and Ladies of Honor, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, and Woodmen of the World. 

Figures furnished by the American Pro- 
tective Association and the Order of the 
American LTnion are official, but do not 
seem to be sufficiently in accord with the 
situation to be of great value for compari- 
son. Omitting totals for these two organi- 
zations, it is found that twenty-four of the 
more important secret fraternities, out of 
nearly 350 having an active existence, 
numbered 4,548,840 members in the L^nited 
States in 1895-96. It is probable that with 
tlie added membership of more than three 
hundred others, many of them small socie- 
ties, the grand total would approximate 
0,000,000, thus pointing to nearly 4,000,000 
adults, members of secret fraternities in 
the L^nited States, after allowing for the 
usual {)ro])ortion belonging to two or more 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



115 



lo-day may be divided into four general 
classes : 

(1) Those which bind themselves to 
bury their dead, and to furnish stated relief 
to members who may be sick, disabled, etc., 
irrespective of the need of such members 
for pecuniary assistance ; 

(2) Regular death benefit, mutual assess- 
ment societies ; 

(3) Death benefit orders of the short- 
term variety, which seek to couple mutual 
assessment life-insurance with the tontine 
plan and pay back to surviving members 
who shall have made regular payments, 
etc., for a certain number of years, the full 
amount of their assessments, or premiums, 
in some instances with interest added. The 
success which temporarily attended a few of 
the better-known short-term orders which 
are dead, appeared to be due to surviving 
members being relatively few, and lapsed 
memberships comparatively numerous. 

(4) The fourth group is not a large one, 
comprising the few orders whicii have 
sought to render the Building and Loan 
Association more attractive by reason of 
becoming a secret order. 

The accompanying tabular exhibit of 
statistics of membership of twenty-six of the 
larger and more important national and 
international secret societies in the United 
States, with totals arranged by States and 
Territories, in conjunction with those of 
membership abroad, must prove of interest 
to members of the organizations named, as 
well as to students of the sociological aspects 
of the growth and development of secret 
societies. This presentation has been pre- 
pared after prolonged correspondence with 
those best fitted to con tribute data, and repre- 
sents the latest available comparative totals 
of all the organizations. The Loyal Orange 
Institution is omitted because of its i)refer- 
ence not to make public details as to mem- 
bership. Totals for the Ancient Order of 
Hibernians refer to only one branch. Board 
of America, members of the Board of Erin 
preferring not to send totals by States. It 



should be added that both branches of the 
Hibernians are now united. The grouping 
includes, in addition to totals for the Masonic 
Fraternity, information from the following 
charitable and benevolent secret societies : 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Inde- 
pendent Order of Good Templars, Sons 
of Temperance, Knights of Pythias, Inde- 
pendent Order of Red Men, Foresters of 
America, Grand Army of the Republic, 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, Knights of 
Malta, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons 
(negro), and Grand United Order of Odd 
Fellows (negro). 

Among the so-called Patriotic Orders, 
official returns have been received from the 
following : Junior Order, United American 
Mechanics; Order of United American Me- 
chanics ; Patriotic Order, Sons of America ; 
Order of the American Union, and Ameri- 
can Protective Association (A. P. A.) 

Statistics of the Patrons of Husbandry 
have also been included, as well as details 
respecting membership of the following 
death and other benefit societies : Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, Royal Arcanum, 
Modern Woodmen of America, Knig^its of 
the Maccabees, Knights of Honor, Knights 
and Ladies of Honor, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, and Woodmen of the World. 

Figures furnished by the American Pro- 
tective Association and the Order of the 
American Union are official, but do not 
seem to be sufficiently in accord with the 
situation to be of great value for compari- 
son. Omitting totals for these two organi- 
zations, it is found that twenty-four of the 
more important secret fraternities, out of 
nearly 350 having an active existence, 
numbered 4,548,840 members in the United 
States in 1895-9G. It is probable that with 
the added membership of more than three 
hundred others, many of them small socie- 
ties, the grand total would approximate 
G,000,000, thus pointing to nearly 4,000,000 
adults, members of secret fraternities in 
the United States, after allowing for the 
usual proportion belonging to two or more 



116 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



organizations; nearly one in three of the 
voting population of the country. 

The relative numerical strength of the 
four larger societies in the various States 
and Territories is made plain by an accom- 
panying map (see Preface), on which their 
names are marked in order, according to 
membership in those States and Territories. 
Eeference to tlie geographical chart shows 
that there are more members of the Masonic 
than of any other secret fraternity in Maine, 
Vermont, Connecticut, New York, Ken- 
tucky, Missouri, District of Columbia, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Arkansas, and Indian Territory ; and more 
members of the Odd Fellows in Massachu- 
setts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jer- 
sey, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, 
Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahoma, Washing- 
ton, California, and Nevada ; of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen in Delaware, 
Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Montana, Idaho, Nebraska, Kansas, Oregon, 
and Arizona ; of the Knights of Pythias 
in Louisiana and New Mexico; of the 
Patrons of Husbandry in New Hampshire; 
Junior Order of United American Mechan- 
ics in Maryland; Knights of the Maccabees 
in Michigan; Modern Woodmen of America 
in Illinois and Wisconsin; and the negro 
Freemasons in Ceorgia. Other societies 
finding a place among the first four in point 
of number, in one or more States, are the 
Grood Templars; Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic; Foresters of America; Royal Arcanum; 
Patriotic Order, Sons of America; Improved 
Order of Red Men; Knights of Honor; 
and the negro Odd Fellows. 

Pennsylvania is the banner secret society 
State, contributing more than 850,000 mem- 
bers of twenty-four organizations w'hose 
totals are considered in the accompanying 
statistics of membership, 19 per cent, of the 
grand total in all States and Territories. 
New York stands second, with 724,000 
members of the twenty-four fraternities, 16 
per cent, of the grand total for the country ; 



Illinois third, with more than 513,000 mem» 
bers, or about 11 per cent.; Ohio fourth, 
with 10 per cent.; Massachusetts fifth, Avith 
8 per cent. ; Michigan sixth, with more than 
7 per cent. ; and Indiana seventh, with 7 per 
cent., the seven States accounting for four- 
fifths of the aggregate American member- 
ship of the twenty-four fraternities speci- 
fied. 

The payment of benefits or insurance by 
means of assessments, graded according to 
age at time of joining, is apparently (1898) 
most popular among societies in the Frater- 
nal Congress. Of the forty-five fraternities 
reports have been received from thirty-six, of 
which twenty-seven report the above plan in 
operation, eight of the remaining nine 
being equally divided between the merits of 
the premium system proper and what may 
be called the step-rate plan of assessment, in- 
creasing at regular intervals with the age of 
the insured. In the remaining society the 
benefits are graded according to the age, 
while the assessments are fixed and uniform. 
The Ancient Order of United Workmen 
reports twenty-one jurisdictions using the 
straight, ungraded assessment j^lan and thir- 
teen the step-rate assessment. The Order 
of United Friends changed on January 1, 
1898, to the step or group plan of assess- 
ment, increasing at each five years. Two 
other societies are considering a similar 
change. There is some variation in the 
amount of insurance paid. A benefit of 
from $50 to $2,000 is paid by the Knights" 
and Ladies of the Clolden Star, while tlie 
Catholic Benevolent Legion, the National 
Provident Union, the Home Circle, the In- 
dependent Order of Foresters, the American 
Legion of Honor, the National Union, and 
the Improved Order of Heptasophs pay from 
$500 to $5,000. Seven out of thirty-six or- 
ders report paying sick benefits; nine others 
report such benefits optional with the local 
or subordinate bodies; while nineteen, or 
more than one-half, report none. In the 
majority of cases where paid, such benefits 
are the result of the work of the local 



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118 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



bodies, and are not part of fhe duty of the 
parent societies. More than one-half of 
these societies report varying grades of bene- 
fits payable in case of accident involving 
partial or total disability, such as the loss of 
one or more limbs or eyes, incapacity from 
old age (seventy years being a common 
period), paralysis, or other causes. The 
payment of one-tenth to one-half of the 
face of the member's benefit certificate upon 
the occurrence of any of these disabilities 
seems quite general. Payment of funeral 
expenses is a feature of several societies, but 
almost always of local lodges or bodies. Six- 
teen out of thirty-six societies report no 
benefits payable by reason of total or partial 
disability. The replies indicate that weekly 
sick benefits are often payable out of dues 
of local lodges, whereas the other benefits 
are more generally defrayed by means of 
assessments. 

It is of interest to note that the rate of 
mortality in thirty societies during the third 
year of the existence of each of them aver- 
aged 4.10 per 1,000, while during the last 
fiscal year (1897) the average death-rate per 
1,000 was '9.50, and the average age of the 
societies showing this death-rate about fif- 
teen years. In twenty-eight societies the 
average cost per 11,000 for such benefits 
paid in 1897 was 19.22, whereas the same 
companies reported the cost when those so- 
cieties were only three years of age at 15.04. 
The need of an adequate reserve to provide 
for emergencies does not seem to have im- 
pressed all of these societies alike. Only 
about one-half of tiie fraternities, members of 
the Congress, report having reserve funds. 
The method of raising such funds varies 
with the societies, but generally it is by 
means of assessments upon members. Some 
organizations set apart a certain percentage 
of such assessments as a reserve fund. In 
Massachusetts and other States the banking 
laws, under which insurance societies oper- 
ate, require reserve funds and direct how 
they shall be invested. The American Le- 
gion of Honor has a reserve of 1500,000 in- 



vested as provided by law. The Ancient 
Order of United Workmen raise $1,000,000 
annually by a tax of 13 per member. Some 
societies have a reserve in the shape of one 
assessment in advance. As a general thing 
the reserve, where possessed, is invested in 
United States or State and municipal bonds 
and first mortgages on real estate. The Or- 
der of Select Friends adopted a reserve plan 
at the close of 1897. The National Keserve 
Association plan of insurance is very like 
that of old-line companies, except for the 
reserve element in the latter's premiums. 
Average age of death benefit members in 
tAventy-four societies at the end of the first 
three years of the societies' existence is 
placed at about 36.40, while the average 
age in the same societies in the last fiscal 
year is placed at 40.30, showing the intro- 
duction of younger members. The replies 
as to cost of management show an increase 
per capita as the societies advance in years. 
The average of the replies of twenty-seven 
fraternities shows that the per capita cost 
of management during the last year was 
about II. 65 per member, whereas when 
these societies were three years old their per 
capita cost was only 11.48. Some societies 
reckon the cost of management per mem- 
ber as a fixed sum and report it year after 
year. Others, like the Royal Arcanum, the 
Royal League, the Modern "Woodmen of 
America, the Knights of the Maccabees, 
Legion of the Red Cross, Knights and 
Ladies of Security, Woodmen of the World, 
National Reserve Association, and the Na- 
tional Union show a decreased cost of man- 
agement per member now as compared with 
the third year of their existence. 

The irregularity and iucompleteness of 
replies received from beneficiary organiza- 
tions not members of the Fraternal Con- 
gress is testimony to the value of organi- 
zation in fraternal insurance as well as in 
other lines of business. There are, of course, 
some honorable exceptions, but the statistics 
of operation of these organizations are not 
generally satisfactory. Among fraternities 



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120 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 



not members of the Fraternal Congress the 
popularity of the "assessment according to 
age" plan is shown by their records. Of 
the thirty societies reporting, seventeen are 
using the plan. The following is a list of 
them : 

Canadian Order of Foresters. 

Catholic Mutual Benefit Association. 

Catholic Women's Benevolent Legion. 

Commercial Travelers' Association. 

Golden Star Fraternity. 

Independent Order B'nai B'rith. 

Knights and Ladies of Honor. 

Knights of Columbus. 

Knights of Pythias, Endowment Eank. 

Loyal Knights and Ladies, 

Modern American Fraternal Order. 

Mystic Workers of the Woi'ld. 

National Fraternity. 

Grand United Order of Odd Fellows. 

Order of Scottish Clans. 

Union Fraternal League. 

AVestern Knights Protective Association. 

Among the above the amount of benefits 
paid varies from 150 to 13,000, most of 
them paying $500 to 12,000. Twelve of 
them report no benefits paid by the Order 
as a whole, the same being optional Avith 
subordinate bodies. Partial and permanent 
disability is provided for, hoAvever, by many 
of these societies. A tendency toward an 
increased death-rate as they grow older is 
noted, and a similar increase in the cost of 
this form of insurance per thousand. Dues 
of local branches seem to be the basis of 
the sick benefits, while regular assessments 
are general!}^ relied on to defray other bene- 
fits. About one-half of these organizations 
report reserve or emergency funds; statis- 
tics of age and cost of management are very 
i ncomplete. 

The same general conclusions are to be 
obtained from an examination of the statis- 
tics of similar societies doing business under 
different plans. Two, the American Insur- 
ance Union and the Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, use the step-rate assessment, while 
the Fraternal Tribunes, the Progressive 



Endowment Guild, and the Prudent Patri- 
cians of Pompeii collect insurance premiums 
suggestive of a revival of the systems used 
by old-line companies. The Independent 
Order Free Sons of Israel, Independent Or- 
der Sons of Abraham, Independent Order 
Sons of Benjamin, and the Order of Sparta 
pay benefits by means of uniform, straight, 
ungraded assessments, Avhile in the Order 
of the Iroquois and in the Brotherhood of 
Eailway Conductors, benefits and not assess- 
ments or contributions' are graded accord- 
ing to age. The Continental Fraternal 
Union is an endowment association, while 
the Foresters of America, which formerly 
had such a plan, has discontinued it. The 
Grand Fraternity is unique in that it pays 
annuities for partial or total disability, or 
to Avidows and orphans or other relatives at 
the death of members. 

Among the distinctively friendly socie- 
ties, those Avhich aim to relieve distress and 
pay funeral expenses among members, and 
to assist those whom death has robbed of 
support, are the following: 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

United Ancient Order of Druids. 

Ancient Order of Foresters. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

Jr. Order United American Mechanics. 

Actors' Order of Friendship. 

Independent Order of Mechanics. 

Improved Order of Red Men. 

Sons of St. George. 

National Protective Society. 

Shepherds of Bethlehem. 

Ancient and Ilhistrious Order of Knights 
of Malta. 

In only one instance, the Sons of St. 
George, and then in only a few States, does 
the benefit paid at the death of a member 
exceed $250; In one instance, the Inde- 
pendent Order of Mechanics, the amount 
paid falls as low as 120, and runs as high as 
125. In the instances of the Ancient Order 
of Hibernians, the Ancient and Illustrious 
Order of Knights of Malta, the Improved 
Order of Red Men, the Independent Order 



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122 



AMERICAN BENEFIT SOCIETY 



of Odd Fellows, and the Ancient United 
Order of Druids the governing body does 
not recognize the payment of either insur- 
ance or death benefits. Subordinate lodges, 
courts, groves, or tribes employ a death 
benefit system in whole or in part. In 
some States a few of these organizations, 
notably the Ancient Order of Hibernians in 
Pennsylvania, contract for insurance with 
regular insurance companies. The sick 
benefit, weekly, monthly, or otherwise, is a 
recognized institution among the societies 
named, and where systematically paid varies 
from $2 to $15 weekly. Medical attendance 
and medicines are paid for by subordinate 
bodies of some of these societies, while the 
payment of specific sums for burial ex- 
penses is general. The ISTational Protective 
Society jmys an accident benefit. Eaising 
these funds is provided for generally from 
dues, although a few of the societies rely 
upon assessments. The necessity for ac- 
cumulating a reserve or emergency fund is 
recognized in at least one half of the frater- 
nities named, but in others dependence seems 
to be placed on the weekly or other dues and 
assessments. In the Ancient Order of For- 
esters, in which dues are graded according 
to age at entry, its various treasurers held 
at the close of 1896 $29,137,745, an increase 
of $1,052,595 in that year. The Actors' 
Order of Friendship, from the circumstances 
of the case a small society, reports $20,000 
in the treasury. Statistics of the death rate 
per thousand and cost of insurance among 
these friendly societies are naturally affected 
by the irregular nature of the benefits paid 
and systems of dues and assessments, and are 
therefore unclassifiable. 

American Benefit Society. — This is 
one of the smaller mutual assessment bene- 
ficiary fraternities ; but although incor- 
porated as late as 1893, by Cliarles H. Burr, 
George B. Stevens, Lewis N. Qushman, 
Geoi'ge H. Johnson, Daniel T. Buzzell, Ja- 
cob Billings, Jr., and Samuel Shaw, of 
Massachusetts, it already numbers nearly 
five thousand members, and is growing rap- 



idly. It issues certificates to members for 
$250, $500, $1,000, or $2,000, and Lodges 
pay weekly sick benefits, and dues and as- 
sessments of members while sick, in their 
option. Its method of assessment to meet 
death benefits is approved by some of the 
best fraternal actuaries in the country, and, 
as in only one of two other instances among 
like organizations, a formal initiation is not 
necessary to acquire membership. The cere- 
mony of initiation is said to be simple, yet 
dignified, but those who prefer may take the 
obligation before a supreme officer and se- 
cure membership as effectually as at a reg- 
ular meeting. Men and women between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five, who may be 
socially acceptable, believers in a Supreme 
Being, and able to earn a livelihood, are 
eligible to membership. The organization 
will not enter any except the more health- 
ful regions of northern States, and at pres- 
ent has Lodges in all the New England 
States. Its i^ublished list of some of its 
better known certificate holders includes 
governors of States and a long list of State, 
national, and municipal officials. There are 
also found the names of prominent officers 
of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
Knights of Honor, Eoyal Arcanum, Eoyal 
Society of Good Fellows, Workmen's Bene- 
fit Association, Improved Order of Hepta- 
sophs, American Legion of Honor, Good 
Templars, Order of the Golden Cross, Im- 
proved Order of Eed Men, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and Freemasons. 
The list of lawyers, physicians, bank offi- 
cials, editors, publishers, and business men 
throughout New England who are identified 
with the Society would prove an addition to 
any similar organization. The headquar- 
ters of the society are at Boston. 

American Benevolent Legion. — A 
newly organized mutual assessment bene- 
ficiary society, with headquarters at San 
Francisco. 

American Fraternal Insurance 
Union. — Organized at Batavia, N. Y., 
within the past few years, a beneficiary and 



AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR 



123 



social association for men and women. Its 
Lodges are scattered through western New 
York. 

Auiericau Insurance Union. — Organ- 
ized at Columbus, 0., 1894, by members of 
the Fraternal Mystic Circle, who were dis- 
satisfied with the course pursued by the 
latter, as well as by members of the Na- 
tional Union, of the Knights of Pythias, 
the Odd Fellows, and the Masonic Frater- 
nity. It partially paralleled the increasing 
rate of assessments, according to age, 
which had done so much to build up and 
strengthen the National Union, and provides 
for death, total disability, and old age bene- 
fits. The form of government is the usual 
one in similar secret beneficiary societies, 
and includes local and State Chapters, to- 
gether with a National (or supreme) Chapter, 
the highest legislative authority. Member- 
ship is confined to men and women between 
15 and 49 years of age, residing in the 
more healthful portions of the United 
States, '' who are engaged in preferred oc- 
cupations." Death benefits of sums rang- 
ing from 1500 to ^3,000, permanent total 
disability benefits of from $250 to $1,500, 
and old age benefits of like amounts arc 
paid, and the Union is under the super- 
yision of the insurance department of the 
State of Ohio. The ritual teaches ''All 
for one and one for all," which suggests the 
motto of the Knights of Labor, but is in- 
terpreted differently. The emblem consists 
of a circular band containing thirteen stars, 
and in them the letters forming the words 
"Helj) in Need," the whole surrounding 
the initial letters of the name of the organ- 
ization. While among the younger of sim- 
ilar societies, the Union, which started out 
with 500 members, has enjoyed rapid in- 
crease in membership and gives promise of 
realizing the anticipations of those who 
created it. 

American Order of I>ruids. — Organ- 
ized by William Pearson and William A. 
Dunn, at Fall Kiver, Mass., and chartered 
Mav 17, 1888, under the laws of the State 



of Massachusetts. Its first Council was 
organized at Fall River, July 9, 1888. It 
forms one of several secret, fraternal, bene- 
ficiary organizations to which men and 
women are both eligible, which confine 
their operations to the New England States. 
Among its founders were members of the 
Grand United Order of Druids in the 
United States, the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, and the United Order of 
Pilgrim Fathers. It pays sick and death 
benefits by means of assessments. It has 
2,300 members. 

American Ijegion of Honor. — One of 
the best known among the larger and more 
popular fraternal, social, and beneficiary 
assessment societies, founded by Dr. Darius 
Wilson and nine others of Boston, Decem- 
ber 18, 1878. It admits to membership 
white men and women, between 18 and 50 
years of age, and is governed by a Supreme 
Council. Subordinate Councils, which are 
widely scattered throughout the Union, are 
directed in matters of local interest by 
Grand or State Councils, representatives 
from which, and all Past Supreme Com- 
manders, make up the Supreme Council. 
The ritualistic and initiatory features are 
less pronounced than those of most similar 
societies in the United States. Prospective 
members are informed that initiatory cere- 
monies, if objected to, may be dispensed 
with by assuming a formal obligation at 
any convenient time and place. Originally 
the maximum age of eligibility to member- 
ship was G4 years, but this was reduced to 
50 years in 1885. The Order insures the 
lives of its members for $1,000, $2,000, and 
$3,000 each, at their o])tion, certificates 
of which carry a graduated weekly relief 
benefit. Some of the founders were among 
those who organized the Royal Arcanum, 
and one. Dr. Wilson, was connected with 
the Knights of Honor. Since its founda- 
tion the Order has paid more than $30,000,- 
000 in death and relief benefits. The pro- 
portion of women to men among its mem- 
bershij) in 1894 was about as one to seven. 



124 



ANCIENT ORDER, KNIGHTS OF THE MYSTIC CHAIN 



The American Legion of Honor suffered 
from increased expenses, death rate, and lack 
of new members during 1895 and 1896, as 
did some other similar organizations. Mem- 
bers accounted for the situation by '' un- 
usually heavy assessments in 1896," owing 
to ''increased debts," the ^'hard times," 
and a "smaller proportion of new mem- 
bers," which a grand total of 36,028 mem- 
bers December 31, 1896, compared witb 
53,210 on December 31, 1895, and 62,457 
at the close of 1889 (the maximum), would 
seem to confirm. Leading members of the 
Supreme Council are men of experience in 
fraternal insurance societies, and with co- 
operation from the rank and file of the 
Order were able to so conduct the society's 
affairs as to restore the prosperity the or- 
ganization previously enjoyed. The chief 
emblem of the Legion is a modification of 
the cross of the French Legion of Honor, 
which has the Maltese Cross for its model, 
and has been conspicuous, under various 
forms, as the basis of so many decorations. 
In 1879, the year following the founding 
of the American Legion of Honor, the Iowa 
Legion of Honor, a similar society, was or- 
ganized at Cedar Eapids, and does busi- 
ness in that State only. In 1884 the 
Northwestern Legion of Honor was organ- 
ized and incorporated to do business in 
Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, North 
and South Dakota. 

Ancient Order, Knights of the Mys- 
tic Chain. — This secret organization is con- 
spicuous among the hundred-and-one of the 
last generation by reason of its not having 
been started as a mutual insurance society. 
Its high-sounding title becomes simpler 
when it is realized that this modern broth- 
erhood is founded on traditions and fancies 
which hedge themselves about King Arthur 
and the Knights of the Eound Table, 
whence the designation, " Ancient Order." 
One is compelled to compare it with the 
Order of Foresters rather than the Odd Fel- 
lows, for the basis of the rituals of the first 
two are found in English romance, and are 



beautiful, popular, and attractive. Both 
Odd Fellows and Foresters' societies have 
similar purposes, and differ from Freema- 
sonry. The point to this lies in the resem- 
blance of the Ancient Order, Knights of 
the Mystic Chain to the Odd Fellows and 
Foresters, in the face of the fact that it is 
the creation of Freemasons, and bears many 
imprints of the handiwork of the Craft. 
Not until eighteen years after it was founded 
did the Sir Knights of the Mystic Chain 
incorporate an insurance feature like those 
adopted by so many other secret societies 
founded in the past thirty* years. The 
Ancient Order, Knights of the Mystic Chain 
was founded at Eeading, Pa., February 2, 
1871, by John 0. Matthew, locomotive en- 
gineer on the Philadelphia and Eeading 
Eailroad, and John M. Brown, merchant. 
John 0. Matthew was alive in 1897, blind 
and helpless, the charge of subordinate Cas- 
tles of Pennsylvania. John M. Brown died 
June 10, 1880. Both founders were Free- 
masons, and the emblem of the Order, em- 
bodying the All-Seeing Eye over the holy 
Bible upon an altar, suggests the earlier 
influences surrounding it, yet at the first 
initiation ceremony twenty-one Knights 
of Pythias became Knights of the Mystic 
Chain. 

The purposes of the Order are to relieve 
brethren in sickness, accident, or distress ; 
mutual assistance in business and to procure 
employment ; to assist and care for widows 
and orphans of deceased members ; to create 
greater love for country, homes, and fire- 
sides ; to teach obedience and fidelity to the 
laws of the country in which they live, and 
to bind together the members of the Order 
in one common brotherhood. Partisanship 
and sectarianism are excluded. The motto 
or ensign is " Loyalty, Obedience, and Fi- 
delity ;" and the ''mark" is a pentagon, 
bearing on each of its sides an inverted lower 
half of an isosceles triangle, the whole sug- 
gesting one form of a Maltese cross of five 
arms. This furnishes five distinct fields, in 
the first of which, white, is an open book ; 



ANCIENT ORDER, KNIGHTS OF THE MYSTIC CHAIN 



125 



in the second, blue, a shield and spear ; in 
the third, red, skull and cross bones ; in the 
fourth, red. crossed swords ; in the fifth, 
black, tlie All-Seeing Eye ; and in the 
centre, letters, the meaning of which is 
known only to Mark degree members. On 
the reverse, in the centre field is an em- 
bossed castle, which is the mark of the 
highest rank. There are slight changes for 
those lower in rank or degree. 

The Order has four branches, all of which 
are subordinate to the Supreme Castle. 
They are, first, the civic branch, with the 
Supreme Castle, Select (State) Castles, and 
subordinate Castles, which initiate mem- 
bers ; second, the military rank, or degree ; 
third, the insurance benefit fund ; and, 
fourth, the degree of Naomi, or Daughters 
of Ruth. Subordinate Castles send two 
Past Commanders yearly as representatives 
to Select Castles. Every Past Commander 
is a member of a Select Castle, but has no 
vote on questions of law, unless elected a 
representative. Past Commanders of subor- 
dinate Castles vote for a Past Select Com- 
mander as representative to the Sujjreme 
Castle. Each State is allowed one represen- 
tative to the Supreme Castle for every one 
thousand members, but no State can elect 
more than ten such. The Supreme Castle, 
of course, is the highest authority in the 
Order. 

Three degrees are conferred in subordi- 
nate Castles, which every member must re- 
ceive in order to participate in the benefit 
fund : 1. White, or Esquire degree ; 2. 
Blue, or Sir Knight's degree ; and 3. Red, 
or Round Table degree. The fourth degree 
is only for those who wish to connect them- 
selves Avith the military rank. All past 
officers of subordinate Castles receive from 
the Select Castle a Past Commander's or 
Mark degree, which puts them in possessio7i 
of the essentials to gain admission to the Se- 
lect Castle, and after they shall have passed 
through the chairs makes them members 
of the State Body. The Supreme Castle 
confers the Supreme degree, which makes 



recipients members of the Supreme Castle, 
but without a vote, unless elected represen- 
tatives. While there is nothing Masonic 
in this arrangement, yet Freemasons prob- 
ably helped to j)lan it. 

In the Esquire degree the candidate is 
instructed in the fundamental principles of 
the Order by a reference to the Good Samar- 
itan ; in the Sir Knight's degree, in the 
lesson to be learned from the chivalry of 
the time of King Artliur, and the im{)or- 
tance of exercising love, mercy, friendship, 
benevolence, and charity toward his fellow- 
men ; while in the third, or Round Table 
degree, the candidate is impressed with the 
uncertainty of life and the certainty of 
death. 

On Februaiy 2, 1871, Matthew Castle, 
No. 1, was instituted at Reading, Pa., being 
named after one of the founders. On July 
17th, the same year, the First Select Castle 
was instituted at Reading, and' on Septem- 
ber 16, 187 L, the Su])reme Castle of the Or- 
der was instituted at the same city. For 
a time progress was slow, due in part to the 
financial dejiression following the panic of 
1873. But ten years later, when the Select 
Castle of Pennsylvania met for the second 
time at Reading, there were sixty subordi- 
inate Castles reported, with a total (Penn- 
sylvania) membership of 2,500. About 
that time the Order began to gain strength 
in New Jersey and Delaware, where Select 
Castles had been established, and by 1890 
Select Castles had been placed in New 
York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and 
Ohio. There are also Subordinate Castles 
under the sujiervision of the Supreme 
Castle in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Michigan, Indiana, and Louisi- 
ana. The Order enters its second quarter 
century with a total membership of about 
40,000, of which 10,000 are in Pennsyl- 
vania, and about 1,000 in the six States 
named in which Castles exist by authority 
of the Supreme Castle, leaving about 24,000 
members in the eio^ht States of Rliode 



126 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



Island, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, AVest Virginia, and 
Ohio. 

The military rank or degree was intro- 
duced by the Supreme Castle in 1880, but 
at that time had no military head, and was 
designed merely to attract members. The 
plan failed, and in 1889 the Supreme Castle 
elected a military head to the rank, with the 
title of Commander-General. The bodies 
were no longer called Commanderies, the 
rank being jJatterned, as to tactics and uni- 
form, after the United States Army. Arms 
used are the straight sword for all except 
mounted officers, who carry military sabers. 
The Commander-General, who must be a 
member of the Supreme Castle, is elected 
for three years by the commissioned officers 
of the several States. This branch, which 
is now firmly established, is divided into 
companies, battalions, regiments, brigades, 
and divisions. It is " the only military 
secret organization which uses the United 
States Army tactics exclusively," and in- 
cludes five regiments and three battalions, 
forming one brigade, and seven unattached 
companies, with a total membership, Sep- 
tember, 1896, of 1,680. 

The insurance feature was introduced in 
1889, and is known as the Funeral Benefit 
Belief Fund. It is controlled by officers 
and a Board of Directors elected by the Su- 
preme Castle, who report annually to that 
body. Participants in the benefits of this 
fund are members of Castles in good stand- 
ing and health, between eighteen and fifty 
years of age, and women members of the 
degree of Naomi, between sixteen and fifty 
years of age. Assessments are twenty cents 
each, payable monthly. The death benefit 
is eighty per cent, of one assessment, but in 
no case shall it exceed $5i50. Of the re- 
mainder, 15 per cent, is placed in the gen- 
eral fund and 5 per cent, in the sinking 
fund to be invested by the Board of Mana- 
gers. The total membership in this depart- 
ment on December 31, 1896, was 2,278. 
Weekly sick benefits paid by Castles range 



from four to ten dollars. At the death of 
the wife of a member, benefits of from 
thirty to one hundred dollars are paid ; and 
at the death of a member, benefits of from 
fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars. 

The 'Mady degree," known as degree of 
Naomi, or Daughters of Euth, was intro- 
duced in 1890. Subordinate bodies are 
called Assemblies. This degree was for- 
merly under the supervision of the Supreme 
Castle, but its growth was so rapid it was 
thought best to allow members to legislate 
for themselves. Each Assembly now elects 
a Past Commander, representative to its 
Grand (State) Assembly, and each Grand 
Assembly elects two representatives to the 
Supreme Castle of the Ancient Order, 
Knights of the Mystic Chain, all of whom 
must be Past Grand Commanders. They 
are admitted to meetings of the Supreme 
Castle only when the latter is working or 
legislating for the degree of Naomi. This 
branch is established in Pennsylvania, New 
York, West Virginia, Virginia, Ohio, New 
Jersey, Ehode Island, New Hampshire, and 
Delaware, and the total membership is 
3,500. Weekly benefits average four dol- 
lars, and death benefits fifty dollars. All 
men taking the degree of Naomi must be 
members of a Castle. There is no known 
connection between the degree of Naomi, 
or Daughters of Ruth, attached to the An- 
cient Order, Knights of the Mystic Chain, 
and any of several other similarly named 
secret societies for men and women. 

Ancient Order of Foresters. — The 
Ancient Order of Foresters in the United 
States. is the lineal descendant of the Eng- 
lish Order. The first Court is now dead, 
having been established in Philadelphia in 
1832. When, at the Minneapolis Conven- 
tion, about 53,000 out of 56,000 members 
seceded from English authority and called 
themselves the Ancient Order of Foresters of 
America, it left the remaining Courts of the 
Ancient (English) Order in this country to 
apply for a form of local government to the 
High Court of England, and to begin again 



COURT COOP ^P££P NO. 201. PHIL. , 

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"X v. li 



CHART SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF THE AMERICAN AND CANADIAN 

ORDERS OF FORESTERS TO THE PARENT EN(}LISH <)IU)ER OF 

THAT ANCIENT AND HONORABLE FRATERNITY. 



128 



ANCIENT ORDER OF GLEANERS 



the work of recruiting its depleted mem- 
bership. Two Subsidiary High Courts 
were granted in 1891, one for tlie Atlantic, 
Central, and Southern States, and the 
other for remaining States of the Union. 
Within the past six years its increase in 
membership has been noteworthy, the total 
including about 36,000 men and 3,300 
women. Women have been admitted to 
full membership since 1892, notwithstand- 
ing the incorporation in this Order of 
Circles of Companions of the Forest. The 
ritual of the Ancient Order in America has 
been greatly amplified, by permission of 
the High Court of England. Like other 
branches of Foresters, the Ancient Order is 
primarily a sick and funeral benefit society. 
It has an endowment benefit, but it is op- 
tional. Sick and funeral benefits are paid 
from fixed contributions graded according 
to age at entry, and upon Foresters' ex- 
perience tables. Endowments are paid 
from assessments graded according to age 
at entry, based on Foresters' mortality 
tables. British Forestry, including Courts 
in the United States, Canada, Bermuda, 
British Guiana, British Honduras, Spain, 
Hawaiian Islands, Holland, British India, 
Malta, New Sonth Wales, New Zealand, 
Peru, Queensland, St. Helena, Cajje of Good 
Hope, Natal, South African Republic, South 
Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, on the Gold 
Coast, at Lagos, in Central America, the 
United States of Colombia, British and 
Danish West Indies, Hayti, and West Aus- 
tralia, has paid sick and death benefits since 
1854 in excess of $85,000,000. Prior to the 
date named, returns were incomplete or 
unreliable. This is the great fraternity 
which ranks almost with the Manchester 
Unity Odd Fellows in total membership, in 
distribution throughout the world, and in 
the enormous sums paid annually to sick 
and distressed members. Its present grand 
total membershipis nearly 900,000. The pro- 
portion of the membership of the Order in 
the United States is about 4 per cent. Fully 
85 per cent, is found in the United Kingdom. 



Aucieut Order of Gleaners. — A com- 
paratively recent fraternal, beneficiary so- 
ciety, organized at Cairo, Mich. 

Ancient Order of Pyramids. — A new 

fraternal, beneficiary society, organized at 
Topeka, Kan. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen 

(1868).— The Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, characterized as the oldest of the 
great fraternal, beneficiary Orders in the 
United States, was founded at Meadville, 
Pa., October 27, 1868, by John Jordon Up- 
church, a Freemason, Avho, with others, had 
become dissatisfied with and had retired 
from " The League of Friendship, Supreme 
Mechanical Order of the Sun." * The first 
Lodge of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen was named Jefferson, No. 1, and 
the constitution adopted by it provided that 
only white male persons should be eligible 
to membership; that this provision should 
never be altered, amended, or exjjunged; 
and that when the total membership should 
amount to one thousand, an insurance office 
should be established and policies issued 
securing at the death of a member not less 
than 1500 to be paid to his lawful heirs. 
A Provincial Grand Lodge was formed in 
1869, when the amount of insurance was 
placed at not less than 12,000, and a uni- 
form assessment established of $1. By 1870 
fi.ve Lodges were represented at the Provin- 
cial Grand Lodge. As in other Orders, dis- 
sensions arose, and for two years there were 
two rival Grand Lodges. But by 1872 
union and harmony i^revailed, and the Or- 
der entered on a career of growth and j^ros- 
perity. Its total membership in about 6,000 
Lodges, in 1895, was in excess of 318,000 
in the United States, and nearly 32,000 in, 
Canada, a striking record for practically 
tw-enty-four 5'ears of active existence, but 
which is less remarkable than the sum total 
paid to widows and orphans between 1869 
and 1895, more than $70,000,000. The 
government of the Order rests in the 

* Not known to exist to-day. 



ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN (1868) 



129 



Supreme Lodge, which pays benefits to mem- 
bers or heirs of members of subordiuate 
Lodges in a State, Territory, or province 
not having a Grand Lodge of its own, and 
has control of the general laws of the Or- 
der. Grand Lodges under the Supreme 
Lodge control the benefit funds of their own 
States or provincial jurisdictions. Li rela- 
tion to its method of insurance, surprise has 
been expressed that the Order has so long 
continued its siiccessful career, notwith- 
standing its refusal to assess members accord- 
ing to age at initiation, as is done by nearly 
all other of the larger and similar secret so- 
cieties; and by its insistance that its Grand 
(and Provincial) Lodges shall receive and 
disburse all death benefits which are based 
on assessments, made at the uniform rate of 
$1 i>ev capita, irrespective of the fact that 
the death rate varies in different States. 
AVhen the death rate is excessive in any par- 
ticular jurisdiction, and assessments there 
reach a certain point, determined by the 
Supreme Lodge, any additional assessment 
which may be required is met by a levy 
iipon the Order as a whole. Sick and 
funeral benefits are not comprised within 
the objects for which the Order was estab- 
lished. It is optional with subordinate 
Lodges to provide the same, or either of 
them, but comparatively few do so. The 
ritual and emblems of the Order betray the 
]\Iasonic influence which has presided at the 
birth of so many modern secret, fraternal, 
beneficiary fraternities. Its objects, covered 
by its watchwords, " Charity, Hope, and 
Protection," are illustrated in its ceremo- 
nies of initiation. As in Masonic and other 
secret societies, it has three degrees; but even 
more significant are the All-Seeing Eye, the 
Holy Bible, anchor, and, singularly enough, 
the square and compasses among its more 
frequently displayed emblems. There is an 
auxiliary branch for women (and men who 
are members of the Order) called the De- 
gree of Honor. This has proved quite as 
popular among the families of members as 
has the Daughters of Kebekah among Odd 
9 



Fellows, the Companions of the Forest 
allied to the Foresters of America, and other 
like societies auxiliary to secret organiza- 
tions for men. Its membership is fully 
40,000, mostly women. In imitation of the 
so-called Masonic "side degree," the Work- 
men, who, by the way, are not necessarily 
artisans, and in no sense constitute a trades 
union, confer what is officially entitled the 
Order of MoguUians. This is said to fur- 
nish amusement as well as substantial bene- 
fits. It Avould seem to the student of the 
sociological function of secret, assessment, 
beneficiary Orders that while the Ancient 
Order of L'nited Workmen is perhaps the 
oldest and among the more successful of its 
class in the L'nited States, while its affairs 
are managed capably, and its membership 
ranks second only to that of the Odd Fel- 
lows, the Freemasons, and Knights of 
Pythias among non-political secret organi- 
zations, that sooner or later there may de- 
velop a necessity for a revision of its assess- 
ment insurance system in the direction at 
least of a grading of payments according to 
age, and the jdacing of death benefit funds 
in the hands of the supreme governing body. 
All great and good movements that have 
filled a place in history have shed lustre 
upon the place of their birth. Mt. Vernon 
had its AVashington, Springfield its Lincoln, 
and Meadville its L^pchurch; and from the 
seed planted b}' the latter has grown the 
tree of mutual protection, under whose shel- 
ter to-day millions rest in security from 
want and dependence. The Ancient Order 
of L'nited Workmen lays no claim to dis- 
tinction as the originator of the idea of life 
insurance, as that existed many years prior 
to its birth; but its recognized claim to 
originality rests on the fact of its applying 
the principles of life insurance in a novel 
and cheap way, coupled with the care of the 
sick, the relieving of the distressed, and the 
moral, social, and intellectual betterment of 
its membership. The idea of forming a so- 
ciety that should ]iarallel the relief of the 
sick and burial of the dead of the secret. 



130 



ATLANTIC SELF-ENDOWMENT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 



fraternal, beneficiary organizations of thirty 
years and more ago, which, in addition, 
should extend its beneficence to the widows 
and orphans of its deceased members in a 
stipulated sum of money sufficient to secure 
them from want, was an untried experi- 
ment until the organization of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. Following in 
its wake, scores of other assessment, secret, 
insurance societies have divided the field of 
life insurance in the United States with the 
old-line companies. From its ranks have 
sj)rung many organizations of like character. 
Prior to the Civil War protection for widows 
and orphans through the medium of life 
insurance was within the means of the well- 
to-do only. To-day it is the privilege of 
the humblest. The founder of the Order, 
John Jordon Upchnrch, Avas a mechanic^ 
and in 18G8 was in the employ of the Atlan- 
tic and Great Western Eailroad. He was 
possessed of no marked literary attainments, 
but was a keen observer of men and events, 
was possessed of good reasoning powers, and, 
above all, a philanthropic nature. His orig- 
inal object was not so much to establish a 
system of insurance as to bring together 
then conflicting social interests, capital and 
labor, to provide means of arbitration with 
which to settle difficulties that were con- 
stantly arising. This feature has since been 
eliminated to make room for that of nintual 
protection. Viewed to-day, the manage- 
ment of the Order at the beginning was 
crude and unbusiness-like, and its success is 
undoubtedly due more to the integrity and 
sincerity of its members and to the rapid 
growth of the Society than to the early em- 
ployment of distinctly business j)rinciples. 
The first five years of its history developed 
little success and much opposition. It was 
not until the session of the Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, held at Meadville, Pa., in 
January, 1873, at which time the Order 
numbered only 800 members, that it gave 
promise of real growth. Since the organi- 
zation of the Supreme Lodge in February, 
1873, the Order has prospered almost be- 



yond precedent and ranks to-day among the 
first of its class. Senators M. S. Quay, J. C. 
S. Blackburn, Congressman J. G. Cannon, 
ex-Governor James E. Campbell of Ohio, 
and William Jennings Bryan are members 
of this Order. 

Atlantic Self-EndoAVineiit Associatiou 
of America. — Formed at Greenville, S. C, 
in 1886, to insure the lives of its members 
by means of mutual assessments. Eeported 
dead. 

Big Four Fraternal Liife Association. 
— Organized at Denver, Colo., to pay sick 
and death benefits by means of mutual as- 
sessments. 

Canadian Order of Chosen Friends. 
— Formed in 1801 and 1892 by seceding 
members of the Order of Chosen Friends 
resident in the Canadian Dominion. The 
parent Order was arranging to give its Cana- 
dian membershij) separate jurisdiction in 
order not to antagonize the Dominion in- 
surance laws when the secession took place. 

Canadian Order of Foresters. — Be- 
tween the Canadian branch and the. Inde- 
pendent Order of Foresters, from which it 
sprung in 1879, there developed a sharp 
rivalry and antagonism which lasted four or 
five years — in fact, until the latter so far 
outran the Canadian Society in membership 
as to render rivalry out of the question. 
(See Independent Order of Foresters of Illi- 
nois and the Independent Order of Fores- 
ters.) The Canadian Order, of course, is 
only one of four Orders of Forestry in the 
Dominion, the largest being the Inde2:)en- 
dent, from which the Canadian Order se- 
ceded, after which rank the Ancient (Eng- 
lish) Order and (one Court of) the Foresters 
of America. The Canadian Order has pros- 
pered, having increased from 850 members 
in 1880, to nearly 23,000 within seventeen 
years. Like other branches of the tree of 
Forestry, it retains the characteristic titles, 
ritual, legend, and form of government of 
the parent society. It does not seek mem- 
bership out of the Canadian Dominion, and, 
like the Independent Order, charges a fixed 



EMPIRE KNIGHTS OF RELIEF 



131 



monthl}' premium with which to pay death 
benefits, confining sick and other benefits to 
assessments. It pays -SoOO, 81,000, -^1,500, 
or 82,000 benefits at death, besides sick and 
funeral benefits (which are optional), and 
furnishes members with medical attendance 
free. Since 1879 the Canadian Order has 
paid over 81,297,356 to members and their 
dependents in insurance and benefits. Its 
funds are all invested in Canada, and thus 
far it has reported an exceedingly low death 
rate, only 4.(J0 per 1,000 in its seventeenth 
year. This, like the Independent Order, 
appears to make a feature of its insurance 
and other beneficial advantages, rather 
more than some other secret, beneficiary 
societies. The seat of government of the 
Society is at Brantford, Out. 

Circle of the Golden Baud. — Auxiliary 
to the Patriarchal Circle of America. (See 
the latter.) 

Colored Brotherhood and Sisterhood 
of Honor. — Organized at Franklin, Ky., 
in 188G, as a social and beneficiary society, 
in which classification it is recorded in cen- 
sus reports for 1890. 'No further informa- 
tion is obtained concerning it. 

Colored Consolidated Brotherliood. 
— At Atlanta, Tex., the home office of this 
mutual beneficiary society of negroes (as 
given in the tenth census), nothing is known 
of the organization. 

Columbian League. — An outgrowth of 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen, the 
parent of modern fraternal beneficiary fra- 
ternities in the United States, organized at 
Detroit, Mich., October 12, 1896, " the an- 
niversary of the discovery of America by 
Christopher Columbus," by Eev. W. Warne 
Wilson, Past Supreme ^Master Workman and 
former Crrand Pecorder of the Ancient Or- 
der of United Workmen ; William A. Pungs; 
Rev. William Prall, D.D.; Albert P. Jacobs, 
and others. No further action was taken 
until January 1, 1897, when "the prelim- 
inary matters of organization " were contin- 
ued. The necessary two hundred members 
having been obtained, the society was incor- 



porated April 1, 1897, after which the 
growth of the organization was conspicu- 
ously rapid. *rhe withdrawal of Mr. Warne 
and others from the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen was " because the Grand 
Lodge refused to adopt certain changes 
whicli he thought vitally necessary to the 
Order," provision for increasing cost of in- 
surance as the society grows older. Mem- 
bers of the Columbian League will make a 
feature of celebrating October 12th as Co- 
lumbus Day. Men only are eligible to mem- 
bership, all men to social and jiatriotic 
membership, but only those between eigh- 
teen and fifty years of age in the death bene- 
fit department, which issues certificates of 
8500, 81,000, 81,500, and 82,000 based on 
twelve annual, step-rate assessments, accord- 
ing to age. The founders of the new Order are 
prominent citizens of Michigan, and the soci- 
ety starts out with every prospect for success. 

Danisli Brotherhood of America. — 
Founded at Omaha, Neb., in 1881, a fra- 
ternal, beneficiary society somewhat similar 
to the Order of Modern Woodmen. It pays 
sick and death benefits, and numbers about 
10,000 members in Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, New York, Michigan, Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, South 
Dakota, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Wash- 
ington, and California. It has paid $500,000 
in benefits. 

Daujfliters of Hope. — The census of 
1890 gives the address of this mutual assess- 
ment, beneficiary society at Olneyville, 11. 1., 
where it is not known to the postal authori- 
ties. 

Daug^hters of the Globe. — Branch of 
or auxiliary to the Knights of the Clobe, an 
Illinois social, benevolent, military and 
patriotic fraternal society. (See Knights of 
the (ilobe.) 

Eastern Star Benevolent Fund of 
America. — See Order of the Star of Beth- 
lehom. 

Kmpire linights of Relief. — Organ- 
ized in 1889 at Buffalo, N. Y., and incor- 
porated under the laws of that State as a 



132 



EQUITABLE AID UNION OF AMERICA 



fraternal, beneficiary, assessment insurance 
society. Its published announcements de- 
clare that it has ''no secrets or iron-clad 
oaths," but (elsewhere) that members " are 
bound by a solemn obligation " to render 
assistance to any sick or disabled brother in 
need of help. The Supreme Secretary is 
authority for the statement that it is called 
a secret society, ''and properly, too." It 
insures members for $1,000, $2,000, or 
$3,000, and makes no restriction with ref- 
erence to extra-hazardous occupations. 
Any temperate, industrious man between 
20 and 55 years of age is eligible to mem- 
bership, providing he can pass the required 
physical examination. One assessment is 
levied each month, whether there has been 
a death or not, the amount collected an- 
nually in excess of the sum required to pay 
death benefits going into the reserve fund. 
A funeral benefit of $100, $200, or $300 is 
paid immediately on proof of death, but is 
deducted from the death benefit, which is 
payable within ninety days. The Empire 
Knights of Relief was founded by promi- 
nent citizens of Buffalo and vicinity, mem- 
bers of the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, the Royal Arcanum, Freemasons, and 
Odd Fellows. The motto of the Order is 
" Benevolence, Philanthropy and Charity," 
and its ritual is based on the G-olden Rule and 
inculcates obedience to the moral and civil 
law. The total membership is about 4,000, 
distributed throughout half a dozen States. 
The society has been successful from the 
start and gives promise of continued 
growth and prosperity. 

Equitable Aid Union of America. — 
Organized at Columbus, Warren County, 
Pa., March 22, 1879, and incorporated 
under the laws of Pennsylvania. Four of 
the founders were Freemasons. This secret, 
beneficiary fraternity permitted the forma- 
tion of subordinate Unions, as its Lodges 
are termed, north of 36° 30' north latitude 
in the United States and in the Dominion 
of Canada. It sought to bring men and 
women into its Unions to promote benevo- 



lence, charity, social and mental culture, 
to care for the sick and needy, to aid one 
another in obtaining employment, and to 
assist each other in business. It also in- 
sured members in sums ranging from $325 
to $3,000 by means of assessments of from 
twenty-five cents to $1, according to age and 
amount. The benefit certificates also pro- 
vided for the payment of specified sums in 
case of accident resulting in physical dis- 
ability. Eligibility to membership ex- 
tended to candidates from 15 to 55 years of 
age. The total membership in twenty-four 
States and in Canada in 1896 was about 
30,000, of which 25,000 were beneficiary 
and 5,000 social members. The official em- 
blem consisted of the initials of the title of 
the Order in a triangle, surrounded by a 
conventionalized sun-burst. The system 
of assessments in the Equitable Aid Union 
suggests the influence of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. The government of 
the society is similar to that of other simi- 
lar societies, subordinate Unions being 
under the immediate jurisdiction of Grand 
or State (or provincial) Unions, the offi- 
cers and representatives of the latter mak- 
ing up the Supreme Union, or highest 
legislative authority. In April, 1897, the 
Union susjDended payments and went into 
the hands of a receiver. It had fought 
hard to continue its existence, and num- 
bered about 30,000 members, principally in 
the country districts of Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New York. Less than five 
years before it had $43,000,000 worth of 
policies in force, and not many years pre- 
viously the amount was almost $75,000,000. 
Its decline began in 1891. In 1895 its income 
was $792,895 and its disbursements$801, 435, 
and its death rate had increased within four 
years from 12.2 to 17.4 per 1,000 annually. 

Equitable League of America. — A 
Baltimore mutual assessment insurance 
Order, organized about ten years ago. 
Died in 1894. 

Fraternal Aid Association. — Organ- 
ized October 14, 1890, at Lawrence, Kan., 



FRATERNAL MYSTIC CIRCLE 



133 



by members of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, Modern Woodmen of America, 
Knights of the Maccabees, and otlier fra- 
ternal, beneficiary Orders, to insure tlie lives 
of acceptable white men and women, be- 
tween 18 and 55 years of age, who are not 
engaged in prohibited (iiazardous) occupa- 
tions. Honorary membership may be ob- 
tained by specified relatives of beneficiary 
members. The Association also seeks to 
promote fraternity among its members, to 
comfort the sick and distressed, and care 
for surviving relatives of deceased members. 
Sick, total disability, and death benefits are 
provided, the latter in three classes, ranging 
from $1,000 to $3,000. No assessments are 
called nutil money is needed to meet a claim, 
of which thirty days' notice is given. Its 
government is vested in a General Council, 
composed of its officers and representatives, 
chosen from local or State Councils. The 
Association declines to recruit members in 
the Atlantic Coast and Gulf States from 
Virginia to Texas, inclusive; in CookCounty, 
111., and all of Illinois south of Centralia; 
in Milwaukee, Cincinnati, New York city, 
Detroit, St. Louis, San Francisco, Sacra- 
mento, and all other cities having a popula- 
tion of more than 200,000, in which peculi- 
arity it imitates a number of strong and 
prosperous fraternal Orders of the West. 
It has about 3,000 members, a "modern'' 
ritual, and has paid about $100,000 in sick 
and death benefits since it was organized. 
Its emblem is composed of tiie initials of its 
title about a pair of clasped hands across a 
shield bearing the stars and stripes. 

Fraternal Legion. — A Baltimore bene- 
ficiary society, organized in 1881, to pay 
81,000 death benefits. Is not known to have 
survived the recent period of trade depres- 
sion. 

Fraternal 3Iystic Circle. — This organi- 
zation is among the smaller assessment 
beneficiary secret societies. It was formed 
December 9, 1884, to provide safe indemnity 
for young business and professional men 
under the lodge system. Of the five found- 



ers, Milton Barnes, formerly Secretary of 
State for Ohio, died in 1895, but three others 
are still " members of the Order and officers 
of the Supremo Ruling'': D. E. Stevens, 
Supreme Mystic Ruler ; John G. Reinhard, 
Supreme Treasurer ; and F. 8. Wagenhals, 
Supreme Medical Director. Of those that 
made up the membership at the first meet- 
ing, in December, 1884, the following, in 
addition to those above named, are still 
members of the Supreme Ruling : John F. 
Follett, Cincinnati, 0. ; A. N. Hill, Colum- 
bus, 0. ; J. D. Grimes, Dayton, 0. ; H. C. 
Drinkle, Lancaster, 0. ; and A. X. Ozias, Ra- 
cine,Wis. Messrs, Stevens, Wagenhals, Hill, 
and Follett are Freemasons, some of them 
having taken the Scottish Rite degrees to and 
including the thirty-second. Others named 
are members of Knights of Pythias and 
other well-known secret societies. This 
Order has the usual form of government of 
like fraternities, a Supreme and Grand and 
Subordinate Rulings. The first named is 
the supreme governing body and the final 
court of appeals. A Supreme Executive 
Committee of five manage in the interim, 
between sessions of the Supreme Ruling. 
Grand Rulings (Grand lodges) are insti- 
tuted in a State when the membership 
reaches 500, or the number of Rulings is 15. 
Subordinate Rulings are instituted in health- 
ful localities, where a sufficient number of 
good, eligible, and desirable candidates are 
found, willing to join hands for the mutual 
protection of themselves and families. Sub- 
ordinate Rulings are managed by their mem- 
bers, and naturally become educational cen- 
tres as to the plans and benefits of the Order 
and methods of conducting business. Each 
Subordinate Ruling entitled to one elects a 
Representative to the Grand Ruling an- 
nually, and these Representatives (who 
make up the Grand Ruling) elect one or 
more delegates (as the State may be en- 
titled) to the Supreme Ruling. The special 
purposes of the Order are : 1st, To unite 
acceptable men, between the ages of 18 and 
49 years, to carry out all that which is 



134 



FRATERNAL TRIBUNES 



included within the meaning of the word 
" fraternity ; " 2d, To make provision that 
each Subordinate Lodge shall, from its 
general fund, pay dues and assessments of 
sick or disabled members, maturing during 
such sickness or disability ; 3d, The pay- 
ment of the amount specified in the certi- 
ficate of membership ($500 to $3,000) to the 
beneficiaries at the death of a member ; 
4th, Payment to a member of one-half of 
the sum named in his certificate of mem- 
bership in case permanent total disability 
overtakes him ; oth. The creation of an 
Emergency or Equalization Fund, to pre- 
vent the number of assessments exceeding 
twelve in any year ; Gth, The collection of a 
General Fund to meet the expenses of the 
Supreme Kuling. During twelve years the 
Order has paid to members and beneficiaries 
in death and permanent total disability 
benefits almost $1,000,000, and the emer- 
gency fund has to its credit over $125,000, 
while the annual cost to members has been 
small. In 1895 it was as follows, for the ages 
named : 

Age 25, on $3,000, $19.20; on $1,000, $6.40 per an. 

" 30, " p, 000, $22.80; "$1,000, 7.60 " " 

" 35, " $3,000, $28.20; " $1,000, 9.40 " " 

" 40, " $3,000, $34.20; " $1,000, 11.40 " " 

" 45, " $3,000, $42.60; "$1,000,14.20 " " 

These annual payments include the three 
elements required to meet the death claims 
fund, emergency fund, and expense fund. 
At the age of 35, a $3,000 certificate for 
1896 would cost 128.20, distributed as fol- 
lows : Death claims fund, $22.21 ; Emer- 
gency fund, $2.47; and' Expense fund, 
$3.52. From the date of organization until 
June, 1894, all the executive officers of the 
Supreme Euling resided at Columbus, 0., 
when the offices of the Supreme Mystic 
Euler and Supreme Eecorder w^ere moved 
to Philadelphia. In April, 1895, the Su- 
preme Euling was incorporated. The policy 
of the Executive Ofiicers of this Order has 
favored the filing of annual reports with 
the Insurance departments of States, where 
the laws provide for it, and annual reports 



are filed annually with the insurance depart- 
ments of New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, 
Iowa, and Nebraska. At no period in its 
history has the Order been more prosperous 
than at present, the year 1896 having 
brought a larger volume of new business 
than any preceding year. The present mem- 
bership is more than 12,000. 

Fraternal Tribunes. — Organized in 
June, 1897, by A. L. Craig and others, at 
Eock Island, 111., to pay death, sick, dis- 
ability, old age, and annuity benefits. Both 
men and women may become members. 
The Society started with 750 members, em- 
ploys the graded plan of assessments, and 
claims the " unique feature "of " guarantee 
by a Loan and Indemnity Company " that its 
contracts with its members will be fulfilled. 

Fraternal Order of Protectors. — A 
mutual assessment beneficiary society which 
had its headquarters at Lincoln, Neb., a few 
years ago. 

Fraternal Union of America. — A mu- 
tual assessment, beneficiary society founded 
by F. F. Eoose, F. A. Falkenburg, and 
others at Denver, Colo. , September 1, 1896, 
to pay death, sick, disability, and old age 
benefits. Men and women are eligible to 
membership, and the total number of mem- 
bers is in excess of 5,000. Mr. Eoose, the Su- 
preme President, has had much experience 
among fraternal orders, and is a member of 
the Ancient Order L^nited Workmen, Mod- 
ern Woodmen of America, Knights of 
Pythias, Woodmen of the World, Phi Delta 
Theta, Heptasophs, Junior Order United 
American Mechanics, Eed Men, and of the 
Masonic Fraternity. 

Fraternity of Friendly Fellows. — Or- 
ganized at New York, in 1885, to pay $1,000 
insurance to members by mutual assessments. 
It was still alive in 1890, but no trace of it 
is found in 1897. 

Glenwood Degree. — Uniform rank of 
the Independent Order of Foresters, formed 
in 1875. (See Independent Order Foresters 
and ditto of Illinois.) 



HOME CIRCLE 



135 



Golden Rule Alliance. — Organized at 
Boston prior to 1889, and recorded in the 
census of 1890 as a mutual assessment, bene- 
ficiary fraternity. Its membersliip was not 
large, nor did it secure a national reiwta- 
tion. No trace has been secured of surviv- 
ing bodies of tliis Order. 

Golden Star Fraternity. — Organized in 
1881 at Newark, N. J., as a fraternal, bene- 
ficiary society for men and women. Its 
total membership is about 2,200, distributed 
through New Jersey, New York, and Con- 
necticut, but very few of its Lodges are 
found outside of the State where it was 
founded. It has neither a prohibition, re- 
ligious, or political bias, and states that it is 
in a sound financial condition with no out- 
standing liabilities. Its ritual seeks to im- 
press the teachings of benevolence and 
charity. 

Grand United Order, Independent 
Sons and Daughters of Purity. — This 
l)eneficiary and social society was organized 
at Harrisonburg, Va., prior to the jiresent 
decade. None of its Lodges are known to 
be in existence now. 

Granite League. — Formed at Philadel- 
phia nearly ten years ago to insure the lives 
of members by means of assessments. Re^ 
ported dead. 

Home Circle, The. — When the Royal 
Arcanum, which is composed exclusively of 
men, had been organized nearly two years 
and a half, and had been introduced into 
twenty-three States of the Union, some of 
its active members, residents of Massachu- 
setts, conceived the idea of organizing a 
similar society into which the members of 
the Royal Arcanum could take tlieir wives, 
daughters, sisters, and women friends, and 
give them the full beneficial and social priv- 
ileges which membership in such a societv 
confers. The plan was to welcome woman 
to a full share of the work, honors, and 
responsibilities which, with few excei)tions, 
had been refused her by secret beneficiary 
organizations. With this object in view 
the Supreme Council of the Home Circle 



was organized in Boston, October 2, 1879, 
and began business November 5, 1879, being 
chartered under the laws of ^lassachu setts 
January 13, 1 880. Its founders were Henry 
Damon, Dr. John T. Codman, Dr. Thomas 
Waterman, Dr. Edward Page, N. II. Ful- 
ler, John A. Cummings, and Julius M. 
Swain, all residents of Boston or vicinity. 
They Avere all members of the Masonic Fra- 
ternity, Knights of Honor, and Royal Arca- 
num, three were Odd Fellows, and two were 
members of the Ancient Order of Ignited 
Workmen. 

The charter permitted the society, first, 
to unite in social union all acceptable mem- 
bers of the Royal Arcanum, their wives, 
mothers, sisters, daughters, and women 
friends, for the purpose of mutual aid, 
assistance, moral and intellectual improve- 
ment; and, second, to establish a benefit 
fund from which a sum not exceeding 
$3,500 should be jiaid to the deceased mem- 
ber's famil}^, relatives, or dependents as 
directed. 

Four benefit degrees were adopted, and a 
candidate having passed a satisfactory in- 
vestigation, a medical examination, and the 
ballot, was admitted to one of the four de- 
grees as he might elect, carrying >!500, 
$1,000, $2,000, or $3,500 protection, and 
there was then issued a benefit certificate 
for the amount selected, ^^Jiyj^ble to some 
legal beneficiary named in the application. 

In 1881 the Legislature of Massachusetts 
by special act granted the Sujireme Council 
of the Home Circle authority to increase its 
benefit to $5,000, and to receive as members 
all acceptable applicants without reference 
to their altiliation with the Royal Arcanum. 
Under the laws of ^lassachusetts the society 
cannot transact a commercial insurance busi- 
ness, and while its policies or benefit certifi- 
cates are good for their face value to the 
family, relative, or actual dependent named, 
no certificate is issued payable to any other 
person, and the benefits cannot be disposed 
of by will, assigned for any purpose, or at- 
tached for debt of the member or beneficiary 



136 



HOME FORUM BENEFIT ORDER 



either during the lifetime of the member or 
at his decease. Membership in the Home 
Circle, tlien, is an assurance to the member 
that the amount of benefit named will, in 
the event of his or her decease iu good 
standing, be paid the beneficiary selected. 
The exi)erience of the Order in receiving 
women and according to them office, honors, 
and permission to carr}^ a protection or in- 
surance for dependent parents or children 
upon the same conditions of entrance, medi- 
cal examination, and cash payments as men, 
has been favorable. Women compose thirty 
per cent, of the membership, and the Home 
Circle furnishes the first and " perhaps only 
example," where a beneficial society consti- 
tuted of men and women has elected a lady 
as its chief executive officer. 

Two million dollars have been paid in 
death benefits besides the special relief to 
members when ill or in need, amounting to 
about 1100,000 in seventeen years. Death 
benefits paid have directly aided over 3,000 
persons, and in a large majority of cases the 
deceased member has left to dependents no 
other protection or life insurance. 

The experience of the Home Circle has 
been conspicuous among the beneficiary se- 
cret societies of the country, in that it has 
never had occasion to contest the payment 
of a benefit in the courts, and that its legal 
expenses for a period of seventeen years are 
trifling. Subordinate Councils are com- 
posed of beneficiary members of either sex 
between eighteen and fifty years of age, who 
must pass a favorable examination and bal- 
lot. Applicants over fifty years of age may 
be admitted as social members without a 
medical examination. Grand Councils are 
organized in States and provinces having at 
least 1,000 members, and are composed of 
their officers, standing committees, and 
representatives from subordinate Councils. 
They have the general supervision of the 
Order in their respective jurisdictions. The 
Supreme Council, the head of the Order, 
makes laws and disburses the Benefit Fund. 
It is composed of its officers, standing com- 



mittees, and representatives from Grand 
Councils. Assessments paid by members in 
subordinate Councils are called to the Su- 
preme Treasury on the first of each month. 
The jurisdiction of the Order is limited to 
the United States and the Dominion of 
Canada, and its business is conducted in the 
English language only. It has a member- 
ship of about 8,000, located in the States 
of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
Ehode Island, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, A'irginia, 
North Carolina, Georgia, Ohio, Illinois, 
Michigan, Missouri, and Nebraska, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and the Provinces of On- 
tario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Its 
ritual is based on the Golden Kule, and 
teaches morality and upright living. The 
emblem of the Society consists of a design 
formed of the letter H and a circle, Avhile 
that of the Supreme Council, its governing 
body, suggests the domestic results of a 
well-spent and industrious life. 

Home Forum Benefit Order. — Char- 
tered under the laws of the Sta£e of Illinois, 
in 1892, as a mutual assessment, beneficiary 
society, by prominent members of the Mod- 
ern Woodmen of America and of tlie Masonic 
Fraternity. It is controlled by its members, 
the business of the association being man- 
aged by a board of directors. Women are 
admitted to full membershii) with men, the 
age limits for beneficiary membership being 
between sixteen and fifty-five years. Hon- 
orary or social membership is granted those 
over the age limit for insurance. The order 
issues death benefit certificates for $500, 
$1,000, and $2,000, and any member losing 
a foot, hand, or an eye by an accident is en- 
titled to receive one-fourth of the amount 
named in the certificate, the balance being 
payable at death. ^Membership is restricted 
to healthful districts, and denied to those 
following hazardous occupations. An un- 
usual regulation in like fraternities is that 
which suspends for three months any mem- 
ber who becomes intoxicated and expels for 
the second ofEence, although, as explained. 



IMPROVED ORDER OF HEPTASOPHS 



137 



such action is "without publicity." The 
plan of assessment is amon<]f the approved 
or graded systems in use by nearly all of the 
best numaged fraternal orders. The ritual, 
like that of some other similar organizations, 
finds its inspiration in lioman history. It 
was about the Ronum Forum that Cicero, 
Ca?sar, Brutus, Anthony, and other dis- 
tinguished Romans met to discuss the ques- 
tions of their time and form laws, and the 
Home Forum of to-day, adopting the old 
Roman name, meets to decide questions of 
interest to its members and impart the les- 
sons of honesty, fraternity, benevolence, 
temperance, and patriotism, the initials of 
which are found in the angles of the golden 
star of the Order. The total membership, 
principally in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and 
Michigan, is about 12,000. 

Home Palladiniu. — A secret beneficiary 
fraternity, to which acceptable white men 
and women are eligible, organized at Kansas 
City, Mo., in August, 1891, by E. F. Edge- 
comb, Dr. L. G. Taylor, and Dr. T. J. 
Eggers, to give financial aid to its members 
in permanent, partial, or total disability 
and death, by means of twelve graded assess- 
ments annually. It claims to combine the 
best features of older similar societies, to 
have new and desirable ones of its own, and 
to avoid that Avhich is objectionable in some 
like fraternities. Benefit certificates are 
issued in sums of $500, $1,000, $1,500, and 
12,000 in three classes, extra rates being 
charged members engaged in hazardous and 
extra-hazardous occupations. Emphasis is 
placed on its method of creating and main- 
taining a reserve fund, which is copyrighted. 
One-tenth of the amount of the face of a 
member's benefit certificate is set apart for 
the reserve fund on which he or she pays in- 
terest at the rate of 2 per cent, per annum 
so long as the certificate renuiins in force. 
The Order is governed directly by the Su- 
jireme Lodge, to which State Representatives 
are elected by Grand Lodges existing for 
that purpose alone. It avoids the yellow 
fever and malarial districts of the South, 



and has thus far enjoyed an exceptionally 
low death rate. It numbers over 2,000 
members, and is growing rapidly. 

The Imperial Lt'f-iou. — A Denver, Colo., 
beneficial fraternal association. Lodges of 
which have been established as far east as 
Missouri. Many prominent Colorado busi- 
ness and professional men are members of it. 

Improved Order ofHeptasoph.s. — The 
growth of beneficiary secret societies, those 
paying sick, funeral, and death benefits, 
within ten or fifteen years after the close of 
the Civil "War, was, no doubt, responsible 
for the desire by members of the Order of 
Heiita8ophs,or Seven Wise Men, that that So- 
ciety be placed on a purely beneficiary basis. 
The movement centred in Zeta Conclave, 
No. 6, of the Ileptasophs, or Seven Wise 
Men, at Baltimore, Md., and as the advo- 
cates of the change from a purely beneficiary 
secret organization on modern lines were 
not able to carry out their plan within the 
Society, they ajiparently determined to do 
so by means of an independent organization. 
A call was accordingly issued August 10, 
1878, signed by Judge George Y. Metzel, 
John W. Cruett, James S. Watkins, Hon. 
John G. :Mitchel, W. F. C. Gerhardt, and 
Herbert J. Thurn, all of ^laryland, asking 
the cooperation of fourteen other members, 
six from ^laryland, six from Pennsylvania, 
and one from \'irginia, and one from Ken- 
tucky, at a meeting in convention to organ- 
ize a secret, beneficiary organization. The 
convention was held at Odd Fellows' Hall on 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, August 27th, 
all of the signers of the call and those asked 
to join with them, twenty in number, being 
present. A permanent organization of a 
Supreme Conclave was effected ujuler the 
title, The Improved Order of Heptasophs, 
with S3 members of Zeta Conclave, Order of 
the Heptasophs, or Seven Wise Men, as the 
nucleus of the new society. Judge George 
V. ^letzel is regarded as the founder of the 
Improved Order, aiul he was elected the 
first Archon, or chief executive. At the first 
annual session, in 1879, only nine Conclaves 



138 



INDEPENDENT CHEVALIERS AND LADIES OF INDUSTRY 



"were reported, with a total membership of 
149. For the first six years of its existence, 
the Improved Order of Heptasophs was an- 
tagonized by the parent society, so that dur- 
ing the first two years its membership in- 
creased to only 516 in twelve Conclaves. 
But the Society (see Order of the Heptasophs, 
or Seven Wise Men) was in the hands of 
strong, conservative men who are said to 
have given freely of their time and means 
to build it up. It now numbers more than 
35,000 members in twenty States, and in 
the year 1895 enjoyed a phenomenal growth. 
The Order embraces the fundamental prin- 
ciples of leading kindred societies, except 
that it has abolished Grand (State) Con- 
claves, and leaves its business affairs, includ- 
ing the management of its death benefit 
fund, in the hands of its permanent and 
other Supreme officials. In Maryland, the 
cradle of the Order, there are nearly 12,000 
members, with an average mortality rate of 
only 7 in 1,000 per annum. The following 
is extracted from the Maryland Insurance 
Committee's report for 1895: 

In closing my examination of the conditions of 
Fraternal Benefit Orders, it is proper for one to 
refer specially to the Improved Order of Heptasophs 
as to the promptness with which all claims have 
been met and paid, and in all eases it was found the 
organization had made reasonable effort to complete 
the necessary formalities and inquiries, in order to 
increase the efficiency for the settlement of all 
claims. 

The Order has issued certificates repre- 
senting $48,000,000, more than $12,000,000 
in 1895, a creditable exhibit. In eighteen 
years over $2,000,000 have been paid to 
beneficiaries. The beneficiary fund is pro- 
tected by the Maryland Code of Laws, sec- 
tion 143, L, of chapter 295, of the Legisla- 
tive Acts of 1894, whicli clears from any at- 
tachment i3roceedings all moneys to be paid 
from such funds held by any similar organi- 
zation. The Supreme body consists of 
its oflBcers, deputies, and representatives 
elected by the membershi]! of Subordinate 
Conclaves. The original, or charter, mem- 



bers were made permanent members of the 
Supreme Conclave as Past Supreme Arch- 
ons, having equal privileges with the Rej)- 
resentatives on the floor of each Supreme 
Sitting. The membership of the Order is 
exclusively in the United States and is dis- 
tributed north of South Carolina, Kentucky, 
Arkansas, and Texas, extending west to and 
including Colorado. Death benefits range 
from $1,000 to $5,000, and are met by assess- 
ments. Subordinate Conclaves under the 
Supreme general laws are permitted to shape 
their own by-laws, so far as they refer to sick 
benefits ; but many Conclaves have decided 
not to pay sick benefits. Two Conclaves 
have been so prosperous as to be able to 
build temples of their own. Zeta Conclave 
of Baltimore has an edifice whicli cost 
$40,000, and Grant Conclave atEaston, Pa., 
has also dedicated a handsome temple to the 
principles of the Fraternity. This Order 
was among the first to place its insurance 
feature under the supervision of insurance 
departments in States where its meetings are 
held, in order that its efforts and the results 
of its work may remain " an open book," in 
which the record of tlie material good it ac- 
comjDlishes may be seen by all men. 

Iiidepeiideiit Chevaliers and liadies 
of Industry. — Organized at Fail Eiver, 
Mass., 1889, as a fraternal mutual assessment 
association. Lived only about six years. 

Independent Order of Chosen 
Friends. — Early in 1887, when the Order 
of Chosen Friends was only three years old, 
leaders of the latter in California applied to 
the Supreme Council for a separate juris- 
diction on the Pacific Coast. This was re- 
fused, notwithstanding the strength of the 
Order there, and the result was a secession 
and the formation of the Independent Order 
of Chosen Friends. Within a few years the 
Independent California Friends numbered 
7,000 or 8,000 members, but the Society 
ultimately dropped out of sight. (See Order 
of Chosen Friends.) 

Independent Order of Foresters. — 
This branch of Forestrv, like the Foresters 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



139 



of America (which see), was the outgrowth 
of a movemeut to secure local self-govern- 
ment among New York and New Jersey 
Foresters, which began in 1871, and cul- 
minated, after several refusals of the Eng- 
lish High Court to establish a Sul)sidiary 
High Court for the United States, in June, 
1874, at Newark, N. J., when Court Inde- 
pendence seceded from the Ancient Order, 
and, with two Courts created by it, estab- 
lished a new, or Independent Order. A. B. 
Caldwell, the leader of the niovement, was 
the first Most Worthy High Chief Eanger. 
The remarkable success which has attended 
the growth of this offshoot from English 
Forestry is attested by its twenty-two years 
of existence and an increase of from perhaps 
500 to more than 100,000 members in twenty 
States of the Union, the Canadian Dominion, 
the United Kingdom, and Ireland. About 
43 per cent, of its membership is in the 
United States. Its form of government, 
with some minor differences, is like that of 
the Foresters of America and the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. It furnishes 
members with free medical attendance and 
nurses, and pays sick, total disability, 
funeral, and mortuary benefits. A marked 
difference between this and other branches 
of Forestry is, that while the latter rely 
wholly upon assessments to pay benefits and 
endowments, the Indej^endent Order, in 
1881, combined the assessment feature of 
the beneficiary or friendly society, with the 
plan of the regular premium-paying insur- 
ance comi)any. In 1892 it was registered 
as a Friendly Society in the United King- 
dom, and under the requirements of the 
Friendly Societies Act, deposited with the 
British Government £20,000 to enable it to 
do an insurance business in the United 
Kingdom. In 1875, one year after its es- 
tablishment, a ladies' branch was formed, 
called the Miriam degree, which corresponds 
to the degree of Companions of the Forest 
in the Foresters of America. In 1875, also, 
a Uniformed Eank was instituted as the 
Glenwood degree, which corresponds to the 



Knights of the Sherwood Forest in other 
branches of Forestry. In 1877 juvenile 
branches were organized in which youths 
were interested, taught parliamentary law, 
and restrained from indulgence in liquor 
and tobacco. Since 1882, when the juvenile 
de2)artment was reorganized, it has become 
a useful and successful adjunct. In 1875, 
when only one year old, tiie Order had 
grown from three Courts and 500 members, 
with which it began, to forty-six Courts and 
4,000 members; and in 1878, when its mem- 
bership was nearly 14,000, the title of the 
governing body was changed to the Most 
Worthy High Court of the World, the 
alteration being the substitution of the 
words "the World" for "the United 
States." In 1878 the Order met with seri- 
ous disaster in the unfaithfulness of an 
official, who disappeared simultaneously 
with about 117,000 of its funds. Subse- 
quently about one-third of the amount was 
restored, but so great was the loss that the 
efforts of the Society to make good its obli- 
gations by extra assessments resulted in 
serious differences which, for a time, threat- 
ened complete disruption. The firm stand 
taken l)y Judge William B. Hoke, then the 
executive head of the Order, his judicial 
temperament, strong character, and wide 
personal influence alone prevented disinte- 
gration. A large number of Massachusetts 
Courts held out for State as opposed to 
national assessments and payments, but 
ultimately decided to remain and be governed 
by the will of the majority. Not so, how- 
ever, with some of the Illinois Courts, which 
refused to abide by the decisions of the Su- 
preme Court, and had their charters revoked, 
whereupon they met and organized the In- 
dependent Order of Foresters of Illinois. 
The break in the ranks of the Illinois 
Independent Order of Foresters was not the 
only like consequence of the financial loss 
to the Order in 1870. Prior to the Illinois 
movement, the Independent Order num- 
bered about 15,000, and the total loss from 
secession within a vear was no less than 



140 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS OF ILLINOIS 



4,000. There were, as pointed out, about 
2,500 seceders in Illinois, to which must be 
added 1,500 in the Canadian Dominion, in 
October, 1879, by whom the Canadian 
Order of Foresters was organized. 

It was in 1878, also, that Foresters in 
London, Ontario, planned and founded the 
original Order of Knights of the Macca- 
bees. In 1881, the Independent Order, the 
larger part of the membership of which was 
in the United States, suffered its severest 
blow through the action of its Supreme 
Court at Albany, N. Y., in resolving to 
change the name of the society to the 
United Order of Foresters. The Canadian 
Courts were unwilling to abide by this, and. 
found fault with American Courts for hav- 
ing made changes in the ritual, for eliminat- 
ing the chaplain from the list of officers, 
discarding prayers from the cerepmnies, 
and for holding meetings on Sundays. The 
result was the continuation of the Canadian 
Courts as the Independent Order of Forest- 
ers (the claim being that the Courts which 
changed the name of the Order were the 
seceders), and at the High Court meeting at 
Ottawa, in July, 1881, with a total mem- 
bership reduced to less than 400 (excepting 
one Court in Elizabeth, N. J.) again began 
the work of building u^i the Order. The 
American, or seceding branch, that which 
changed its name to the United. Order, 
though it started with about 13,000 mem- 
bers, did not possess the elements of suc- 
cess. It languished, and within a few years 
became extinct. Meanwhile the Indepen- 
dent Order, almost all of it at that time in the 
CanadianDominion,went resolutely to work, 
and, notwithstanding active oj)position from 
the Canadian Order, secured, within two 
years, a list of 1,700 members, an increase 
of 300 per cent. Two years later, in 1885, 
it numbered, nearly 3,000 members, and in 
1889, when it was incorporated, at Toronto, 
more than 14,000 members. Between 1890 
and 1896 its growth was phenomenal, or 
from 16,000 to nearly 87,000 members. 
Courts were established in Oregon, Wash- 



ington, Colorado, Montana, Arizona, Wis- 
consin, Pennsylvania, Kansas, in 1891, and 
in the United Kingdom in 1893. The 
spirit shown by this Society, its methods of 
self-develoi^ment and of conducting its 
business have been most effective. Under 
its Supreme Court are registered thirty-two 
High Courts in various States, Territories, 
provinces, and countries, to which 2,600 
subordinate Courts hold allegiance. And 
after, nominally, twenty-three years of ex- 
istence (practically only fifteen years), with 
more than 100,000 members, it has a sur- 
plus of '$1,848,000, after having paid over 
$3,800,000 in benefits. Second to the efforts 
of no other man in organizing and extend- 
ing the Independent Order of Foresters are 
those of its Supreme Chief Eanger, Dr. 
Oronhyatekha of Toronto, Ont. 

Independent Order of Foresters of 
Illinois. — It is stated by various chroniclers 
that the Independent Order of Foresters of 
Illinois, which was formed by a member of 
the Massachusetts Catholic Order of Forest- 
ers, and by seceding members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Foresters of Illinois, at 
Chicago, in 1879, started with about 2,500 
members, its Courts all being in the State 
of Illinois, most of them in and about the 
city of Chicago. The Miriam degree was 
carried along in what may be called the 
Illinois secession, but its membership was 
not large and is not to-day. A novel fea- 
ture is found in its modification of the Glen- 
wood degree or military rank, which was 
also retained, in that ladies are admitted. 
This Society ]3ays endowment benefits by 
assessments and sick and funeral benefits 
from Court dues. To judge from statistics 
of membership, interest in the Illinois Order 
of Foresters has been on the decline. In 
1880 it had more than 2,500 members, and 
late in 1893, 21,160 members, an increase 
of nearly ninefold in thirteen years. Since 
that time the membership has declined, 
amounting to only 20,107 in January, 1894, 
18,376 in January, 1895, and to only 17,330 
one year later, a decline of about one-seventh 



KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF AZAR 



141 



within three years. In 1883 it suffered 
from the secession of some of its members of 
the Komau Catholic faith, who organized 
the Catholic Order of Foresters. As in the 
case of other secessions from like societies, 
the Illinois Order altered enough of its rit- 
ual and means of recognition to give it in- 
dividuality, but in other respects it followed 
in the footsteps of similar secessions. (See 
Independent Order of Foresters.) 

ludepeudeiit Order of Tininaciilates 
of the United States of America. — Or- 
ganized at Nashville, Tenn., by W. A. Ilad- 
ley, June 23, 1872, to pay sick, accident, 
and disability benefits to members. It took 
its rise from the Young Men's Immaculate 
Association, an organization of colored men, 
but differed in that it patterned after vari- 
ous secret, beneficiary Orders, and admitted 
men and Avomen as members. Its head- 
quarters are at Nashville, and it has about 
5,000 members. 

Independent Order of Meclianicts. — 
Organized at Baltimore April 19, 18G8, a 
benevolent, beneficiary fraternity paying 
sick and accident benefits of from $1 to $5 
weekly, and death benefits of from $200 to 
8400. All white men between eighteen and 
fifty years of age are eligible to membership. 
The Order has never had any connection 
with practical mechanics or labor organiza- 
tions. "When founded, the only prominent 
and widesj^read benevolent fraternities in 
the country were the Freemasons, the Odd 
Fellows, and the Eed Men. There were 
also the well-known patriotic Orders, the 
United American Mechanics, Senior and 
Junior. But it is more than doubtful 
whether either of the latter suggested the 
name, the Independent Order of Mechanics. 
The fact that the 'Hhree cardinal princi- 
ples" of the latter are Friendship, Truth, 
and Love, as contrasted with the Friendship, 
Love, and .Truth of the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, suggests that some of the 
founders of the "Independent Order of'' 
Mechanics were Odd Fellows, which is 
borne out by the use by both of a representa- 



tion of Jacob's ladder and the ark among 
their emblems. The Order has about 10,000 
members, and has paid nearly §500,000 for 
the relief of members and to their bene- 
ficiaries. 

Illinois Order of Mutual Aid. — Organ- 
ized for the purpose expressed in its title at 
Springfield, 111., June 17, 1878, when its 
first Grand Lodge meeting was held. It 
took its rise from the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, and pays §2,000, ?!l,000, 
and $500 death benefits "and accrued as- 
sessments." In the latter feature it differs 
from the organization last named. Men 
alone are eligible to join the Order, the 
membership of which is G,000. 

Independent Workmen of America. 
— A Nebraska fraternal and beneficial asso- 
ciation of recent origin. Its headquarters 
are at Omaha. 

Iowa Legion of Honor. — A social and 
beneficiary assessment Order, designed for 
men and women, residents of the State of 
Iowa only. Removal from the State does 
not forfeit membership. The beneficiary 
divisions for men and for women are sepa- 
rate. The secret work and ceremonies are 
described as "simple but lasting." Subor- 
dinate Lodges elect representatives to the 
Grand Lodge, who with the officers thereof 
constitute that body. The Grand Lodge 
meets biennially, and the government is 
more representative than in like societies 
which subordinate Grand or State Lodges 
to a Supreme body. Members' lives are in- 
sured for $1,000 or $2,000. The total mem- 
bership is about 7,500. A prominent oftieial 
states that the founders were not members 
of any other particular organization of like 
nature. (See American Legion of Honor.) 

Knights and Ladies of Azar. — A re- 
organization of the Knights of Azar,' a fra 
ternal, beneliciary, and jiatriotic Order 
founded at Chicago in 1893. Under the 
reorganization ladies are to be admitted on 
equal terms with men. In June, 1897, 
there were 300 members enrolled, and as 
soon as 500 were obtained the Society was 



142 



KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF HONOR 



to be incorporated under the laws of Illinois 
affecting organizations paying deatli, acci- 
dent, disability, and old age benefits by 
means of mutual assessments. 

Kniglits and Ladies of Honor. — This 
Avas the first secret beneficiary society to 
admit women to equal social and beneficiary 
privileges with men, and is otherwise note- 
Avorthy in that it is the outgrowth of a side 
or auxiliary degree knoAvn as the degree 
of Protection, which was attached to the 
Knights of Honor from 1875 until 1877. 
Knights of Honor, their wives, mothers, 
Avidows, and unmarried daughters and sis- 
ters over eighteen years of age were eligible 
to the degree of Protection, which per- 
formed the same social and beneficiary func- 
tions for the Knights of Honor that the 
Daughters of Eebekah does for the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. Only a few 
Lodges of the degree of Protection Avere or- 
ganized during 1875 and 1876, but little en- 
couragement being given by the Supreme 
Lodge of Knights of Honor, which body in 
May, 1877, repealed the law creating the 
degree. On September G, 1877, representa- 
tives from Lodges of the degree of Protection 
met at Louisville, Ky., to discuss the con- 
dition of affairs, and, if possible, effect a per- 
manent organization. The outcome Avas 
the formation of a Provisional Supreme 
Lodge for the degree, of which the folloAv- 
ing, all of Kentucky, were the first officers: 
E. J. Williamson, T. W. Seymour, E. J. 
McBride, F. D. Macbeth, C. L. Piper, J. A. 
Demaree, W. E. Ladd, K. H. Seng, 0. N. 
Bradburn, T. E. Dennis, G. W. Check, and 
T. J. Wyatt. The first annual meeting of 
the " Supreme Lodge of Protection, Knights 
and Ladies of Honor," Avas held at Louis- 
ville, Ky., September 19, 1878, and in April 
of the folloAving year the Supreme Lodge of 
Protection, Knights and Ladies of Honor, 
was incorporated. On December 14, 1881, 
the General Assembly of Kentucky amended 
the act of incorporation by striking out the 
words " of Protection," and so changing the 
membership limitation clause as to render 



eligible to membership " all acceptable Avhite 
jiersons, male and female." The original 
act of 1878 fixed the amount of benefit pay- 
able on the death of a member at a sum not 
exceeding 11,000, but the amendatory act 
of 1881 increased the limit of benefit pay- 
able at deatli of a member to 15,000, which 
changes constitute the foundation of the 
growth and prosperity of the Order of 
Knights and Ladies of Honor of to-day, the 
date of the independent existence of Avhich 
is September C, 1877. The amount paid on 
each single assessment by each member de- 
l^ends uj^on the age at joining the Order and 
amount of benefit carried. On June 30, 
1878j its membership was as folloAvs: Men, 
907; women, 1,018; total, 1,925. On 
December 31, 1895, men, 39,933; women, 
43,083; total, 83,005. The objects of the 
Fraternity are (1) to unite fraternally all ac- 
ceptable Avhite men and women of any repu- 
table profession, business, or occupation' who 
are over eighteen and under fifty years of 
age. (3) To give all possible moral and ma- 
terial aid in its power to its members, and 
those depending upon them, by holding 
moral, literary, and scientific lectures, by 
encouraging each other in business, and by 
assisting each other to obtain employment. 
(3) To promote benevolence and charity by 
establishing a relief fund. This fund is 
maintained by monthly assessments on those 
members Avho desire to participate in it, 
who are distinguished in the laws of the 
Order as Eelief Fund members. The Relief 
Fund Deiiartment comprises three open 
divisions: Division 1, of 1500; Division 3, 
of 11,000; Division 3, of $3,000; Division 4, 
of 13,000, but the last-named division is 
noAV closed to entrants. Upon satisfactory 
proof of the death of a Eelief Fund mem- 
ber, in good standing at time of death, such 
sum of money is paid to the designated 
beneficiary as the deceased had in life con- 
tributed for, and Avhich Avas specified in the 
Eelief Fund certificate held by the member 
at the date of death. Benefits are payable 
to " such member or members of his or her 



KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF SECURITY 



143 



family, person or persons dependent on or 
related to him or her, as he or she may have 
directed." The Order has paid out in death 
benefits during nineteen years -^1 1,042,000. 
Any acceptable Avhite person, not less than 
eighteen nor more than sixty-five years of 
age, may be admitted as a social member 
without medical examination. These mem- 
bers pay the usual Lodge dues, but are ex- 
empt from contributing to the Relief Fund. 
The business of this Order is conducted 
through a Supreme Lodge, Grand Lodges, 
coextensive with their several State bounda- 
ries, and subordinate Lodges. It has six- 
teen Grand Lodges, but its membership is 
distributed in nearly every State of the 
Union. Representatives chosen by subordi- 
nate Lodges constitute the several Grand 
Lodges, and representatives chosen by the 
several Grand Lodges constitute, with its offi- 
cers and committeemen, the Supreme Lodge. 
The Supreme Lodge conducts, exclusively, 
the collection and disburseijient of the Re- 
lief Fund, and has full power to make laws 
for its own government, and to govern 
Grand and subordinate Lodges. 

Less effort has been made by the Knights 
and Ladies of Honor to make that organi- 
zation distinct from the Knights of Honor 
than has sometimes been the case by off- 
shoots from secret societies, the comparison 
being found rather with schisms among Odd 
Fellows and Foresters, so many independent 
Orders of which exist with similar names, 
titles, emblems, and rituals. The seal of 
the Supreme Lodge of the Knights and 
Ladies of Honor contains the representation 
of a knight in armor, with sword and shield, 
ready to defend and protect the widow and 
children which, with a broken column, are 
also represented. Upon the shield held by 
the knight, who symbolizes the Order, are 
the letters 0. M. A. in the angles of a tri- 
angle. The seal of the Supreme Lodge of 
the mother Order, the Knights of Honor, 
is similar, except that the knight stands with 
his shield arm raised. The triangle and the 
broken column are missing, but the letters 



O. ^[. A., which probably refer to the motto 
of the Order, ai)pear ou an ornamental 
shield over the design. The best known 
emblem of the Knights of Honor is a mono- 
gram formed of the letters 0. M. A., and 
of the Knights and Ladies of Honor, a jien- 
dant triangular design, in tlie angles of 
which the same letters appear. It is of in- 
terest to point out that the experience of 
the Knights and Ladies of Honor shows 
that its risks on women members have con- 
stantly proven the better of the two classes. 
L. D. Witherill, M.D., Supreme Medical 
Examiner of the Order for the twelve years, 
reports out of the first 8,000 deaths (De- 
cember 26, 1877, to June 10, 1895, inclu- 
sive) -4,198 were of men and 3,802 women. 
The same authority says, concerning the 
character and desirability of women as in- 
surance risks : ' ' Statistics show that the life 
of females, as a rule, is longer than that of 
males. Their exposure to violent deaths 
and abuse of intoxicants is far less. From 
a medical standi:)oint I would urge the mem- 
bers of the Order to increase their ranks as 
far as possible from the women of our land. " 
(See Loyal Knights and Ladies.) 

Knights and Ladies of Security. — One 
of the more modern and progressive of the 
latter-day mutual assessment, death and 
disability beneficiary secret societies, to 
which both men and women are eligible. 
It was chartered under the laws of the State 
of Kansas February 22, 1892, with its head- 
quarters at Topeka, by members of the 
^lasonic Fraternity, the xVncient Order of 
United "Workmen, one or both Orders of 
Woodmen, and others. It eliminates the 
expensive and generally unnecessary State 
organization usually found in similar soci- 
eties, its National Council being composed 
of representatives from subordinate Coun- 
cils elected by a direct vote of tiie members. 
It operates throughout the United States 
and Canada, north of Xorth Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, 
and Arizona, excluding cities of 150,000 
population and over. Admission, as in 



144 



KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF THE FIRESIDE 



most such societies, is restricted to white 
persons of good moral character between 
eighteen and fifty-five years of age who can 
pass a satisfactory physical examination. 
Certificates or policies are issued to men and 
women members alike for sums ranging 
from $500 to 13,000. These are paid by 
means of graded assessments, in full at 
death, or in part in case of disability by 
accident. Holders who reach the age of 
seventy receive one-tenth of the amount of 
the policies each year until the face is paid. 
A feature of the organization is its reserve 
fund, which is created by setting aside 150 
on each 11,000 named in certificates, and 
loaning it on real estate mortgage security. 
It is used to meet death losses after twelve 
monthly assessments, have been made within 
a year. In explaining its reserve fund the 
announcement is made that the plan of cre- 
ating it has been copyrighted, and '' its j^er- 
petual use secured to the Order." The 
growth of the Order has been unusually 
rapid, its total membership amounting to 
about 25,000 in one-third the States of the 
Union, a tribute to the efficiency of the 
salaried organizers of new Councils and to 
the enthusiasm and loyalty of the rank and 
file of its membership, in which it may be 
said to have fairly rivalled the vitality shown 
by almost any similar society. Councils of 
Knights and Ladies of Security are practi- 
cally private social clubs rather than mystic 
temples, but the ritual and ceremonial are 
instructive and attractive, being well calcu- 
lated to impress upon the mind of the no- 
vitiate the importance of wisdom, security, 
protection, and fraternity. 

Knights and Ladies of the Fireside. 
— A mutual assessment beneficiary organiza- 
tion, founded at Kansas City, Mo., in 1893, 
by representatives of kindred organizations 
in Missouri and Kansas. It issues life, acci- 
dent, and sick benefit certificates in separate 
classes. It admits men and women alike, 
and has about 5,000 members pointing to an 
exceptionally rapid growth. At the death 
of a member or lapse of a membershi]:), 10 



per cent, of the amount paid into the bene- 
ficiary fund by the deceased or former mem- 
ber is invested by the Supreme Lodge to 
form a permanent fund with Avhich to pro- 
vide for the payment of assessments of mem- 
bers of fifteen (or twenty) years' standing. 
The services of S. IL Snider, ex-Superin- 
tendent of Insurance of the State of Kansas, 
as Sujireme Secretary of the Knights and 
Ladies of the Fireside, are an evidence of 
the intelligence and enthusiasm with which 
the society has entered the already well-filled 
field of fraternal insurance orders. 

Knights and Ladies of the Golden 
Precept. — Founded by Thomas Gauderup, 
E. E. Everhart, W. B. Davison, and John 
Iverson at Clinton, la., in 189G, and incor- 
porated under the laws of the State of Iowa 
with social and beneficiary objects. It con- 
templates establishing Lodges throughout 
the Union. 

Knights and Ladies of the Goklen 
Rule. — One of the older but smaller secret 
beneficiary societies, combining many of the 
features of other like organizations with 
some of its own. It was organized at Cin- 
cinnati, 0., in August, 1879, and incor- 
porated under the laws of Kentucky in the 
same month. The founders were members 
of other beneficiary fraternal societies, no- 
tably the Order of Mutual Aid, which suc- 
cumbed to the yellow fever epidemic at 
Memphis, early in its career, in 1878 ; the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, and 
the Knights of Honor. A few representa- 
tives and officers met in final session at Cin- 
cinnati, and after settling claims against the 
Order of Mutual Aid adjourned sine die. 
A majority of those present then met and 
organized the Knights of the Golden Eule, 
which has preserved with varying success 
a continuous existence ever since. The 
headquarters of the Order are at Louisville, 
Ky., and the form of government is much 
like that of similar societies, including a 
Supreme Commandery, Grand Chapters 
having jurisdiction in the States, and Sub- 
ordinate Castles. Funds paid to beneficiaries 



KNIGHTS OF BIRMINGHAM 



145 



of members of the Order are not sub- 
ject to legal process for the collection of 
debts. The emblem of the Fraternity is a 
shield, on uiiich are the letters K. G. R., 
over a circle on which is inscribed the 
Golden Rule, in the centre of which are a 
pair of clasped hands. Below are five links 
of a chain, containing F. and P., which 
may or may not stand for Friendship and 
Protection. The employment of detached 
links, symbolical of a chain of brotherhood, 
is one of the few instances in which an 
adaptation of the triple link of Odd Fel- 
lowship is fonnd among the more modern 
secret societies. 

The Order is divided into three sections, 
and provides for the i)aYment of a speci- 
fied sum on the death of a member as fol- 
lows : first section, loOO ; second section, 
$1,000, and third section, $2,000. Any 
white man or woman eighteen years of age, 
and not over fifty, may be enrolled a bene- 
ficiary member. There is a scale of assess- 
ments graded according to age. The 
graded assessment plan was adopted in 
1892 in place of the level assessment plan 
used at time of organization. A Grand 
Chapter has supervision of the work in a 
State and elects one or more representatives 
to the Supreme Commandery, which has 
entire control of the beneficiary depart- 
ment, and a general supervision of the 
Order at large. The organization has Cas- 
tles in Alabama, Arkansas, California, 
Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, New 
Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, South Caro- 
lina, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, 
Minnesota, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas, 
Virginia, and West Virginia, and the total 
membership is over 3,000. 

Knights and Ladies of the Gohleii 
Star. — An assessment, charitable, and bene- 
ficiary society, founded at Newark, N. J., 
January 11, 1884, having its permanent 
headquarters at Newark. For a few years 
the organization was local in character, but 
afterward established Lodges in New York 
State and elsewhere in New Jersey. Men and 
10 



women between sixteen and sixty-five years 
of age and children are eligible to meniber- 
shij). Its beneficiary certificates of $500, 
$1,000, $1,500, or $2,000, i)ayable at death, 
may be converted into paid-up insurance 
after ten years. It appeals to young men and 
women to take out certificates of insurance 
in small amounts, which, " in the event of a 
long life, will bring in a rich accumulation of 
the original face value.'' Annuities are paid 
those Avho are fifty years of age and have 
been members twenty-one years, and one-half 
the face value of certificates is paid at total 
disability. The Society is unique in that 
it receives into membership entire families, 
'^ children being received into the immedi- 
ate relief department in sums ranging from 
$50 up to $400. Its present membership is 
about 10,000. The original members were 
members of the Royal Templars of Temper- 
ance, but the Order may hardly be classed 
as a temperance organization, though it ex- 
cludes saloon keepers and bartenders from 
membership. Its "golden star" refers to 
the Star of Bethlehem, and it has no secrets 
beyond the password to exclude those not 
members from its meetings. It has paid 
nearly $700,000 in benefits since it was 
founded. 

Knights and Ladies of the Roiiitd 
Table.— Organized in 1887, and registered 
in census reports of 1890 as a mutual assess- 
ment insurance order for men and women, 
with headquartersat Bloomington, 111. Let- 
ters addressed there are returned unojiened; 
but there is still an organization by the same 
name in Central Western States, notably at 
Toledo, 0. 

Kniglits and Ladies of AVashingfon. 
— A social and beneficiary organization 
founded at Easton, Pa. Not known there 
now. 

Knights of Aur<n*a. — Organized at Min- 
neapolis prior to 1889 as a mutual insurance 
society. Not known there now. 

Kniglits of l$irniingiiani. — Founded at 
Philadelphia in 1873 by Peter Jones, Edwin 
Smith, and John Weldc, three Freemasons, 



146 



KNIGHTS OF COLUMBIA 



as a mutual assessment beneficiary society, 
to which only Master Masons between 
twenty-one and fifty years of age are eligi- 
ble. It issues certificates of $1,000 each, 
payable at death, and has expended in this 
manner more than 11,000,000. Its total 
membership is about 5,000, most of whom 
reside at or near Philadelphia. A Grand 
Lodge was organized in 1877, which consists 
of all Past Sir Chiefs and the five elective 
otHccrs of subordinate Lodges. 

Knights of Columbia. — A Topeka, 
Kan., fraternal, mutual benefit organiza- 
tion. Its Lodges are scattered through 
West Mississippi and Missouri Valley States. 
The membership is not large. 

Knig'hts of Honor. — The line of descent 
of the Knights of Honor in the family of 
beneficiary secret societies is direct from the 
parent death benefit assessment society, the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, seventeen 
members of which, including members of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, led by 
James A. Demaree, founded the Knights 
of Honor at Louisville, Ky., in 1873. It 
has been very successful in that it ranked in 
numerical strength among the first half- 
dozen similar Orders, with a total member- 
ship of 120,000 in 1895, which fell off to 
96,000 in 1897, during reorganization, when 
its assessment plan was remodelled and 
brought down to date. Its purposes are to 
unite, fraternally, acceptable white men of 
good moral character and sound bodily 
health; to lead them to assist each other in 
distress, in business, and the search for em- 
ployment, which are characteristic of many 
similar societies, and to establish a widows' 
and orphans' benefit fund of not less than 
$500 nor more than $2,000, to be paid to 
families of deceased members. The so- 
called secrecy which attaches to the Frater- 
nity is declared to be only such as is necessary 
to keep out intruders and unworthy men 
from its benefits ; upright men of all politi- 
cal parties and religious creeds being wel- 
come to its ranks. No oath is administered 
to candidates for initiation, " only a prom- 



ise " to obey the laws of the Order and 
" i)rotect a worthy brother in his adversities 
and afflictions." The would-be member is 
required to profess a belief in Cxod, and 
must be able to earn a livelihood for himself 
and family. A member may carry $500, 
$1,000, or $2,000 insurance, and assessments 
to meet jiayments of death benefits are as- 
sessed at the lowest limit, graded according 
to age.* More than $52,000,000 has been 
paid in death benefits within the twenty- 
three years since the Society was organized. 
Beneficiai'ies must be the nearest dependent 
relatives. Certificates of membership cannot 
be used as collateral, nor are moneys paid in 
their redemption subject to seizure to satisfy 
debts of the insured. Lodges pay sick benefits 
to members at their option, and handle their 
own funds to that end. Death benefit funds 
are jiaid to and disbursed by the Supreme 
Lodge. The government of the Order, like 
that of the Independent Order of Odd 

* The Knights of Honor took one step in advance 
of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, in that, 
while the latter assessed all raembei's a uniform 
sura to pay a death benefit (and still does), the for- 
mer found an excuse for existence in its original 
plan of assessment by which members between 45 
aud 55 years of age paid more than those between 
21 and 45. Fi'om that period, 1873-75, the work 
of evolution among fraternal assessment societies 
went rapidly on, the next step being the grading of 
assessments, and later an increasing assessment ac- 
cording to age. It was not long befoi-e the Knights 
of Honor admitted to membership persons between 
18 and 21 years of age and adopted graded assess- 
ments for all joining thereafter, up to the age of 
45. By 1894-95 it became plain that the system of 
paying a fixed assessment year after year, deter- 
mined by the age of the member at date of joining 
the society, would sooner or later be found wanting; 
and in 1895 the Knights of Honor, after prolonged 
investigation, adopted a plan of insurance based 
on a different rate of assessment for each age, be- 
ginning with 18 and ending with 61, increasing 
from year to year. The effect, it is declared, will 
be that each member in any one year will pay only 
the sum needed for benefits on deaths among 
members of his own age, based on mortality 
tables and the experience of assessment beneficiary 
secret societies. This radical change has resulted 
advantaireouslv. 



KNIGHTS OF SOBRIETY, FIDELITY, AND IXTKciHITY 



147 



Fellows, the Foresters, and nearly all siniilai- 
organizations, is centred in a Supreme Lodge 
made up of representatives df (J rand (State) 
Lodges. The latter are composed of repre- 
sentatives of subordinate Lodges, and have 
jurisdiction over the affairs of the Order in 
their respective States. Nearly all tlie larger 
assessment beneficiary organizations are re- 
sponsible directly or indirectly for the cre- 
ation of similar societies, either through 
schism born of rivalry among would-be lead- 
ers or by having served as models, or other- 
wise, and the Knights of Honor prove no 
exception. In 1875 the Supreme Lodge 
established a side or auxiliary degree enti- 
tled the degree of I'rotection, to which 
Knights of Honor, their wives, mothers, 
nnmarried danghters and sisters, eighteen 
or more years of age, were eligible. Only a 
few Lodges of this degree were instituted 
during the next year or two (see Knights 
and Ladies of Honor), and in 1877 the Su- 
preme Lodge repealed the law creating the 
degree, whereupon representatives of the 
degree met at Louisville and organized an 
inde2:iendent secret assessment beneficiary 
society for men and women under the title. 
The Order of Protection of Knights and 
Ladies of Honor, which was subsequently 
changed to the Knights and Ladies of Honor. 
The Knights of Honor, while among the 
better and favorably known of like soci- 
eties, has not attained its present eminence 
without intelligent and persistent work on 
the part of hundreds of prominent business 
and professional men Avho have been and 
still are members. Of Western origin, it 
early spread to the East and the South. 
From 17 members who founded the Order, 
the membership increased to 1)9 by the close 
of 1873, but one year later it had grown ten- 
fold, with 999 names on the roll. From 
1875 the Society's increase was rapid until 
1878, when the yellow fever epidemic was 
the cause of its first serious reverse. In 
that year alone the Order suffered a drain 
on its financial resources of 8385,000, the 
result of the death of 193 members. Dur- 



ing nearly all of the past eighteen years in- 
crease in membership and in popularity has 
characterized the Fraternity. Its Supreme 
Lodge is made up of representatives of 36 
Orand Lodges, to which are attached 3,000 
subordinate Lodges with an average of 50 
members each. 

Kiiijjhts of Honor of tlie AVorhl. — A 
new fraternal insurance society, with head- 
quarters at Natchez, Miss. It appears to 
have used the name of another organization. 

Knights of the Seven AVise 3Ien of 
the WorUl. — The United States census of 
1890 names this Society among others 
founded to do an insurance business, but 
nothing is known of it at Nashville, Avhere 
its chief office Avas located. Its title sug- 
gests that it Avas an offshoot from or related 
in some Avay to the Improved Order of, or 
to the Order of the Heptasophs. 

Kniglits of Sobriety, Fidelity, and 
Integrity. — A mutual assessment benefici- 
ary society for men, organized at Syracuse, 
N. Y., in 1890. It does business in nearly 
a dozen States, but a large proportion of its 
5,000 luembers are residents of the Empire 
State. It issues death certificates for $500, 
$1,000, and 12,000, and pays accident and 
sick benefits of §5, §10, 815, 820, and $25 
Aveekly. The latter are limited to fi\'e con- 
secutive weeks, and to tAventy weeks alto- 
gether in any one year. Three rates of 
assessments are offered members, the lowest 
of Avhich delays the period at Avhich the 
benefit goes into effect, but makes the in- 
surance easier to carry. The second rate is 
based on a shorter delay in putting into 
operation the death benefit contract, while 
the third makes the insurance operative 
from the moment of joining. The loss of 
one hand and arm above the wrist, or one 
foot and leg above the ankle, entitles a 
member to one-sixth the amount due under 
his certificate in case of death. In case of 
the loss of both hands and arms above the 
Avrist, or both feet and legs above the ankles, 
he is entitled to one-third the face of the 
certificate. Members Avho arrive at the aire 



148 



KNIGHTS OF THE BLUE CROSS OF THE WORLD 



of seventy years are entitled to 10 per cent. 
of the amount named in the certiticate each 
year until one-half the amount named in 
the certificate is paid. All surplus of pre- 
miums after the payment of claims, is set 
aside as a reserve fund, " to j)rovide against 
excessive mortality in any one j^ear. ' ' Loans 
on real estate security are made to members 
on the monthly payment plan in States 
where the Order is incorporated. 

Knights of the Blue Cross of the 
World. — Organized at Homer, Mich., in 
1888, to pay $1,000 and $2,000 death bene- 
fits by means of mutual assessments of mem- 
bers. It also paid weekly benefits in cases 
of sickness of members. The organization 
is not known now to the postal officials. 

Knights of the Brotherhood. — A mu- 
tual assessmeut beneficiary Order founded 
prior to 1889, which reported to the United 
States tenth census from Phoenixville, Pa., 
but is now unknown there. 

Knights of the Globe. — A social, mili- 
tary, charitable, and patriotic secret organi- 
zation which secures the death benefit fea- 
ture to its members through the Knights 
of the Globe Mutual Benefit Association, a 
non-secret, cooperative insurance company, 
organized under the laws of the State of 
Illinois, to which only Knights of the Globe 
are eligible. Men and women may become 
members of both organizations, the latter 
first joining the Daughters of the Globe, a 
branch of the Knights of the Globe. The 
mutual aid society through the Knights is 
recruited from the more healthful portions 
of the United States, and announces special 
inducements to young men because of its 
uniform rate of assessments. It issues death 
benefit certificates for ten different amounts, 
ranging from $500 to 15,000, to those be- 
tween eighteen and fifty-six years of age 
who are otherwise eligible. The Knights 
of the Globe was organized at Chicago in 
1889 by Freemasons prominent in the Scot- 
tish Rite, by Odd Fellows of the highest 
rank, and by members of the Ancient Or- 
der of United Workmen, Royal Arcanum, 



American Legion of Honor, Woodmen of 
the World, the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, and other secret societies. The influ- 
ence of the Workmen is seen in the uniform 
assessment rate, that of the Freemasons and 
Odd Fellows in the degree work and em- 
blems, and the Grand Army in its obliga- 
tion that '' no other flag than the glorious 
Stars and Stripes shall ever fioat over our 
country." Four degrees or ranks are con- 
ferred, that of Volunteer, Militant, Knight, 
and Valiant Knight. Of the latter L. L. 
Munn, 33°, of Freeport, 111., writes that 
while he is familiar with many Orders and 
has witnessed ceremonies of the highest 
grade of excellence, the beauty, instruction, 
and impressiveness of the Valiant Knight's 
rank take a very high rank among them. 
One of the chief objects of the Fraternity is 
to inculcate lofty ideas of American citizen- 
ship. While the Order is Avell distributed 
throughout the West, it is strong in Illinois, 
where a large proportion of its 7,000 mem- 
bers reside. 

Knights of the Globe Mutual Benefit 
Association. — A non-secret, cooj)erative 
insurance company, organized under the 
laws of the State of Illinois in 1890 to in- 
sure members of the Knights of the Globe 
and Daughters of the Globe. (See the latter.) 

Knights of the Golden Eagle. — Among 
the various beneficiary, semi-military secret 
societies which have founded their rituals and 
ceremonials upon the history and pageantry 
of the Crusaders, the Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, or Chivalric Knights of America, is 
conspicuous, not alone for its rapidly in- 
creasing membership, which numbers about 
60,000, but as well for its adaptation to 
American soil of the struggles of early 
Christian knighthood. The objects of the 
Order are benevolence, mutual relief against 
the trials and difficulties attending sick- 
ness, distress, and death, so far as they 
may be mitigated by sympathy and pecu- 
niary assistance; to care for and protect 
the widows and orphans; to assist those 
out of employment; to encourage each other 



KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE 



149 



in business; " to ameliorate the condition 
of humanity in every possible manner; " 
to stimulate moral and mental culture by 
wholesome precepts, fraternal counsel, and 
social intercourse, to elevate the member- 
ship to a higher and nobler life, and the 
inculcation and dissemination of the princi- 
ples of benevolence and charity. 

The organization consists of a Supreme 
Castle, Grand Castles, and subordinate Cas- 
tles. The Supreme body is composed of 
Past Grand Chiefs (of Grand Castles), and 
Grand Castles of Past Chiefs of subordinate 
Castles. This is in line with the system 
pursued by the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, with its Supreme Lodge, Grand, 
and subordinate Lodges; the Foresters, with 
their Supreme Court, Great and subordinate 
Courts, and many other similarly governed 
societies. The subordinate body in each 
holds allegiance to the State organization, 
and the latter to the Supreme Body. The 
ritualistic work of the Knights of the Golden 
Eagle includes three degrees: the first, or 
Pilgrim's; second, or Knight's; and third, 
or Crusaders' Degree. '' The three degrees 
are symbolic of a soldier battling for his 
faith. He is first a Pilgrim, then a Knight, 
and finally a Crusader." The Pilgrim's de- 
gree teaches fidelity and eternal faithfulness 
to God and our fellow-man. The Knight's 
degree confers the honors of Knighthood, 
arms and equips the Pilgrim, and teaches 
him veneration for religion, fidelity, valor, 
courtesy, charity, and hospitality. The 
Crusader's degree sends the newly made 
knight forth upon a crusade against the 
hosts of evil, armed and equipped to con- 
quer opposing foes. The ceremonies and 
lectures are free from anything of a frivo- 
lous or objectionable character. 

The Order has for its motto, " Fidelity, 
Valor, and Honor," a trinity of graces 
taught in its ritual. It was founded by 
John E. Burbage of Baltimore, Md., who, 
in 1872, conceived the idea of an organiza- 
tion, secret in character, which should ''go 
hand in hand Avith religion," having for its 



theme the struggles of the Christian warrior 
after '' the immortal crown. " He succeeded 
in enlisting a sufficient inimber of friends 
to insure the success of his plan, and by 
means of symbol and allegory representing 
•'the passing through the wilderness of sin 
and woe on the journey to the Heavenly 
Castle," the ritual was made characteristic 
and the Order established. At Shorey's 
Photograph Gallery, No. 129 East Baiti- 
more Street, January 20, 1873, the Grand 
Castle of Maryland was organized, and steps 
were taken to institute several subordinate 
Castles, four being in active 02)eration eight 
months later. Templar Knighthood played 
a part in the preparation of the ritual of the 
Knights of the Golden Eagle as in other 
modern Orders of Knighthood. The his- 
tory of the ancient Templars, the Hospital- 
lers, the Teutonic Knights, and the Knights 
of St. John and Malta, together with the 
example of the Masonic Knights Templars, 
has had an unending influence on the minds 
of secret society ritualists of the nineteenth 
century, and not only are the Knights of 
the Golden Eagle an evidence of it, but 
there is reason to believe their ritual is in- 
debted to membership in the Order of those 
who had been brought to light and had been 
advanced in the parent of all modern secret 
societies. With such seed, tbe blossoms 
could not fail to be numerous and beautiful. 
Philadelphia Odd Fellows became interested, 
and took the new Order of Knighthood to 
the City of Brotherly Love in 1875, and by 
April, 187G, the Grand Castle of Pennsyl- 
vania Avas organized. The Centennial Ex- 
hibition and the financial dei)ression which 
followed it delayed progress; but by 1880 
the banner of the Eagle Knights was un- 
furled in Massachusetts by the aid of influ- 
ential members of the Knights of Pythias; 
five subordinate Castles with a total mem- 
bership of 500 were secured, and the Grand 
Castle of that State was instituted in the 
following year. The Supreme Castle had 
been formed in lialtimore on January 22, 
1878. Since 1884, wlien a number of 



150 



KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE 



prominent citizens of Philadelphia became 
interested, the pi'ogress of the Order has 
been rapid, and by December, 1896, it was 
in successful operation in thirty-four States, 
with 830 Castles. During the past ten 
years its growth has been conspicuous in the 
history of kindred organizations, more than 
800 Castles having been organized during 
that period. 

It is not obligatory for the members to 
connect themselves with the military branch, 
which is an important adjunct and attracts 
the young men. The Commanderies — as 
the military bodies are termed — are separate 
from the Castles; but any Sir Knight in 
good standing in his Castle is eligible to 
membership in a Commandery. The uni- 
form of members of the Commanderies is 
elaborate and jolainly patterned after, but 
still dissimilar from, that of the Masonic 
Knights Templars. The Commanderies 
now confer the degree of Chivalry, adopted 
by the Supreme Castle at its annual session 
held in Eeading, Pa., October, 1896. This 
is required to be taken by those who connect 
themselves with the military branch. The 
motto of this degree is '^ Chivalry, Truth, 
and Peace," and the ritual deals at length 
with chivalry and the history of the Crusades. 
Commanderies are under the control of a 
lieutenant-general, elected by the Supreme 
Castle every three years, except in States 
where there are five or more Commanderies, 
when a Grand Commandery may be insti- 
tuted. The oflficers of a G-rand Command- 
ery are Grand Commander, Grand Vice- 
Commander, Grand JMarshal, Grand Herald, 
Grand Preceptor, Grand Historian, Grand 
Almoner, Grand Inne • Guard, and Grand 
Outer Guard. The members of the Grand 
Commandery are known as Grand Cheva- 
liers, and achieve that honor by virtue of 
having passed through the posts of a subor- 
dinate Commandery. Subordinate Com- 
manderies may be beneficial or non-bene- 
ficial, as they choose. There are two depart- 
ments — the civil, which confers the degree 
and attends to all business matters; and the 



military, which has charge of drills and pa- 
rades. There is a semi-military feature iu 
the ritualistic Avork of the Castles said to be 
very attractive, but the military work con- 
nected with the degree of Chivalry, it is 
claimed, is " unsurpassed " by any similar 
ceremonial in like societies. 

The Knights of the Golden Eagle say 
they are pioneers in protecting those who 
have passed the limit of age at which they 
'can enter similar organizations. There are 
a large number of Veteran Castles, com- 
posed of men fifty years of age and over, 
which, like the Castles and Commanderies, 
have power to legislate in regard to dues 
and benefits. 

The Order also claims to be the pioneer 
in protecting those who have belonged to 
Castles which have become defunct. The 
Castle of Protection, originated by Past Su- 
preme Chief J. D. Barnes of Pennsylvania, 
provides that such members may pay dues 
to, and receive benefits from, the Grand 
Castle of Pennsylvania, and the Supreme 
Castle has recently adopted a like plan for 
the benefit of those under its immediate 
jurisdiction. This branch is known as the 
National Castle of Protection. The Knights 
of the Golden Eagle have certainly taken a 
stride in advance in looking out for the wel- 
fare of members whose Castles are defunct, 
iu which respect some older and larger bene- 
ficiary secret societies are remiss. In 1885 
members of the Knights of the Golden 
Eagle organized a similar society under the 
title. Legion of the Eed Cross. The requi- 
site qualifications for membershiji iu the 
Knights of the Golden Eagle are that the 
applicant be a white man, eighteen j^ears of 
age, of good moral character, a believer in 
the existence of a Supreme Being and of 
the Christian faith, free from mental or 
bodily infirmity, competent to support him- 
self and family, a law-abiding resident of 
the country in which he lives, and have 
sufficient education to sign his own ap- 
plication for membership, which, by the 
way, are almost exactly the qualifications 



KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES 



151 



demanded for admission into the Order of the 
Heptasophs, or Seven Wise ]\Ien. More than 
one-half the total membership of the Order 
is in Pennsylvania. The Grand Castle Ilall 
at Philadelphia was purchased from the 
Knights of Labor for !j!45,000, when the lat- 
ter moved its headquarters to AVashington 
a few years ago, and is a monument to the 
extent and importance of the Order in the 
Keystone State. The Death Benefit Fund 
is composed of members in good standing 
of subordinate Castles, between the ages of 
eighteen and fifty, and members of subordi- 
nate Temples (the auxiliary, or Ladies' Or- 
der), between the ages of sixteen and fifty, 
who must pass a satisfactory examination 
previous to admission. The amount paid 
to beneficiaries of members in good standing 
is §1,000 in Class A, and -^500 in Class B. 
Weekly sick benefits and funeral benefits are 
paid by means of assessments at the option 
of subordinate Castles. The assessment 
in Class A is 50 cents, and in Class B 25 
cents. It will be seen that one object of the 
founders was to furnish a moderate death 
benefit to members at a low cost. Li 189G 
a $250. death benefit class was provided, as- 
sessments in which are pro rata with those 
in Classes A and B. During the year 1895 
$180,000 was paid out for relief by the Cas- 
tles of the Order, the investments amount- 
ing to S850,000. 

The Eagle Home Association of Pennsyl- 
vania has for its object the protection of 
the aged Eagles, widows, and orphans, and 
is supported by a per capita from such Cas- 
tles as are enrolled in membership. The 
social feature is characteristic of the Order, 
and one night in each month is generally 
set apart for entertainments. 

The Temple degree, or Ladies of the 
Golden Eagle, is open to women of good 
moral character, not less than sixteen years 
of age, whether relatives of Knights of the 
Golden Eagle or not, as well as to members 
of the Order of the Knights of the Eagle. 
This auxiliary to the Eagle Knights has so- 
cial and beneficiary objects, and fills much 



the same place with respect to Kniglits of 
the Golden Eagle as the Daughters of Re- 
bekah do to the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, and the Companions of the Forest 
to the Foresters of America. The " Lady 
Eagles " meet in Temples, and regulate 
their own weekly and funeral benefits and 
dues. Their total membership is about 
9,000. Temples which are separate from, 
and in no wise adjuncts of. Castles are 
under the immediate control of the Su- 
preme Castle until there are ten Temples 
in a State, when a Grand Temple may be 
formed. 

Kiiigrhts of the Loyal Guard. — Found- 
ed by Edwin 0. Wood, at Flint, Mich., 
January 31, 1895. Men and women are 
eligible to membership. It pays death 
benefits only. It organized Lodges in 
104 cities within two and one-half years, 
and numbers more than 5,000 mem- 
bers. 

Knights of the Maccahees. — No one 
of the popular secret beneficiary fraternal 
societies which have sprung into being dur- 
ing the latter quarter of the nineteenth 
centuiy has been more successful than the 
Maccabees. Its original inspiration was of 
Canadian origin, but its robust youth and 
early manhood are tributes to the nurtur- 
ing care and executive capacity of Ameri- 
can citizens. The founders of the modem 
Maccabees are to be commended for quany- 
ing tiie foundation stones of their ritual, 
legend, and ceremonial in strata which had 
not even been uncovered by the exploring 
hand of the secret society ritualist. The 
modern Order of Maccabean Knighthood is 
built upon the traditions and history of the 
ancient Maccabean dynasty, the achieve- 
ments of which are recorded in the first and 
second Books of the Maccabees, in the 
apocryphal Old Testament. The followers 
of Judas Maccabeus were Jews of no par- 
ticular tribe, who braved death in the de- 
fence of their belief in the God of their 
fathers. The name Maccal)eus is said to 
have been derived from a Hebrew term 



152 



KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES 



signifying a hammer.* It Avas to Judas 
Maccabeus the Jews were indebted for the 
preservation of their political power and 
religious liberty. In the second century 
B.C., the Jews transferred their allegiance 
from Egypt to Syria, and tw'enty-five years 
later the Syrian King, Antiochus Epiphanes, 
commanded them to renounce their religion, 
defiled their sauctuarj-, and ordered them 
to pay the honors due alone to Divinity to 
the Olympian Jupiter. Tliis the Jews un- 
der their Priest Mattathias resisted in a 
"thirty years' war.'' Before the outbreak 
Mattathias, being a person of consequence, 
was tempted by a Syrian captain to embrace 
the new faith, but with his own hand he 
slew the first renegade Jew who apjiroached 
the altar of idolatry. This precipitated 
the conflict.! Mattathias, his five sous, and 
a few faithful followers destroyed the em- 
blems of the heathen worship in Modin and 
vicinity and fled into the wilderness of 
Judea. The Hellenes, friends of the Greeks, 
aided the Syrians and the family of Mac- 
cabeus, of which Judas Maccabeus was the 
head, espoused the cause of the Jews, Judas 
Maccabeus becoming the leader of the re- 
volt after the death of his father Matta- 
thias a few years after the outbreak of the 
war in 166 B.C. The former took com- 
mand, and at Mizpah repulsed and put to 
flight the Syrians, although his forces were 
greatly outnumbered. At Bethzur he again 
put the Syrians to flight, reconquered Jeru- 
salem, purified the Temple, reestablished 
the holy service, and concluded an alliance 
with the Komans. He fell in battle in 
IGL B.C. He was succeeded by his brother 
Jonathan, who became High Priest on the 

* It is also claimed the name '' Maccabi " was 
formed from the initials of the Hebrew words mi 
Kamocha baelim, Jehovah, signifying " Who is like 
thee among the gods, Jehovah?" 

f On being summoned by the Syrian overseer and 
bade to make sacrifice to the gods, Mattathias an- 
swered: "If all the people in the kingdom obey the 
order of the monarch to depart from the faith of 
their fathers, I and my sons will abide by the 
covenant of our forefathers." 



death of Antiochus, but was murdered by 
those who feared his influence on the heir 
to the throne. Simeon, the second brother 
of Judas, aided by Roman allies, became 
the ruler of the Jews, and finally reestab- 
lished the independence of the Jewish na- 
tion. The wisdom and moderation with 
which he used the power intrusted to him 
were so well appreciated in his own day 
that the year 141 B.C. — that after his suc- 
cession — was made the beginning of a new 
era. 

Upon the enduring traits of character 
displayed by the ancient Maccabean family 
in the Jewish thirty years' war for religious 
and political liberty, particularly those of 
its first great representative, Judas Mac- 
cabeus, the modern Knights of the Macca- 
bees have founded their fraternal Order of 
mutual relief. It was Judas Maccabeus 
who first commanded his soldiers in divid- 
ing the fruits of their victories to reserve a 
part for the widows and orphans of their 
brothers who had fallen in battle — a jn-omi- 
nent feature of the work of modern Macca- 
beism. 

The modern Order of the Maccabees was 
founded in 1878 by members of the Order 
of Foresters, and others, at London, On- 
tario, who were familiar with the history 
of the ancient Maccabees, and believed it 
formed an excellent framew^ork on which to 
construct a modern fraternal and benefi- 
ciary society. They drew up a constitution, 
prepared a ritual and ceremonials, and the 
new society was born. Within two years it 
had spread throughout the Canadian Do- 
minion and into several of the United States, 
with a total membership of about 10.000. 
Its earh" growth is declared to have been of 
a mushroom character. No medical ex- 
amination was required of applicants, and 
assessments at deaths were only ten cents 
apiece for all members. The business man- 
agement was not of the kind which bene- 
ficiary organizations of this variety now 
require, expenses increased relatively more 
rapidly than the income, and as deaths 



KNIGHTS OF THE MACCABEES 



153 



became numerous a crisis stared the society 
in the face.* 

Believing it to possess the germs of ii use- 
ful institution, some of the' more conserva- 
tive business men of Michigan among its 
relatively large membership in that State 
undertook to reorganize the society at the 
grand review held at Buifalo, N. Y., in 
1880. The constitution and laws were 
changed, and the business methods revised 
and }>laced on a stronger foundation. This 
could not have been accomplished without 
some friction, and one outcome was the seces- 
sion of a minority of the Order in Canada, 
under the leadership of one McLaughlin 
of London. But one year later the rival 
Orders came together at Port Huron, Mich., 
in the persons of their chief executive offi- 
cials, and, after a two days' conference, were 
reunited, and elected a full corps of officers. 
It was several years before the society began 
its career of prosperity, owing to much 
" bad material" having been admitted, the 
consequent high death rate, to activity of 
would-be leaders and of leaders who were 
not competent. Major N. S. Boynton, who 
had been elected Supreme Lieutenant Com- 
mander at Buffalo, in 1881, was made 
chairman of a committee appointed at the 
Port Huron joint review, in 1881, to draft 
a new constitution and laws. The results 
of this committee's deliberations were 
adopted in February, 1881. They provided 
for the organization of Great Camps in 
States, Territories, and Provinces where the 
membershii? was 1,000 or more, but the 
management of the death benefit fund was 

* This was about tlic period of tlio so-called 
" Griffin defalcation " in the Independent Order of 
Foresters, which was followed in 1879 by schisms 
to escape extra assessments, the offshoot organiza- 
tions taking the names of tlie Independent Order 
of Foresters of Illinois, and the Canadian Order of 
Foresters. While it is probable, it has not been deter- 
mined whether or no the Knights of the Maccabees 
was devised by members of the Independent Order 
of Foresters for reasons similar to those which gave 
birth to the Illinois and Canadian Orders of For- 
esters. 



retained in the Supreme Tent. A Great 
Camj) was promptly chartered in Michigan 
and incorporated June 11, 1881, which day 
has since been recognized as the anniversary 
of the reorganized Order. At the Supreme 
Tent, in July, 1881, the laws were amended, 
mainly through the exertions of the Michi- 
gan representatives, to permit Great (State) 
Camps to control benefit funds of their own 
jurisdictions. Michigan members were evi- 
dently aware that the Order, even as re- 
organized, could not long survive, and were 
apparently planning to act as heirs and 
assignees of what might remain when the 
end came. At this period, September, 1881, 
Major N. S. Boynton was induced to act as 
secretary and general business manager for 
the Michigan Great Camp, officially, as 
Great Record Keeper. He opened an office 
in his residence at Port Huron, and ad- 
vanced funds with which to jjurchase sup- 
plies, charters, seals, j)Ostage stamps, etc. 
His private business took him about Michi- 
gan so frequently that be was enabled to 
work effectively for the Order, which, for a 
year, he did without pay ; had he not 
done so, there would probably have been no 
Maccabees to-day. He subsequently became 
Great Commander of the Great Camp of 
Michigan, the highest office in the gift of 
the Fraternity in that State, which he, 
more than any other one man, may claim 
the credit for maintaining and upbuilding. 
Outside of Michigan the Order became de- 
funct. It started anew in the Peninsular 
State in 1882, with only 700 members, and 
has spread throughout the United States 
and Canada. The constitution and laws 
have been revised again, the ritual has 
been changed, and a funeral service incor- 
porated. These were largely the outcome 
of suggestions of new leaders, some of them 
Freemasons and members of other secret 
societies whose rituals and methods have 
served as models for many fraternal, bene- 
ficiary societies. Tlie old Supreme Tent 
being dead, its members in the Michigan 
Order revived it, Sei)tember, 1883, and began 



154 



KNIGHTS OF THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM 



the active work of extending the mem- 
bershij) throughout the country. In 1892 a 
permanent headquarters was established at 
Port Huron. Leaders among the Knights 
declare that the Order, which consists of a 
body of men banded together for the pro- 
tection of their families and homes, is not 
an insurance company, and bears the same 
relation to an insurance company that a 
father bears to a guardian. It is only 
proper to add that this distinction is drawn 
between nearly all secret, fraternal, benefi- 
ciary societies and open mutual assessment 
insurance companies, as well as between the 
former and the old line, level jDremium- 
paying life insurance companies. The 
Order of the Maccabees is quite compre- 
hensive as to the relief it extends. It not 
only pays benefits at the deaths of members, 
both men and women, but for disability, 
during extreme old age and sickness, for 
accidents, and to meet funeral expenses. 
These payments are met by mutual assess- 
ments, based upon the ''actuaries' table 
of mortality." Assessments are made 
monthly, and include an allowance of 12 
per cent, for the actual cost of management. 
All white persons of sound bodily health 
and good moral character, socially accept- 
able, between eighteen and seventy years of 
age, are eligible to membership ; but only 
those between eighteen and fifty-two years 
of age may join and share in the beneficiary 
features. Sick benefits are from $4 to $10 
per week, while $50, $200, or $300 annually 
are paid in case of total and permanent dis- 
ability, and $50, $100, or $300 annually for 
old age benefits. A benefit of from $3 to 
$30 is paid in case of disabling accidents; 
$175 to $2,000 for the accidental loss of 
both eyes, hands, or feet, or hand and foot ; 
$100 to $1,000 for hand or foot; and $40 to 
$500 for the accidental loss of an eye. The 
funeral benefit of an unmarried member is 
$50, and the death benefit $500, $1,000, 
$2,000, or $3,000; and (where Great Camjjs 
exist) as high as $5,000. These benefits 
(one or all) may be secured for one member- 



shij) fee when applied for at the same time, 
and on payment of dues to maintain only 
one local organization. Certain classes of 
railroad employees, expressmen, firemen, 
and miners (except coal miners, which are 
prohibited risks) are regarded as hazardous 
risks, and pay twenty-five cents additional 
assessment for each $1,000. Persons en- 
gaged in blasting, coal mining, submarine 
operations, making highly inflammable or 
explosive materials, aeronauts, electric line- 
men, etc., are not eligible to membership on 
account of the extra hazardous nature of 
the occupations; in addition to which, prin- 
cipals or agents or employees in the manu- 
facture or sale of spirituous or malt liquors, 
and those addicted to the intemperate use 
of intoxicating liquors, are ineligible to 
membership. 

The total membership of the Knights, 
December 1, 1896, of which more than one- 
third is in Michigan, was about 182,000, 
distributed throughout forty States and 
Provinces, and the death rate in 1895 was 
only 5.54 in 1,000, which was exceptionally 
low. Fully $5,000,000 in benefits have 
been paid since the Order was founded. 
The total membership, Knights and Ladies 
combined, December 1," 1896, was 248,000, 
and the combined benefits distributed had 
amounted to more than $7,000,000. 

Knights of the Star of Bethlehem. — 
See Order of the Star of Bethlehem. 

Ladies of the Golden Eagle. — The 
women's social and beneficiary branch of 
the mutual assessment fraternal society, 
the Knights of the Golden Eagle. (See the 
latter. ) 

Ladies of the Maccabees. — As nearly 
all the prominent beneficiary secret societies 
have auxiliary, or women's, branches, to aid 
in charitable work and assist socially and 
otherwise in promoting the interests of the 
parent organizations, so the Knights of tlie 
Maccabees are supplemented by the Ladies 
of the .Alaccabees. To Mrs. A. G. Ward of 
Muskegon. Mich., belongs the credit of 
having suggested and planned the Ladies 



LADIES OF THE MACCABEES 



165 



of the Maccabees. She drafted the original 
constitution for the first Hive, composed of 
wives of the Knights, at Muskegon. At first 
this society was local and purely social in 
character, but in 1886 application was made 
to the Great Camp for Michigan, at Kala- 
mazoo, for recognition as an auxiliary branch 
to aid local Tents socially, and for laws to 
provide for life and disability benefits to be 
managed by the auxiliary society itself. The 
request was not granted, and a second ap- 
plication in 1887 met with another refusal. 
But the efforts of the would-be Lady Mac- 
cabees were not relaxed, and as many of the 
leading Knights had become convinced of 
the determination and ability of the ladies 
to accomplish what they had undertaken, 
the Great Camp, which met at Port Huron 
in 1888, recognized the organization of a 
Great Hive for Michigan, auxiliary to the 
Great Camp. A Great Hive was finally or- 
ganized, its laws approved by the Great 
Camp, and its officers elected and installed 
by Major N. S. Boynton, Great Record 
Keeper, in May, 1890. Organizers were 
appointed, and the ladies' Order was rapidly 
introduced throughont Michigan in connec- 
tion with various Tents of the Maccabees. 
By August, 1890, the total membership of 
the Ladies of the Maccabees was only 170, 
but from that time onward its growth, suc- 
cess, and ])opularity among ladies, relatives 
of the Knights of the Maccabees, and others, 
have been continuous. For some years the 
growth of the society, owing to its charter, 
was confined to Michigan. Hives were sub- 
sequently organized by (ireat Camps in 
other States ; but in New York and Ohio 
Great Camps retained control of subordi- 
nate Hives and of tlieir funds. This for 
a time prevented Hives in the States named 
from being represented in the Supreme 
Hive of the Order of the Ladies of the 
Maccabees of the World, restricting their 
enjoyment of social and "fraternal'' bene- 
fits of the Order in other States than their 
own. But the Supreme Hive of the Ladies 
of tlie Maccabees of the World was organized 



October 1, 1892, to harmonize the workings 
of various Great Hives, and to render their 
social, ritualistic, and other work uniform, 
and, as its name suggests, the Supreme 
Hive is to-day the supreme authority of the 
Ladies of tlie Maccabees. It is made up 
of representatives of Great Hives, and is 
the auxiliary branch of the Supreme Tent 
of the Knights of the Maccabees of the 
World, the supreme governing body of the 
Knights. 

The Ladies of the Maccabees is claimed 
to be the first movement of the kind among 
women offering death benefits, making its 
own laws, and transacting its own bu.siness. 
Its successful career has surprised many, 
even among its well-wishers, and has shown 
that women may safely be intrusted with 
the conduct and management of many of 
the broader business affairs of life. The 
total membership of the Ladies of the Mac- 
cabees, December 1, 1896, of which fully 
one-half is in Michigan, had increased to 
66,000 since the formation of the Great 
Hive for Michigan in 1888, and may be 
found in more than one-half the States of 
the Union and in the Canadian Dominion. 
It aids its sick and distressed members, 
cares for the living, buries its dead, and pays 
death and disability benefits. Women be- 
tween the ages of sixteen and fifty-two, 
socially acceptable, are admitted to life 
benefit membersliip, after passing a medical 
examination. They receive death benefit 
certificates for $500, $1,000, and §2,000, and 
in case of permanent or total disability, or 
on reaching the age of seventy years, they 
receive annually one-tenth of the sum named 
in their certificates. Thus far tiie death 
rate among the Ladies of the Maccabees has 
been remarkably low. Tlie social, ritualis- 
tic, literary, and educational exercises are 
prominent features. In view of its unique 
character, the society being the first of its 
kind managed exclusively by women, it is 
proper to add that to Lady Lillian M. 
Hollister of Detroit and Lady Bina M. West 
of Port Huron is larfjelv due the success 



15(5 



LEAGUE OF FRIENDSHIP, SUPREME MECHANICAL ORDER OF THE SUN 



and present high standing of the auxiliary 
branch of" tlie Maccabees. 

League of Frieiidsliii), Supreme Me- 
dia iiieal Order of tlie Snii. — A benefi- 
ciary labor organization, now extinct, mem- 
bers of which formed the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen in 1868. (See the latter, ) 

Legion of the Red Cross. — One of the 
smaller mutual assessment beneficiary so- 
cieties, founded in 1885 by members of the 
Knights of tlie Golden Eagle, which insures 
the lives of its members in the sum of 
$1,000, seeks to procure emjaloyment for 
them, and, so far as possible, to assist them 
in business. All acceptable white men, be- 
tween eighteen and fifty years of age, who 
can pass the required physical examination, 
are eligible to membership. It is governed 
by a Supreme Council, made up of its offi- 
cers and representatives of Grand Councils, 
which have jurisdiction over subordinate 
Councils in States where established. It 
furnishes sick as well as death benefits, and, 
since it was founded, has paid nearly $160,- 
000 to beneficiaries. The ritual is based on 
the history and traditions of the Crusades, 
but, as may be supposed, has no direct or 
other relation to the Masonic or other or- 
ders of the Red Cross. The total member- 
ship, about 4,500, is centred in Maryland, 
Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
New York, and its headquarters are at Bal- 
timore. The emblem is a red Maltese Cross, 
slightly modified from the conventional 
sliape, with the letters L. 0. E. C. in the 
arms, and a circle in the centre containing 
a representation of the Cross and Crown. 
(See also Knights of the Golden Eagle.) 

Light of the Ages. — An Indiana fra- 
ternal beneficiary society, with its head- 
quarters at Indianapolis, which in 1897 
dropped its fraternal features, and continued 
business as an ordinary insurance company. 

Loyal Additional Benefit Associa- 
tion. — A fraternal beneficiary society, 
formed in 1889 by members of the Royal 
Arcanum, to which only the latter are eli- 
gible as members. (See Royal Arcanum.) 



Loyal Circle. — A new fraternal benefi- 
ciary society, organized at Champaign, 111. 

Loyal Knights and Ladies. — An out- 
growth of the Knights and Ladies of Honor. 
The latter society M'as connected with the 
Knights of Honor, and Mizpah Lodge, Bos- 
ton, Avas one of the most wide-awake Lodges. 
The Knights and Ladies of Honor severed 
its connection with the Knights of Honor, 
and the membership of Mizjoah Lodge, dis- 
satisfied with the action of the society, dis- 
solved its connection with the Knights and 
Ladies of Honor and set u]} housekeeping 
on its own account as the Loyal Knights 
and Ladies. The first meeting was held 
November 11, 1881, in Boston. The for- 
mation of the other Courts devolved upon 
Court Mizjjah, and until the fifth Court 
had been instituted no attempt at a higher 
body was made. At that time delegates 
were sent from the five Courts, and upon 
these devolved the duty of establishing the 
governing body. The Imperial Court was 
formed December 6, 1883, though it was 
known as the High Court until February 23, 
1884. No esjsecial attempt was made to 
push matters until after the incorporation of 
the society, June 18, 1895, when some im- 
portant changes were made in its constitu- 
tion. At the present time the Order is 
growing slowly though very satisfactorily. 
The death rate of the Order has been very 
low. 

The strongest claim the Order has upon 
its members is the genuine feeling of frater- 
nity, which has held it together when so 
many stronger societies have gone to the 
wall. Very much is done by all the Courts 
to encourage this sentiment, and many enter- 
tainments are given. The ritualistic work 
also is very good. It is a secret beneficiary 
society, admitting all socially acceptable 
white persons of suitable age who can jiass 
the required physical examination. It pays 
a death benefit not to exceed $1,000, though 
the actual amount paid has never reached 
that sum. A sick benefit is provided for if 
desired, though few of the Courts have 



MODERN WOODMEN OF AMERICA 



157 



adopted the system. Xo other form of 
benefit is attached, neither accident, dis- 
ability, annuity, or endowment. The so- 
ciety has at the present time about GOO 
members, about 100 of whom are social or 
non-beneficiary. The amount of the benefit 
averages II per assessment. 

Miriam OogToe : Forestor.s. — l>enetl- 
ciary and social branch of the Independent 
Order of Foresters, to which only mem- 
bers of the latter and women relatives and 
friends are eligible. (See Independent Order 
of Foresters and Independent Order of 
Foresters of Illinois.) 

Modern Aiuerioaii Fraternal Order. 
— Organized at Effingham, 111., in 180G, by 
William B. Wright atid others, to pay death, 
disability, and old age benefits by means of 
mutual assessments. Men and women are 
eligible to membership. About 1.000 have 
joined. 

Modern Knights' Fidelity League. — 
A mutual assessment beneficiary society for 
men and women, organized in Kansas in 
1S91 by members of the Royal Arcanum, 
National Union, Woodmen of the World, 
and other fraternal beneficiary associations, 
and incorporated under the laws of the State 
of Kansas in 1S93, with its chief offices at 
Kansas City, Kan. Membership is re- 
stricted to persons between eighteen and 
fifty-six years of age residing in the more 
healthful portions of the country. Its gov- 
ernment is on the widespread plan found 
among like societies, consisting of a Supreme 
or governing body made up of its officers 
and representatives from Grand or State 
Councils, which have direct charge of the 
subordinate Councils. Its plan of insurance 
is to combine a number of risks in one cer- 
tificate, such as a death and endowment 
benefit and annuity after the member shall 
have reached the age of seventy years. Sepa- 
rate tables of graded rates are employed to 
arrive at the cost of such benefits according 
to the age at time of joining. Weekly bene- 
fits of from 13.50 to 810 are also paid in 
cases of sickness or accident. A reserve fund 



to provide for old age, total and partial dis- 
ability benefits, and for death benefit assess- 
ments in excess of twelve annually, has been 
formed by setting aside 30 per cent, of the 
assessments on benefit certificates. Widows 
and orphans of members receive from $100 
to $1,000, $3,000, or $3,000. On reaching 
life's expectation the aged members may re- 
ceive $500, $1,000, or $1,500, and to per- 
manently disabled members $100, $200, or 
$300 is paid annually for five years, all sums 
paid for permanent disability and at life's 
expectation being deducted from the death 
benefit. This League of Modern Knights 
presents three highly instructive and inter- 
esting degrees for the consideration of those 
who desire to become members, and curi- 
ously founds its ritual on the life and adven- 
tures of Don Quixote and his companion 
Sancho Panza. It numbers about 5,000 
members. In that the ritual is based upon 
incidents in the life of these well-known 
characters in Spanish fiction, it forms one 
of the two successful organizations which 
have based their unwritten work on stories 
wliich underlie great and popular works of 
fiction. 

Modern TVoodmen of America. — 
Among the many successful fraternal orders 
guaranteeing death benefits to members, the 
Modern Woodmen of America stands out 
prominently, numerically, financially, and 
fraternally. Its benefit certificates provide 
for the payment of $500, $1,000, $3,000, or 
$3,000 to the families of deceased mem- 
bers, and for care and attention during 
sickness. The Order is an Illinois corpora- 
tion, working under a charter granted ^May 
5, 1884. It was founded at Lyons, la., in 
1883, by Joseph C. Root, a prominent Free- 
mason, an Odd Fellow, a Knight of Pythias, 
member of the American Legion of Honor, 
and of the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men. The first Camp, as its Lodges are 
called, was instituted January 5, 1883, 
which is regarded as the birth of the Order, 
although its beginning really dates back 
to 1880. Since its incorporation it has 



158 



MODERN WOODMEN OF AMERICA 



increased from a membership of 600 in 
1884 to 210,000 in 4,180 local Camps on 
September 1, 189G. 

The territory of the Modern Woodmen is 
confined by its charter to the States of Illi- 
nois, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Wiscon- 
sin, Michigan, Kansas, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, and Ohio, from 
which the cities of Chicago, Detroit, Mil- 
waukee, St. Louis, and Cincinnati are ex- 
cluded. This, it is claimed, makes its ter- 
ritory the healthiest in the country. In 
addition, persons engaged in hazardous oc- 
cupations are not eligible to membership.* 

Assessments to jiay benefits are graduated 
according to the age of the j)erson joining, 
the grading being in jiroportion to the aver- 
age expectancy of life by the standard of 
American tables. The rate remains the 
same as at the beginning, the special induce- 
ment being to young and middle-aged men. 
Ordinary expenses of the local and head 
Camps are j^aid by the semi-annual dues. 

* As qualifications for membership in the Wood- 
men of America are as exceptional among like rules 
in similar societies as is the rapid annual increase 
in membership, these are given in full : Persons to 
become members must be white males, over eighteen 
and under forty-five years of age, of sound health, 
exemplary habits, and good moral character. One 
who is over forty-five years of age, if but for a sin- 
gle day, is ineligible. Persons engaged in the fol- 
lowing kinds of business or employment will not be 
admitted as members of this Fraternity : Railway 
brakeman, railway engineer, fireman, and switch- 
man, miner employed under ground, mine inspector, 
pit boss, professional rider and driver in races, em- 
ployee in gunpowder factory, wholesaler or manu- 
facturer of liquors, saloon keeper, saloon bartender, 
aeronaut, sailor on the lakes and seas, plough polisher, 
brass finisher, professional base-ball player, profes- 
sional foot-ball player, professional fireman, sub- 
marine operator, or soldier in regular army in time 
of war. One who, after joining the Order, engages 
in any prohibited occupation, thereby himself A'oids 
his contract with the Order and renders his certifi- 
cate null and void, but may obviate this difficulty 
and retain his membership by filing with the Head 
Clerk a waiver of all right to benefits in case death 
results by reason of such prohibited occupation — 
except where engaged in the sale of intoxicant 
liquors. 



The record made by the Modern Wood- 
men of America shows that the cost of pro- 
tection has not increased within seven years; 
that it is furnishing insurance at a cost of 
14.96 for $1,000 per annum; that the cost 
of management is 78 cents per member; 
that the average age of membership is 35.96 
years, and that the average death rate per 
1,000 is 5.05. No other secret beneficiary 
society ever showed such an increase in 
membership within a year as that of the 
Modern Woodmen of America, which w^as, 
in round numbers, 45,000. There were 692 
death claims paid that year, amounting to 
$1,408,500 and the total amount paid to 
beneficiaries since organization is 16,522,385. 
The total increase in membership during 
eight months of 1896 broke the Society's 
own record, 49,350. On September 1, 1896, 
it had 1515,000,000 of insurance in force. 
Under the Order's charter the head office is 
located at Fulton, 111., Avhere C. W. Hawes 
has charge of the record dejiartment. The 
general supervision of the Order comes un- 
der the direction of Head Consul W. A. 
Northcott of Greenville, 111. Colonel A. H. 
Hollister of Madison, Wis., is intrusted 
with the funds of the Order, and the finan- 
cial supervision is under the control of the 
following gentlemen, who form the Board of 
Directors: A. R. Talbot, Chairman, Lincoln, 
Neb. ; J. W. W^hite, Eock Falls, 111. ; J. N. 
Reece, Springfield, 111. : Marvin Quacken- 
bush, Dundee, 111.; and B. D. Smith, Man- 
kato, Minn. The membership of the Order 
includes many prominent men, among them 
former Comptroller of the Currency James 
H. Eckles, William J. Bryan, ex-Governor 
Hoard of Wisconsin, and Congressman La 
Follette. 

While making a point of being particular 
to restrict its operations to the healthiest 
States in the Union, and to receive only 
young and healthy men so as to keep the 
cost of insurance as low as the lowest, the 
Modern Woodmen of America makes a 
strong feature of the social and fraternal 
side of secret societv life. This is indicated 



MYSTIC WORKERS OF THE WORLD 



159 



by the following extract from an address 
before the orgauizi^.tion in 1894 by its then 
Head Banker (Treasurer) D. C. Tink : 

The " Woodmen " in one form or another existed 
centuries before the Golden Fleece or the Roman 
Eagle was dreamed of ; that the Orders of the Star 
and Garter, the Red Cross, and the Legion of 
Honor are things of yesterday as compared with 
them. Far back in the dim and misty ages, before 
the creatures were born, before the first stones 
were laid in the eternal city, in regions unlike 
those we see round about us, where snow-crowned 
peaks stand guard like sentinels, where babbling 
brooks and murnuiring rills discoursed soft music 
to the nodding jiines, the first Camp of Woodmen 
was organized. With the axe they cleared the 
forest, with the wedge they opened up the seei-et 
resources of nature, and with the beetle they bat- 
tered down the opposition of unworthy tribes that 
sought to bar their progress. So, my friends, we, 
as Modern Woodmen of America, have the same 
axe, beetle, and wedge, and we are destroying the 
abiding places of poverty, as they did the wild 
beasts, so that the blooming roses of happiness, the 
waving grain of plenty, the lowing herds of sym- 
pathy, the rumbling machinery of industry, and 
the stately cities of the home of the beneficiaries 
are thus maintained and protected. 

The reference to the emblems of the 
Society makes evident the effort of the 
organizers to be as original as possible in 
formulating ritual and ceremonies. Yet 
so much had been done in the way of creat- 
ing secret societies prior to 1880-83 that 
some Avell-traveled ground had to be cov- 
ered. Thus, notwithstanding the rela- 
tively novel emblems, the beetle and 
wedge, we find the chief official to be a 
Head Consitl, which, with the employment 
of certain forms derived from ancient Kome, 
suggests a partial, though perhaps uncon- 
scious duplication of some of the rites of the 
English secret beneficiary society known as 
the Ancient Order of the Golden Fleece. 
The abolition of State jurisdiction is a step 
in advance among American secret bene- 
ficiary societies, particularly when the re- 
striction of territory is considered in which 
the Woodmen operate. 

Royal Neighbors of America is the title of 
theauxiliarybrauchof the Modern Woodmen, 



to which members of the latter and women 
relatives are eligible. It has been estab- 
lished only a few years, but gives promise 
of ably supplementing the Camps of AVood- 
men as have so many similar auxiliary or- 
ganizations attached to other beneficiary 
Orders. This branch of the Order pays 
death benefits also. The membership is 
of two varieties, beneficiary and fraternal, 
there being about 3,000 of the former and 
13,000 of the latter. 

Mystic Workers of the WoiUl. — 
Founded by G. AV. Clendenen of Fulton, 
111., and incorporated under the laws of 
Illinois in 1892, to pay death and disability 
benefits by means of mutual assessments. 
Both men and women between sixteen and 
fifty-five years of age may join and be in- 
sured for 8500, 81,000, 81,500, or 82,000. 
Those unable to pass the required physical 
examination may, if elected, become social 
members. A member who becomes perma- 
nently and totally disabled by sickness, acci- 
dent, or old age is entitled to one-twentieth 
of his certificate, or policy, semi-annually 
until it is cancelled. This disability clause 
is not effective "until the Order can pay a 
maximum policy in full." No assessments 
are levied after members arrive at the age 
of seventy years, and one-twentieth of the 
amount of their policies will be paid them 
every six months until cancelled, or if death 
takes i^lace before such time, the remaining 
portion will be paid the beneficiary. Fol- 
lowers of the customary list of hazardous 
occupations are not eligible to membership. 
The founder of the ^lystic Workers was a 
member of the Masonic Fraternity, of the 
Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen of 
America, Knights of the Maccabees, and 
Woodmen of the World, from which it may 
be inferred that the Mystic Workers is the 
legitimate offspring of some of the most 
representative of the older and modern fra- 
ternities. Its emblem includes two columns 
or pillars surmounted by two globes, and 
between them an open Bible, the scales of 
justice, a plane and square. The ritual 



160 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS 



emphasizes Charity, as described in I. Cor- 
inthians xiii. There are about 3,000 Mys- 
tic Workers enrolled. 

National Fraternal Congress. — (Con- 
tributed l)y N. S. Boynton, Past President.) 
At the Fourteenth Annual Session of the 
Supreme Lodge of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, held at Minneapolis in 
June, 1886, a resolution was adopted which 
led to the organization of the National 
Fraternal Congress. The following is a 
copy : 

Resolved, That the incoming Supreme Master 
Workman be authorized to appoint, upon the basis 
hereinafter stated, a committee, who shall also act 
as delegates on the part of the Supreme Lodge, to 
bring about a meeting and permanent organization 
of representatives of fraternal beneficiary societies ; 
that such committee invite other beneficiaiy socie- 
ties to unite in such an association ; that repre- 
sentation in such association for the first meeting 
to be one delegate for the first 40,000 beneficiary- 
members, or part thereof, or any organization tak- 
ing part, and one delegate for each additional 
40.000 members or fractional part thereof in excess 
of 20,000 ; and that such committee have power to 
arrange further details to secure the perfect organ- 
ization and perpetuation of such an association of 
representatives. 

Supreme Master Workman Badgerow ap- 
pointed as such committee : A. L. Levi, 
Minneapolis, Minn. ; Hon. 0. F. Berry, 
Carthage, 111., and Warren Totten, barris- 
ter, Woodstock, Ont., with Leroy Andrus 
of Buffalo as chairman. A call was ac- 
cordingly issued for a preliminary meet- 
ing of representatives of various fraternal 
beneficiary societies, to be held at Wash- 
ington, D. C, November 16, 1886. After 
reciting the foregoing resolution the call 
set forth the objects of the convention sub- 
stantially as follows : 

The widely extended influence and vast pecun- 
iary interests connected with and represented by 
the great beneficiary societies of the present time 
render them a most important and interesting 
feature of social development in this country. 
There are a large number (not less than fifty) of 
those societies, each having a considerable member- 
ship, carrying on a purely fraternal, beneficiary 
business in the United States, and among these are 



not included any merely speculative assessment or 
non-fraternal cooperative concerns. Their meth- 
ods are, in a very great degi'ee, the same, and their 
interests are based on principles which are iden- 
tical. It is confidently believed that the formation 
of a national body will prove of great advantage to 
every organization represented. The cooperative 
plan of insurance as ,carried on by our societies 
has not wholly laid aside the character of an ex- 
periment, and the fundamental principles upon 
which their future depends have never been fully 
proven or even investigated. It would be as unrea- 
sonable to expect a successful importing merchant 
to carry on business in ignorance of foreign and 
domestic markets, the rate of exchange, etc., as to 
expect our great fraternities to achieve the highest, 
and especially a continued, success, knowing noth- 
ing of the rules which govern admissions, lapses, 
death rates, and other questions relating to such 
organizations. These ideas are, of course, not 
new to you who have had much experience in the 
work of fraternities, and it is of course evident to 
you that the investigation of these principles can 
best be conducted through cooperation, and that 
their efficiency and value are increased in propor- 
tion as the study is made common to all. There 
are many other results which an association of 
these societies may accomplish and which may be 
productive of good, not the least of which is that 
a "fraternity of fraternities" will be formed and 
the fraternal character of our organization be 
more firmly fixed. The following subjects are sug- 
gested as among those which would be of the ut- 
most interest, although the field of discussion may 
profitably be extended. First, the laws relating 
to cooperative associations and the necessity of 
further legislation in aid of fraternal societies and 
the securing of uniform laws ; second, the discus- 
sion of means by which inore perfect medical ex- 
aminations can be secured, etc. ; and, third, the 
general principles necessary to the successful cari-y- 
ing on of fraternal cooperative societies. Repre- 
sentatives of non-fraternal assessment associations 
are not eligible to membership. 

The meeting was held pursuant to call, 
and Leroy Andrus of Buffalo was elected 
temporary chairman, and E. C. Hill of 
Buffalo secretary. The societies repre- 
sented were as follows : 

Ancient Order of United Workmen, Leroy 
Andrus, Warren Totten, A. L. Levi, and 
0. F. Berry, Carthage, HI. 

Knights of Honor, W. H. Barnes, San 
Francisco, Cal. 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS 



161 



United Order of Honor, A. W. Wishard, 
Indiunapolis, Ind. 

Order United American Mechanics, C. 
H. Stein, Baltimore, Md. 

Order United Friends, 0. M. Shedd, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Empire Order Mutual Aid, J. H. Meech, 
Bumilo, N. Y. 

Select Knights, Ancient Order United 
Workmen, E. C. Hill, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Endowment Rank, Knights of Pythias, 
Halvor Nelson, Washington, D. C. 

Equitable Aid Union, E. N. Seaver, Co- 
lumbus, Pa. 

Knights of the Maccabees, N. S. Boyn- 
ton. Port Huron, Mich. 

Eoyal Arcanum, A. 0. Trippe, Baltimore, 
Md.; J. Haskell Butler, Boston, Mass. 

Knights of Columbia, C. P. Kriezer, 
New York City. 

Knights of the Golden Rule, J. D. Ir- 
ving, Toledo, 0. 

United Order of the Golden Cross, A. M. 
McBath, Washington, D. C. 

Eoyal Templars of Temperance, C. K. 
Porter, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Home Circle, J. H. Butler, Boston, Mass. 

The orders and membership rei^resented 
were as follows : Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, 175,000 ; Knights of Honor, 
130,000 ; Eoyal Arcanum, 76,000 ; Order 
of United American Mechanics, 40,000 ; 
Eoyal Templars of Temperance, 2:2,000 ; 
Equitable Aid Union, 17,000 ; Endowment 
Eank, Knights of Pythias, 16,000; Order 
of United Friends, 12,000 ; Select Knights, 
Ancient Order United Workmen, 11,000 ; 
Knights of the Maccabees, 11,000 ; United 
Order of the Golden Cross, 9,000 ; Empire 
Order of Mutual Aid, 8,000 ; United Order 
of Honor, 7,000 ; Knights of the Golden 
Eule, 9,000 ; Home Circle, 5,000 ; Knights 
of Columbia, 2,000 ; a grand total of 
535,000, with outstanding life benefits 
amounting to $1,200,000,000. After a dis- 
cussion the following permanent officers were 
chosen : President, Leroy Andrus ; First 
Vice-President, W. H. Barnes ; Second 
11 



Vice-President, John Haskell Butler ^ Ee- 
cording Secretary, E. C. Hill ; Corres})ond- 
ing Secretary, 0. M. vShedd ; and Treasurer, 
Halvor Nelson. The following declaration 
was adopted : " This association shall be 
known as the National Fraternal Congress. 
Its objects are hereby declared to be the 
uniting permanently of all legitimate fra- 
ternal benefit societies for i)ur[)oses of mu- 
tual information, benefit, and protection. 
Its membership shall be composed of its 
officers, standing committees, and of repre- 
sentatives as follows : Each society of 40,000 
members shall be entitled to one representa- 
tive, and for each additional 40,000 mem- 
bers, or fraction of 40,000 over 20,000, an 
additional representative. At any meeting 
when a test ballot or vote shall be required, 
and any society not fully represented, the 
representative or representatives present 
shall be authorized to cast the full vote to 
which his or their order may be entitled. 
No fraternal society, order, or association 
shall be entitled to representation in this 
Congress, unless said society, order, or as- 
sociation works under a ritual, holds regular 
lodge or similar meetings, and pays endow- 
ment moneys to the beneficiaries of its de- 
ceased members. This Congress shall meet 
annually on the third Tuesday of November, 
at such place as may be selected." 

After a two days' session, during which a 
number of papers were read and discussed, 
the Congress adjourned to meet in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., on the third Tuesday in No- 
vember, 1887. 

The next annual meeting was held in 
Philadelphia, November 15, 1887. The 
attendance was smaller than at Washing- 
ton the year before, and the feeling at first 
was strongly in favor of abandoning the or- 
ganization ; but it was finally decided to 
continue the Congress. Papers were read, 
topics of interest to the orders were dis- 
cussed, and several societies not represented 
the year before were admitted. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected : President, 
John Haskell Butler, Boston, Mass.; First 



163 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS 



Vice* President, Warren Totten, Woodstock, 
Ont.; Second Vice-President, R. N. Seaver, 
M.D., of Pennsylvania ; Recording Secre- 
tary, Samuel Nelson of New York ; Cor- 
responding Secretary, 0. M. Shedd of New 
York ; and Treasurer, George Hawkes of 
Pennsylvania. 

At the second annual session, held in 
Murray Hill Hotel, New York City, No- 
vember 20 and 21, 1888, with increased at- 
tendance and greater interest, seven Orders 
Avere admitted as new members. Paj^ers on 
various subjects were read and discussed, 
and the constitution and laws were amended 
so as to do away with the office of Second 
Vice-President, and to merge the ofiBces of 
Corresi^ouding and Recording Secretaries. 
Officers elected at this session were : Presi- 
dent, John Haskell of Boston ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Warren Totten ; Corresponding and 
Recording Secretary, 0. M. Shedd ; and 
George Hawkes, Treasurer. 

The third annual session was held in Bos- 
ton, November 12 and 13, 1889. Twenty- 
six societies were represented, and four 
others were admitted. The following offi- 
cers were elected : President, D. H. Shields ; 
Vice-President, A. R. Savage, Lewiston, 
Me.; Secretary, 0. M. Shedd ; Treasurer, 
George Hawkes. 

The fourth annual session was held in 
Pittsburg, Pa., November 11 and 12, 1890, 
with a still larger attendance, societies rep- 
resented having a total membership of over 
one million. The Committee on Legisla- 
tion was directed to draft a uniform law, 
with the object of having separate and dis- 
tinct laws for the regulation of frateral 
beneficiary societies passed by the State 
legislatures. The following officers were 
chosen ; President, A. R. Savage ; Vice- 
President, Adam Warnock of Boston, 
Mass.; and Secretary and Treasurer, 0. 
M. Shedd. 

The fifth annual session was held in 
Washington, D. C, November 10, 11, and 
12, 1891, when thirty-two societies were 
represented, with a total membership of 



over one million two hundred thousand. 
During the session the Congress, as a body, 
visited the White House and met President 
Harrison. Among the more important 
papers read was one by J. E. Shapherd, 
" Can a fraternal society safely transact an 
endowment business and pay a stated sum 
at the end of a stated number of years, or 
sooner in the event of death ?" and one by 
N. S. Boynton on " Should assessment 
notices be dispensed with ?" Others were: 
^'Should medical examiners be elected by the 
lodge, appointed by the chief medical ex- 
aminer, or chosen by the supreme body?'* 
Dr. J. Foster Bush ; and the '' Uses of a 
ritual and secret ceremonies in benefit or- 
ders," by C. W. Hazzard. Frank N. Gage 
read a paper on the '' Advisability of 
abolishing the per capita tax and levying 
all revenues for the general fund ujjon the 
same basis as assessments are levied to pay 
death benefits ; " and B. F. Nelson one on 
the tojjic, "'Is it advisable for fraternal 
benefit societies to prohibit the admission 
of men engaged personally in the sale of in- 
toxicating liquors ?" A special committee 
was appointed to confer with the Postmaster- 
General, with reference to the circulation 
of fraternal society journals through the 
United States mails, by paying the rates 
fixed for second-class matter. Officers 
elected were as follows : President, Adam 
Warnock ; Vice-President, M. G. Jeffris, 
Janesville, Wis.; Secretary and Treasurer, 
0. M. Shedd. 

The sixth annual session was held at 
Washington, D. C, November 15, 16, 17, 
1892. Delegates were present from thirty- 
three societies with a total membershij) of 
1,250,000. Among papers read were : 
"The typical frater,^' by Louis Maloney : 
"Am I my brother's keeper ?" by W. S. 
Bailey; "Increasing membership," by John 
J. Acker ; " Press and societies," by J. D. 
Smith ; " The state and its relations to fra- 
ternal beneficiary societies," by Howard H. 
Morse ; " Securing legislation," by D. E. 
Stevens ; and " Fraternal duties," by A. L. 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS 



mi 



Barbour. A. R. Savage, from the Com- 
mittee on Laws, presented a report on the 
revision of uniform laws in the form of a bill 
entitled, ''An Act regulating fraternal ben- 
eficiary societies, orders, or associations,'* 
which was adopted, and action taken look- 
ing toward the passage of the bill through 
the legislatures of the different States and 
in the Provinces of Canada. The following 
officers were elected: President, M.G. Jeffris; 
Vice-President, N. S. Boynton ; Secretary 
and Treasurer, 0. M. Shedd. 

The seventh annual session was held at 
Cincinnati, 0., November 21, 23, and 23, 

1893, when thirty-six organizations, having 
a total membership of nearly one million 
three hundred and fifty thousand, were rep- 
resented. A very large number of valuable 
papers was read and discussed, as in previ- 
ous sessions. A committee to be known as 
the Committee on Fraternal Press was ap- 
pointed to secure, if possible, the passage of 
an act by Congress which would permit 
fraternal publications to be mailed as sec- 
ond-class matter. A paper on "Women in 
fraternal societies" was presented by Mrs. 
Emma M. Gillette of Washington, D. C. 
The following officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, N. S. Boynton ; Vice-President, S. A. 
Wills, Pittsburg, Pa; ; Secretary and Treas- 
urer, 0. M. Shedd. 

The eighth annual session was held at 
Buffalo, N. Y., November 20, 21, and 22, 

1894. Forty orders, having a total member- 
ship of 1,300,000, were represented. The 
Committee on Fraternal Press reported they 
had succeeded in securing legislation admit- 
ting to the mails all fraternal journals as 
second-class matter. The following officers 
were chosen : President, S. A. Wills ; Vice- 
President, W. R. Spooner, New York ; Sec- 
rotary, M. W. Sackett, Meadville, Pa. 

The ninth session was held at Toronto, 
Can., November 19, 20, and 21, 1895 ; 
forty orders, having a total membership 
of 1,400,000, were represented. The Com- 
mittee on Statistics submitted a report 
showing that the total benefits paid since 



their organization by forty orders repre- 
sented, amounted to %228,447,120, and that 
during 1894 more than $28,000,000 had 
been disbursed. The ratio of expense to 
benefits was $G5.67 for each $1,000, and the 
ratio of expense to membership was $1.27 
per capita, and the average rate of mortal- 
ity was 9.92 per 1,000. Certificates in force 
amounted to $2,855,018,610. The medical 
section, formed of medical examiners-in- 
chief of orders represented, met, and a num- 
ber of papers were submitted. The follow- 
ing officers were elected : President, W. R. 
Spooner ; Vice-President, John G. John- 
son, Peabody, Kan., and Secretary, M. W. 
Sackett. 

The tenth annual session was held at 
Louisville, Ky., November 17, 18, and 19, 
1896. Forty-three orders, with a total mem- 
bership of 1,587,859, were represented. 
President Spooners annual address stated 
that material progress had been made in 
securing legislation in the interest of fra- 
ternal beneficiary orders. At this session, 
too, the necessity for increasing rates of 
assessments was considered, basing them on 
some recognized mortality tables, so as to 
provide an emergency fund with which to 
meet an increased death rate,- which it was 
held would appear as the Orders grow older. 
The concensus of opinion favored the pro- 
posed change. The following officers were 
elected : President. J. G. Johnson, Peabody, 
Kan. ; Vice-President, James E. Shepard, 
Lawrence, Mass.; Secretary and Treasurer, 
M. W. Sackett ; Chaplain, Rev. J. G. Tate, 
Grand Island, Neb. The titles of the or- 
ganizations represented at Louisville in 
1896, together with the names of delegates 
there, contrasted with like data respecting 
the first Congress, that held at Washington 
in 1886, fitly represent the growth of 
the "fraternity of fraternities" sentiment 
throughout the country. 

Titles of Orders and names of delegates 
at the National Fraternal Congress of 1896 : 

American Legion of Honor, Adam War- 
nock. Boston, Mass. 



164 NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS 

Ancient Order of the Pyramids, E. S. Pa. ; B. F. Nelson, St. Louis, Mo., and L. 

McClintbck, Topeka, Kan. A. Gratz, Louisville, Ky. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen, Knights of the Loyal Guard, Mark W. 

Joseph E. Riggs, Lawrence, Kan.; J. G. Stevens and Orson Millard, M.D., Flint, 

Tate, Grand Island, Neb. ; and D. H. Mich. 

Siiields, M.D., Hannibal, Mo. Order of the Maccabees, D. D. Aitkin, 

Artisans' Order of Mutual Protection, Flint, Mich. ; Thomas Watson, Mrs. M. M. 

Louis Maloney, Philadelphia, Pa. Danforth, and R. E. Moss, M.D., Port 

Chosen Friends, Louis A. Steber, St. Huron, Mich. ; George J. Seigle, Buffalo, 

Louis, Mo. ; William B. Wilson, Newark, N. Y. ; Edward L. Young, Norwalk, 0.; 

N. J. ; Henry Jamison, M.D., Indianapo- Mrs. Lillian M. Hollister, Detroit, Mich., 

lis, Ind. and Mrs. Frances E. Burns, St. Louis, 

Empire Knights of Relief, Frank E. Mich. 

Munger, Buffalo, N. Y., and Philip A. Legion of the Red Cross, H. F. Ackley, 

McCrae, M.D., Buffalo, N. Y. Camden, N. J. 

Equitable Aid Union, Albert Morgan, Loyal Additional Benefit Association, 

Corry, Pa. Frank S. Petter, Jersey City, N. J. 

Fraternal Aid Association, William T. Modern Woodmen of America, Jasper 

Walker, Kansas City, Kan., and Levi N. Reece, Springfield, 111. ; W. A. North- 

Horner, M.D., Wichita, Kan. cott, Greenville, 111.; Charles W. Hawes, 

Fraternal Legion, J. W. P. Bates, M.D., Fulton, 111. ; A. 0. Faulkner, Lincoln, 

Baltimore, Md. Neb.; Benjamin D. Smith, Mankato, Minn,, 

Fraternal Mystic Circle, D. E. Stevens, and C. A. McCollum, M.D., Minneapolis, 

Philadelphia, Pa., and F. S. Wagenhals, Minn. 

M.D., Columbus, 0. Mutual Protection, Dr. W. K. Harrison, 

Golden Chain, J. A. Baden, M.D., Balti- Chicago, 111. 

more, Md. National Provident Union, Edward S. 

Home Circle, Julius M. Swain, Boston, Peck, New York city. 

Mass. National Reserve Association, F. W. 

Improved Order of Heptasophs, F. L. Sears and J. T. Craig, M.D., Kansas City, 

Brown, Scranton, Pa. ; John G. Mitchell, Mo. 

Baltimore, Md., and J. H. Christian, National Union, W. M. Bayne, Cleve- 

M.D., Baltimore, Md. land, 0.; J. W. Meyers, Toledo, 0., and 

Independent Order of Foresters, Oron- M. R. Brown, M.D., Chicago, 111. 

hyatekha, M.D., Toronto, Ont. ; A. E. New England Order of Protection, Lucius 

Stevenson, Chicago, 111. ; J. D. Clark, P. Deming, New Haven, Conn. 

Dayton, 0., and Thomas Millman, M.D., Order United Friends, John G. H. 

Toronto, Ont. Meyers, New York city. 

Iowa Legion of Honor, Dr. E. R. Hutch- Protected Home Circle, W. S. Palmer 

ins, Des Moines, la. and S. Heilman, M.D., Sharon, Pa. 

Knights and Ladies of Security, W. B. Royal Arcanum, John E. Pound, Lock- 

Kirkpatrick, Topeka, Kan., and H. A. port, N. Y. ; J. A. Langfitt, Pittsburg, 

Warner, M.D., Topeka, Kan. Pa. ; Justin F. Price, New York city; W. 

Knights and Ladies of the Golden 0. Robson, Boston, Mass., and J. M. 

Star, Rev. Samuel P. Lacey, Newark, McKinstry, Cleveland, 0. 

N. J. Royal League, C. C. Linthicum and Wal- 

Knights of Honor, John Mulligan, Yon- lace K. Harrison, M.D., Chicago, 111. 

kers, N. Y. ; J. W. Goheen, Philadelphia, Royal Society of Good Fellows, D. S. 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS 



165 



Biggs, Arlington, Mass., and W. G. Weaver, 
M.D., Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Eoyal Templars of Temperance, T. N. 
Boyle, D.D., Pittsburg, Pa., and J. W. 
Grosvenor, M.D., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Select Friends, Dr. J. T. Tinder, Parsons, 
Kan. 

Shield of Honor, James H. Livingston, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Supreme Tribe of Ben Hur, D. W. Gerard 
and J.F. Davidson, M.D.,Crawfordsville,Ind. 

United Order of Pilgrim Fathers, J. 
Albion Briggs, Somerville, Mass. ; J. S. 
Taft, Keene, N. H. 

United Order of the Golden Cross, John 
:N". Ehle, Washington, D. 0. ; J. D. Young, 
M.D., Winthrop, Mass. 

Woodmen of the World, W. 0. Rogers, 
M.D., and Joseph C. Root, Omaha, Neb. ; 
F. A. Falkenberg, Denver, Col. 

The above societies, with probably ten 
others not represented in the Congress, 
although eligible, constitute the fraternal 
beneficiary system of the country, and are 
in no way to be classed witli the old line life 
or open business assessment associations, 
nor with any orders or associations not 
recognized by the National Fraternal Con- 
gress as a part of the fraternal beneficiary 
system of life protection. The foregoing 
orders hud a combined membership of over 
one million and a half in 189G, and had 
paid out within a year for life benefits the 
sum of 828,034,855 ; total paid out since 
organization, $231,043,180 ; total value of 
life benefit certificates in force, $3,026,- 
545,042. The net increase of membership 
during the year was 165,544, all of which 
goes to show what the fraternal beneficiary 
system of the country as represented in the 
National Fraternal Congress has accom- 
plished in a little over a quarter of a century. 

In view of the extraordinary results from 
this form of cooperation since the close of 
the Civil War, it is important to carefully 
distinguish between the three distinct sys- 
tems of life protection now in operation. 

First, the " old line life insurance, or level 



premium system,'" with its endowment, ton- 
tine, and semi-tontine features. In this 
there is a contract between the company and 
the insured called a policy, and profit is the 
controlling object. In every State there are 
laws providing for the incorporation of com- 
panies using tliis system and for governing 
their operations. 

Second, the open business assessment sys- 
tem, in which the contract between the asso- 
ciations and the insured is sometimes called 
a policy and sometimes a certificate. This 
system has no lodges or fraternal bond to 
bind the insured together, and the associa- 
tions are merely business concerns without 
a representative form of government, gen- 
erally close corporations. In every State, 
also, laws are found for their incorporation 
and supervision. 

Third, the fraternal beneficiary system, 
composed of societies having a representa- 
tive form of government, subordinate 
lodges, and ritualistic work, furnishing 
financial assistance to living members in 
sickness or destitution, providing for the 
payment of benefits to living members in 
case of partial or total physical disability 
arising from sickness or old age, and pro- 
viding benefits at the death of members for 
their families or dependent blood relatives. 

The lines of demarcation between the three 
are clear and distinct, and have been kept so 
in all legislative enactments relating to them. 

The uniform bill adopted by the National 
Fraternal Congress, which has been en- 
grafted on the statute books of several of 
the States, defines what constitutes a fra- 
ternal beneficiary society in the following 
terms: Section 1. A fraternal beneficiary 
association is hereby declared to be a cor- 
poration, societ}', or voluntary association, 
formed or organized and carried on for the 
sole benefit of its members and their bene- 
ficiaries and not for profit. Each associa- 
tion shall have a lodge system, with ritual- 
istic form of work and representative form 
of government, and shall make provision 
for tlie payment of benefits in case of death. 



166 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS 



aud may make provision for the payments 
of benefits in case of sickness, accident, or 
old age, provided the j^eriod in life at which 
payment of physical disability benefits on 
acconnt of old age commences shall not be 
under seventy (70) years, subject to their 
compliance with its constitution and laws. 
The fund from which the payment of such 
benefits shall be made and the fund from 
which the expenses of such association shall 
be defrayed shall be derived from assess- 
ments or dues collected from its members. 
Payments of death benefits shall be to the 
families, heirs, blood relatives, affianced 
husbands, affianced wives, or to persons de- 
pendent upon the members. Such associa- 
tions shall be governed by this act, and shall 
be exempt from the provisions of insurance 
laws of this State, and no law hereafter 
passed shall apply to them unless they be 
expressly designated therein. 

The laws of the National Fraternal Con- 
gress declare that no fraternal society, 
order, or association shall be entitled to 
rejoresentation in it unless the latter " works 
under a ritual, holds regular lodge or sim- 
ilar meetings, where the purposes are con- 
fined to visitation of the sick, relief of dis- 
tress, burial of -the dead, protection of wid- 
ows and orj)hans, education of the orjihan, 
payment of a benefit for temporary or per- 
manent disability or death, and where these 
principles are an obligated duty on all mem- 
bers, to be discharged without compensation 
or pecuniary reward; where the general 
membership attend to the general business 
of the order, and where a fraternal interest 
in the welfare of each other is a dut}^ taught, 
recognized, and practised as the motive and 
bond of organization.'' The mutual agree- 
ment between the fraternal society and the 
member is not a policy or contract like that 
entered into between a life insurance com- 
pany and its policy-holder. Fraternal soci- 
eties simply issue a certificate of member- 
ship, in which the member agrees to comply 
with all rules and regulations in force at the 
time he becomes a member, and with all 



changes in the laws, etc., that may be law- 
fully made during his membershij). He has 
no vested or property rights while living 
and belonging to such societies unless he 
should become sick or disabled, and then 
only after his claim has been allowed. After 
the death of a member who has complied 
with the laws, the beneficiary has a vested 
or property right to the amount of a de- 
ceased member's certificate, as provided by 
the society's laws. These orders are co- 
operative bodies, members mutually agree- 
ing to protect each other and their families 
and dependents in case of sickness, disabil- 
ity, or death by contributing a . certain 
amount of money from time to time to pro- 
vide for the jjayment of the sum specified in 
the certificate. No term-endowment, ton- 
tine, or any other form of speculative cer- 
tificates are issued, neither can a certificate 
within the objects and purposes of a legiti- 
mate beneficiary order be made payable to a 
member or his creditor, nor can it be used 
as collateral for a loan or have a surrender 
value. The holder can transfer it to any 
legal beneficiary without the consent of the 
person named in the certificate, but the 
policy of a life insurance company cannot 
be so transferred. The courts hold that a 
beneficiary of a member has no vested 
rights in the certificate, but that a per- 
son named as, the payee has such rights. 
The decision of the supreme court of 
Pennsylvania in the Dickinson case, " Ella 
M. Dickinson vs. Grand Lodge of Ancient 
Order of United Workmen of Pennsylva- 
nia," defines the objects and purposes of 
fraternal beneficiary societies, and holds that 
they are not insurance corporations, but 
purely benevolent associations, as follows: 
'•' The first specification charges error in 
admitting the application thus referred 
to. This is grounded on the assumption 
that defendant (the A. 0. U. W.) is an in- 
surance company, and the contract sued 
on is a contract of assurance on the life of 
plaintiff's husband for her benefit. Such 
assumption, however, is unwarranted. The 



NATIONAL PROVIDENT UNION 



l(i7 



defendant is not an insurance company, but 
belongs to the distinctly recognized class of 
organizations known as benevolent associa- 
tions. AVhat is known as a benevolent or- 
ganization, however, has a wholly different 
object and purpose in view. The great un- 
derlying purpose of the organization is not 
to indemnify or secure against loss; its de- 
sign is to accumulate a fund from the con- 
tributions of its members for beneficial or 
protective purposes, to be used in their own 
aid or relief, in the misfortunes of sickness, 
injury, or death. The benefits, although 
secured by contracts, and for that reason, to 
a limited extent, assimilated to the proceeds 
of insurance, are not so considered. Such 
societies are rather of a philanthropic or 
benevolent character; their beneficial fea- 
tures may be of a narrow or restricted char- 
acter; the motives of the members may be 
to some extent selfish, but the principle 
upon which they rest is founded in the con- 
siderations mentioned. These benefits, by 
the rule of their organizations, are paying to 
their own unfortunate, out of funds which 
the members themselves have contributed 
for the purpose, not as an indemnity or 
security against loss, but as a protective re- 
lief in case of sickness or injury, or to pro- 
vide the means of a decent burial in the 
event of death. Such societies have no cap- 
ital stock. They yield no profit, and their 
contracts, although beneficial and protective, 
altogether exclude the idea of insurance, or 
of indemnity, or of securing against loss.'' 
Hence it will be seen that the fraternal 
beneficiary orders are purely cooperative and 
non-speculative, and do not in any sense 
furnish life insurance. Neither can they 
be classed with the open business assessment 
associations; there is nothing in common 
between them. 

National Fraternity. — Organized at 
Philadelphia in 1893 by members of the 
Ancient Order of United "Workmen, a fra- 
ternal mutual assessment beneficiary soci- 
ety, which both men and women between 
eighteen and fifty years of age may join. 



It pays deatii benefits of from §500 to 
13,500 ; total disability benefits of from 
$250 to $1,250; and sick and accident bene- 
fits of from $5 to $25 weekly, with a cash 
distribution at stated periods of all earnings 
and accumulations, and a savings dividend 
every five years of membership. Lodges 
are governed by Sections, corresjtondiiig to 
Grand or State bodies, and the Fraternity 
at large is under the jurisdiction of the 
Board of Control, made iip of its officers 
and representatives of the Sections. By the 
system of five-year credits it is proposed to 
cancel all sick benefits drawn during that 
period. Any excess is to be carried over 
against a succeeding five-year credit period. 
Sick benefits, previously drawn, are de- 
ducted from total disability claims, and 
likewise all benefits drawn for permanent or 
temporary disability are deducted from the 
ultimate death benefit, unless already can- 
celled by the five-year credits. ''In this 
manner those who never draw sick benefits 
will not suffer from those who do." The 
former A. 0. U. W. plan of fixed assess- 
ments of $1.10 characterizes the organiza- 
tion, the headquarters of which are at 
Philadelphia. The ritual of the Society is 
based on the history of the United States, 
and its leading emblem is the dome of the 
capitol. Like so many other similar fra- 
ternities, it has a motto in three words : 
-' Charity, Union, and Fellowship. '' The 
total number of members is about 3,000. 

National Provident Union. — An as- 
sessment, beneficiary and patriotic organi- 
zation, founded at Xew York in 1883. It 
is governed by a Congress ])atterned after 
the United States House of Kejiresentatives. 
Its 10,000 members are found principally in 
New England and the Middle States, but 
the Order i.s pushing its way rapidly to the 
front and is already establishing new Coun- 
cils in Central and Western States. Its 
democratic character is shown by there 
being 300 ineml)er8 of its Congress. Its 
death benefits range from $1,000 to $5,000, 
and the live interest taken in securing the 



168 



NATIONAL RESERVE ASSOCIATION 



most advanced system of assessments to meet 
death benefit payments is indicative of the 
exceptional vitality of the organization. It 
is very strong in Greater Xew York, where 
it maintains permanent headquarters. 

National Reserve Association. — 
Founded in 1891 at Kansas City, Mo., by 
F. W. Sears, 32°, an Odd Fellow, a Kni.sjht 
of Pythias, and a member of several f r.aternal 
beneficiary orders. It receives acceptable 
white men and Avomen on ec[ual terms, to 
whom or their beneficiaries it pays, by means 
of assessments, permanent, total, and death 
benefits. Total membership about 5,000. 

National Union. — One of the more pro- 
gressive fraternal assessment beneficiary so- 
cieties, organized in Mansfield, 0., and in- 
corporated under the laws of Ohio, May 11, 
1881, by Dr. A. E. Keyes, N. N. Leyman, 
E. V. Anders, George W. Cole, and others. 
Dr. Keyes, who was elected Medical Di- 
rector, had been Supreme Director of the 
Knights of Honor and Supreme Eegent of 
the Eoyal Arcanum. N. N. Leyman was 
also a man of experience among fraternal 
societies, and for years was chairman of the 
Committee on Laws of the Supreme Council 
of the Eoyal Arcanum. George W. Cole 
was a Freemason. Among the first Board 
of Officers were Dr. W. G. Graham of "Win- 
field, Kan. ; George L. Fuller of Bingham- 
ton, N. Y., and J. "W". Meyers of Columbus, 
0., each of whom had had experience in 
similar societies. 

The special purposes of the Order, as set 
forth at the time of organization, were: That 
the National Union is a distinctively Ameri- 
can, secret, beneficiary Order, formed to as- 
sociate white male citizens of good moral 
character, sound bodily health, between 
twenty and fifty years of age, to advance its 
members morally, socially, and intellectually; 
to provide for the relief of sick and dis- 
tressed members and their families, and to 
secure a benefit fund from which, upon the 
death of a member, a sum not exceeding 
15,000 shall be paid to such beneficiaries 
related to the deceased member as mav have 



been designated in accordance with laws 
of the Order. Certificates are issued in 
amounts of $1,000, $2,000, $3,000, $4,000, 
or $5,000. 

The feature in which the National Union 
diflEered from the fraternal societies that 
preceded it was in the adoption of a system 
of assessments graded according to age, 
advancing each year with the age of its 
members, on the ^'step-rate ^' principle, by 
which each member pays from year to year 
the actual cost of the protection afforded. 
This system is based on the increasing cost 
of insurance as a member advances in age. 
The vitality of the Order does not, therefore, 
depend upon new members alone, but is also 
preserved by the increasing rate of assess- 
ments of members, thus overcoming the ob- 
jection commonly urged against assessment 
societies which do not have reserve funds. 
The argument is that the inducement for 
new members to join will always be the 
same, thereby preserving the life of the 
Order by taking in younger members who 
have the advantage of paying assessments 
at their own ages, but who are not com- 
pelled to carry the burden of older members, 
as each bears his equitable proportion of 
the actual cost. 

The National Union is patriotic in char- 
acter, and the American flag appears in its 
ritualistic work. The government of the 
Order is modelled after that of the United 
States, its Supreme body being called a 
Senate, to which representatives are elected 
by the different State Assemblies or Legis- 
latures. Eepresentatives to the Assemblies 
are elected, in turn, by delegates from the 
different Councils in the various States. 
The Order thus has a Senate, Assemblies, 
and Councils, or Lodges, the latter being 
subordinate bodies. The principal emblem. 
is a badge representing a shield. A lapel 
button is also worn, which, like the shield, 
displays the national colors. 

The membership has steadily progressed, 
but not phenomenally, and in personnel 
is unexceptionable, comprising business and 



NEW ENGLAND ORDER OF PROTECTION 



1G9 



professional men of high character as well 
as those in tlie humbler walks of life. The 
Order has Councils estal)lished in the follow- 
ing States : Ahibama, Arizona, Arkansas, 
California, Colorado, District of Columbia, 
Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, 
New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, 
New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
Texas, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, West 
Virginia, "Washington, and AVisconsin. At 
the close of 189G there were 48,000 mem- 
bers, and at that time there had been paid 
to beneficiaries the sum of 87,500,000. 

The table of rates of assessments in the 
National Union is given in full, owing to 
the system constituting a marked t^tep in 
advance in the history of the development 
of fraternal assessment societies. 

TABLE OF ASSESSMENT KATES PER $1,000. 



[Inci 


eased on all members every year, thus avoidinj; 


increas- 






ing frequency 


of assessments.] 








Cost of 


Cost of 




Cost of 




Cost of 


Age. 


each 


Age. each 


Age. 


each 


Age. 


each 




Assess. 


Assess. 




Assess. 




Assess. 


20.. 


..§0 40 


32... SO 64 


44. 


. . SO 96 


56 


.. SI 58 


21.. 


.. 42 


33... 66 


45. 


.. 1 00 


57. 


.. 1 68 


22.. 


44 


34... 68 


46. 


.. 1 04 


58. 


.. 1 78 


23.. 


.. 46 , 


35... 70 


47. 


.. 1 08 


59. 


.. 1 as 


24.. 


.. 48 


36... 72 


48. 


.. 1 12 


60. 


.. 2 00 


25.. 


.. 50 


37... 74 


49. 


.. 1 16 


61. 


.. 2 12 


20.. 


.. 52 


:38.. 76 


*50. 


.. 1 20 


62. 


.. 2 26 


27.. 


.. 54 


39... 78 


51. 


.. 1 26 


63. 


.. 2 40 


28 . 


56 


40... 80 


52. 


.. 1 32 


64. 


. . 2 60 


29.. 


.. 58 


41 . . . 84 


53. 


.. 1 38 


t65. 


.. 2 80 


30.. 


.. 60 


42... 88 


.54. 


.. 1 44 






31.. 


62 


43... 92 


55. 


.. 1 50 







*The maximum age of admission is fifty years. 
tAge at which assessments cease to increase. 



No certificates are issued to persons over 
forty years of age for more than $3,000. 
Not more than ten assessments in one 3'ear 
have ever been levied by the National Union 
under this system in the sixteen years of its 
existence. The Order is prosperous, pays 
its losses promjitly, and is recognized as a 
beneficiary fraternity of high standing. 

Native Sous of the Golden West. — 
Founded July 11, 1875, by General A. :M. 
Winn and others, at San Francisco, for the 
payment of sick and death benefits. !Mem- 
bershipis restricted to citizens of California, 



and among its 0,500 members are many of 
the foremost representatives of the State. 

New I^iiglaiKl Order of Protection. — 
Organized on October '^H, ls.s7, and incor- 
porated under the laws of Massachusetts, 
November 12, 1887. The New England 
Order of Protection is one of that vast num- 
ber of fraternal beneficiary societies which 
within the last thirty years has brought hope 
to the heart of man by emphasizing brother- 
hood and by caring for the widowed and the 
fatherless. The founders were William II. 
Martin, H. M. Wentworth, Edward L. 
Noyes, T. F. Boylen, Charles P. Walker, 
William M. Bartlett, B. M. Snow, Samuel 
B. Logan, George H. Howard, B. B. Law- 
rence, Granville Cash, A. F. Boylen, Charles 
H. Burr, Fred L. Pool, and E. L. Noyes; 
to which are added, as life members of the 
Supreme Lodge, Samuel P. Tenney, John 
J. Whipple, AVilliani B. Adams, Albert C. 
Loomis, Levi W. Shaw, John K. Thomp- 
son, Norman M. Stafford, Milon 0. Cluff, 
Charles E. Reed, Eben S. Hinckley, Wil- 
liam E. Elliott, Charles II. Thomas, Henry 
F. Burrill, James II. Swallow, James II. 
Russ, Daniel M. Frye, Salmon A. Granger, 
Herbert A. Chase, M.D., Leonora M. ]Mar- 
tin, John A. Follet, Mary C. Noyes, Mary 
L. AValker, Sarah C. Hinckley, Emma F. 
Boylen, Hannah J. Tenney, Helen M. Whip- 
ple, Adam W. ^lartin, Sarah F. Boylen, 
Maggie Wentworth, Eliza Cash, J. E. Lo- 
gan, Mary J. Campbell, Clara J. Bartlett, 
Catherine A. Thomas, ^largarette Shaw, 
Percy A. Dame, Daniel E. Frasier, Mrs. 
Daniel E. Frasier, Leonora F. Lathe, and 
Kate D. Chase. The founders were mem- 
bers of the Knights of Honor, Ignited Order 
of Pilgrim Fathers, United Order of the 
Golden Cross, Order of United Friends, 
Royal Society of Good Fellows, the Royal 
Arcanum, Ancient Order of United AVork- 
men. Knights and Ladies of Honor, Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, Improved 
Order of Red Men, Knights of Pythias, and 
the Masonic Fraternity. It may be said to 
be an outcome of theKnisfhts and Ladies of 



170 



NORTH AMERICAN UNION 



Honor on the question of separate juris- 
diction which arose in that Order. At the 
Supreme Lodge of the Knights and Ladies 
of Honor, in Philadelphia, September 14, 

1887, the petition of twenty-one Xew Eng- 
land Lodges, with over 1,300 members, for a 
New England jurisdiction was referred to 
the committee on the state of the order. 
A majority of that committee reported in 
favor of the petition, and a minority ad- 
versely; but the minority rejjort was adopted. 
Inspired by the success of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen under a separate New 
England jurisdiction, those who had agitated 
the question were confident that an order 
confined within the limits of the six New 
England States could be made successful, 
and one month later the new society was 
formed. Its objects are to unite fraternally 
all white persons of good moral character 
and steady habits; to provide for and com- 
fort the sick; to establish relief and benefit 
funds from which, ujoon satisfactory proof 
of the death of a beneficiary member, a sum 
not exceeding $3,000 shall be paid to his 
or her family as directed by the member. 
The first Lodge was instituted November 
17, 1887, with 46 members. On April 30, 

1888, the total membership waa 2,117; on 
April 30, 1889, it amounted to 6,213; on 
April 1, 1892, to 11,949; on April 1, 1894, 
to 15,656; on April 1, 1896, to 19,722, and 
on January 1, 1897, to 21,122. The Order 
on January 1, 1897, carried 137,812,000 
j)rotection, and had paid out $1,311,000. It 
pays $1,000, 12,000, and $3,000 benefits, and 
is conducted on the graded assessment plan, 
with an increase in the rate of assessment, as 
shown in the following table: 







1st 


2d 


3d 


Between 


the 


Rate 


Rate 


Rate 


Ages. 




$1,000 


$2,000 


$3,000 


18 and 


25 


30 


60 


90 


25 " 


30 


35 


70 


1 05 


30 " 


35 


40 


80 


1 20 


35 " 


40 


45 


90 


1 35 


40 " 


45 


50 


1 00 


1 50 


45 " 


46 


55 


1 10 


1 65 


46 " 


47 


60 


1 20 


1 80 


47 " 


48 


65 


1 30 


1 95 


48 " 


49 


70 


1 40 


2 10 


49 " 


50 


75 


1 50 


2 25 



Subordinate Lodges are under the imme- 
diate control of a Grand Lodge, Past War- 
dens of subordinate Lodges being members 
of Grand Lodges. The Supreme Lodge is 
composed of officers, standing commitee, all 
Past Supreme Wardens, incorporators of the 
Supreme Lodge named in the original certifi- 
cate of incorporation, and such others as 
were elected previous to the session of 1888, 
and representatives of Grand Lodges, elected 
annually to serve for two years. Each 
Grand Lodge has three representatives and 
three alternates for the first 1,000 members 
in the State, and one for each additional 
1,000 and majority fraction thereof. The 
Supreme Lodge meets annually, on the sec- 
ond Tuesday in May, in the city of Boston, 
and as it is the legislative body, only bene- 
ficiary members are admitted. Both men and 
women have a voice and vote in subordinate. 
Grand, and Supreme bodies, and are eligible 
to any office. The membership by States 
November 1, 1896, was as follows: 

Men. Women. Totals. 

Maine 1,059 2,033 3,093 

New Hampshire. . . . 278 425 703 

Vermont 202 726 928 

Massachusetts 3,394 6.576 9,970 

Rhode Island 205 600 805 

Connecticut 1,400 4,15^ 5,553 

Totals 6,538 14,513 21,051 

The Order has been unusually successful. 
It paid its first death benefit of $1,000 at 
the end of the first five months of its exist- 
ence, when the membership was only 2,117. 
Within less than ten years it has made a 
record of which any similar Order might be 
proud, and the six-j^ointed star, the jewel 
of the society, is honored alike by its own 
and by members of other fraternities. 

Nortli American Union. — A new fra- 
ternal beneficiary association, organized at 
Chicago. 

Northwestern Legion of Honor. — A 
benevolent fraternity formed to furnish 
members with life insurance at cost, to 
which all acceptable white persons between 
eighteen and fifty years of age, whose occu- 
pation is not extra hazardous, are eligible. 



ORDER OF CHOSEN FRIENDS 



171 



It does business in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, 
Minnesota, North and South Dakota, and 
was incorporated March 12, 1884, in the 
State of Iowa. It is governed by a Grand 
Council composed of its officers and repre- 
sentatives from subordinate Councils, thus 
avoiding, like the Iowa Legion of Honor, 
much of the machinery of many similar or- 
ganizations. It issues beneficiary certificates 
to men and women members alike for $500, 
$1,000, $2,000, or $3,000 each. Assess- 
ments are graded according to age, one-fifth 
of each assessment going into the reserve 
fund from which losses are to be met in case 
of epidemics or other causes of increase in 
the death rate. This Order frankly admits 
it is an offspring of the American Legion of 
Honor. Its ritual teaches benevolence. 
The total membership is about 2,500. The 
emblem of the Order is the six-jiointed star, 
with the abbreviations of the names of the 
States in the angles ; the motto, '' We 
work together," in the centre, surrounding 
"N. ^\. L. of IL," the whole overhung 
with an encircling chain of seven links. 
(See American Legion of Honor.) 

Order of Alfredians.— ^Dormant. Ac- 
tive at Boston, Providence, and elsewhere 
in New England more than twenty years 
ago. It embodied beneficiary features, but 
was founded for the "descendants of the 
wdse and good King Alfred.'' It commemo- 
rated April 23d, because on that day in 871 
Alfred ascended the throne, and also because 
Shakespeare was born on April 23d, "the 
poet of all time, the embalmer of the 
Anglo-Saxon tongue." 

Order of American Fraternal Circle. 
— A Baltimore mutual assessment organiza- 
tion, founded prior to 18S9. It died in 1S94. 

Order of Aniitie. — A Philadelphia mu- 
tual assessment insurance society. Died in 
1894. 

Order of Chosen Friends. — A frater- 
nal, benevolent, and protective society, or- 
ganized under the laws of the State of In- 
diana. It was established May 28, 1879, at 
Indianapolis, Ind., and has now over GOO 



Councils and 26,000 members in the United 
States and Canada. It makes provisions 
for payment, in addition to sick and death 
benefits, one to aged members, and also one 
to those who become totally disabled by rea- 
son of disease or accident. Its objects are 
to unite, fraternally, acceptable white per- 
sons of good character, steady habits, sound 
bodily health, and reputable calling, who 
believe in a Supreme Being; to improve 
their condition morally, socially, and mate- 
rially by timely counsel and instructive 
lessons, encouragement in business, and 
assistance to obtain employment when in 
need; to establish a relief fund from which 
a sum not exceeding $3,000 shall be jiaid, 
first, when disabled by old age (provided 
seventy-five years are reached); second, 
when by disease or accident a member be- 
comes permanently disabled; and, third, 
when a member dies. The Supreme Coun- 
cil makes all laws for the government of 
the Order, and -has entire management of 
the relief fund. Beneficiary membership is 
optional. A medical examination is re- 
quired before an apj)licant can become a 
beneficiary member. Certificates are issued 
for $500, $1,000, $2,000, or $3,000 as de- 
sired, subject to the approval of the super- 
vising medical examiner. 

Beneficiary members are required to pay 
into the relief fund at deaths of members 
sums graded according to age. By the 
equalization plan of paying assessments all 
members "pay an equal amount for an 
equal benefit.'' The member who lives out 
his expectancy of life, or passes his seventy- 
fifth birthday, "pays no more for his one- 
thousand-dollar benefit than the member 
Avho is so unfortunate as to die within a 
short time after acquiring membership." 
This plan " in this respect is unique.'' It 
makes the cost a fixed sum for each $1,000. 
Where this is not done, the cost would be 
uncertain and assessments frequently come 
so often as to be burdensome. In the early 
part of February, 1878, Albert Alcon and 
T. B. Linn, residents of Indianapolis, Ind., 



172 



ORDER OF CHOSEN FRIENDS 



and members of several fraternal orders, 
were discussing the merits and demerits of 
tlie societies to which they belonged. At 
that time there Avere a number of organiza- 
tions paying death benefits, but none paying 
disability or old age benefits to members 
through a national organization. It was 
believed that there was not only room, but 
a demand, for an order with that feature. 
They solicited friends to unite with them, 
and received half-way promises from some 
and refusals from others; but a meeting was 
called May 2, 1878, and another on June 
1st, at which there were four persons pres- 
ent, among them J. B. Nickersou. A third 
meeting, June 8th, brought in Emi Ken- 
nedy. During the summer and fall of 1878 
Messrs. Alcon, Linn, Nickerson, and Ken- 
nedy held many meetings and perfected a 
plan, constitution, and laws for the new 
Order. Mr. Linn acted as Secretary, and 
upon him devolved the labor of formulat- 
ing the ideas agreed to. The admission of 
ladies to the Order was a subject of frequent 
and prolonged discussion, but finally it was 
decided to admit them on the same terms 
and in the same manner as men. Up to 
that date a few orders had established a 
women's degree, or branch, into which the 
wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters of 
members could be admitted; but the Order 
of Chosen Friends claims the honor of lead- 
ing in recognizing the full cooperation of 
woman in the fraternal insurance world. 
The selection of the ritualistic work gave 
the founders much thought and study. The 
perfect number "seven" was selected as 
the central idea, and Mr. Linn was chosen 
to write the ritual. He perfected the plan 
and composed the charges. At that time, 
November, 1878, Eev. Dr. T. G. Beharrell, 
a minister of the Methodist Church, and 
well known in Masonic and Odd Fellows' 
circles, became interested in the movement, 
and to him was assigned the revision and 
completion of the ritual. To be in harmony 
with the central idea of the ritual, the 
" chain of seven links " was selected as the 



leading emblem. By May 28, 1879, the 
Order of Chosen Friends was declared an 
established fact, with twenty-three charter 
members on its rolls. The first set of offi- 
cers and members is as follows: Supreme 
Councillor, Rev. Dr. T. G. Beharrell, In- 
dianajiolis, Ind. ; Supreme Assistant Coun- 
cillor, Albert Alcon, Sheridan, Ind. ; Su- 
preme Vice-Councillor, Emi Kennedy; Su- 
preme Recorder, T. B. Linn; Supreme 
Treasurer, W. W. Douglass; Supreme Medi- 
cal Examiner, Charles D. Pearson, M.D., all 
of Indianapolis; Supreme Prelate, Hon. Wil- 
liam Cumback, Greensburg, Ind. ; Supreme 
Marshal, C. Bradford; Supreme AVarden, 
J. B. Nickerson, both of Indianapolis; Su- 
preme Guard, C. H. Buttner, Cleveland, 0. ; 
and Supreme Sentry, M. C. Davis, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. ; Supreme Trustees, W. H. 
Page, Hon. J. F. Wallick, Hon. John 
Cavin, G. H. Webber, and B. F. Rogers, 
all of Indianapolis. Other original mem- 
bers were Joseph Greenwood, M. D. Losey, 
William H. Partlow, Hamilton McCoy, F. D. 
Somerby, 0. S. Hadley, and C. H. Behar- 
rell, all of Indianapolis. 

On June 30, 1879, the first subordinate 
Council, Alpha, No. 1, of Indiana, was or- 
ganized at Indianapolis with 30 charter 
members present. Ohio Council, No. 1, of 
Ohio, was instituted Jul}^ 15, 1879, at Woos- 
ter, with 24 charter members present; and 
Lincoln Council, No. 2, of Ohio, at Cleve- 
land, October 8, 1879, with 34 present. At 
the first annual session of the Supreme 
Council, held in Indianapolis, October 21, 
1879, the Supreme Recorder reported three 
Councils with a membership of 150. A 
year later this had grown to 60 Councils 
and 3,536 members in eleven States. The 
Order rapidly increased during the follow- 
ing year, numbering 10,133 members in 176 
Councils located in 24 States, at the end of 
the fiscal year closing June 30, 1881. This 
had further increased to 12,392 members 
and 221 Councils by September 30th, when 
a season full of troubles followed. A dis- 
sension arose among the members of the 



ORDER OF CHOSEN FRIENDS 



173 



Grand Council of California, resulting in 
schism, by which the Order lost about 3,000 
members. The superintendent of insur- 
ance in the State of New York attempted to 
rule the Order out of that State on account 
of its old age disability features, going so 
far as to threaten with arrest and inqirison- 
ment officers and members if they did not 
cease working in Xew York. The Order 
appealed to the courts, and after a pro- 
longed and bitter contest was sustained in 
its position — viz., that it was legally tloing 
business in New York. The situation there 
called attention to other States, and it was 
found that some of them made no jirovi- 
sions for the payment of disability benefits 
by a fraternal society, and such defects had 
to be remedied through the legislatures of 
such States. These contests caused a loss 
of 7,001 members during the fiscal year 
ending June, 30, 1882 ; but 8,126 new 
members were added, making a net gain 
for the year of 925. The following years 
were in the main prosperous, and the Order, 
after sixteen years of experience, had on 
June 30, 1895, a membership of 38,095, and 
had paid to beneficiaries of 4,789 dead mem- 
bers 88,839,704; to 613 disabled members, 
1)562,980; to 16 members disabled by old 
age, $32,000; and 45 advance or immediate 
payments to beneficiaries of dead members 
whose claims were in process of adjustment, 
813,700; in all, 89,448,383. The Order is 
eighteen and a half years old, has paid 
$10,209,513 to the beneficiaries of 5,579 
of its members who have died; 8620,780 to 
734 members who became permanently dis- 
abled from earning a livelihood; and 8116,- 
872 to 61 members disabled by the burden 
of old age, a total of 810,947,165. It has 
Councils in Arizona, California, Colorado, 
Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, 
Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Mary- 
land, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mon- 
tana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, 
Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Ontario, Ore- 
gon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South 
Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, "Wash- 



ington, and Wisconsin, thirty-one States, 
and in Canada. 

Most of the original members were mem- 
bers of various leading fraternal beneficiary 
secret societies, and some were prominent 
Odd Fellows and Freemasons. It is par- 
ticularly noteworthy that several of the lat- 
ter were members of the higher degrees in 
Scottish liite Masonry. The princi2)al em- 
blem, a seven-pointed star containing the 
primary colors in the angles, with two in- 
scribed triangles containing the figure 7 
in the centre, is especially significant and 
points to the popularity of the mysticism 
hedging about these ])articular symbols 
among modern ritual makers. The stu- 
dent who is also a Scottish Rite Mason will 
find something in this to interest him when 
considered in connection with the historical 
sketch of the Order of the Heptasophs, or 
Seven Wise Men. Members of the latter 
organization and of the Order of Chosen 
Friends have practically identical emblems. 
In addition to the foregoing the Chosen 
Friends present the clasped hands, a seven- 
linked chain, and a representation of the 
Good Samaritan. The Order is also note- 
worthy for having given birth to five similar 
organizations, the results of disaiTectiou and 
schism. The first was the secession in New 
York State, which caused a good deal of feel- 
ing. The trouble between the insurance 
department of the State of New York and 
the Order of Chosen Friends has already 
been referred to. The result was the for- 
mation of the Order of United Friends in 
New York in 1881. The Chosen Friends 
in California demanded a separate jurisdic- 
tion in 1882, and it was denied, wliereujwn 
they seceded and formed the Independent 
Order of Chosen Friends. It flourished for 
a few years and attained a membership of 
7,000 or 8,000, when it collapsed. The 
United Friends of Michigan Avas organized 
in 1889, shortly after the meeting of the 
Supreme Council of the Order of Chosen 
Friends in that 3'ear, at which the repre- 
sentative of the Supreme Council from 



174 



ORDER OF FRATERNAL HELPERS 



Michigan failed to secure the recognition 
he believed himself entitled to. It was or- 
ganized by Dr. G. A. Kirker of Detroit, 
and E. F, Lamb of Mt. Morris, Mich., and 
has grown and prospered. In the years 1891 
and 1892 the Order had some difficulty with 
the laws in the Province of Ontario. It was 
believed by some members there that a sejja- 
rate jurisdiction would remedy the matter, 
but before it could be accomplished a schism 
occurred, and the Canadian Order of Chosen 
Friends was organized. In 1895, immedi- 
ately after the passage of the Morse equaliza- 
tion laws, a disappointed aspirant for office 
headed a division of the German members 
in Chicago, and formed a new organization, 
called the United League of America. 
Whether the movement was a success or 
not is not known. 

Order of Fraternal Helpers. — One of 
the numerous local mutual assessment in- 
surance Orders founded in New England. 
Letters of inquiry returned unopened. 

Order of Fraternal Preceptors. — Mu- 
tual assessment, beneficiary society, organized 
at Grand Haven, Mich., prior to 1889. Un- 
known there now. 

Order of Mutual Aid. — Formed at 
Memphis, Tenn., where it collapsed a few 
years later, in 1878, owing to the ravages of 
the yellow fever epidemic. It was a South- 
ern offshoot of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen and of the Knights of Honor. Its 
only surviving offspring is the Knights of 
the Golden Eule, organized at Cincinnati in 
1879. (See Knights of the Golden Eule.) 

Order of Mutual Protection. — Organ- 
ized at St. Louis in 1878, an outgrowth of 
the Order of Mutual Aid, and incorporated 
under the laws of the State of Missouri. 
Men and women between eighteen and fifty 
years of age, in good health, not engaged in 
hazardous occupations, are eligible to mem- 
bership. Members enjoy the social privi- 
leges of Lodge rooms, the moral and social 
advancement, and the encouragement in 
business to which they are entitled under 
the " laws and bonds of mutual assistance." 



Death benefit certificates of $500, 11,000, and 
13,000 are issued, except to women and to 
saloon keepers, who are restricted to $1,000. 
At total disability a member is entitled to 
one-half the amount of his or her certificate, 
and on reaching the age of seventy years, 
the whole amount. Sick benefits are paid 
in the discretion of subordinate Lodges. No 
Lodges are established in the Southern States, 
excepting the two Virginias, Maryland, in 
Kentucky, and in the District of Columbia. 
The government of the Order is vested in 
a Supreme Lodge composed of representa- 
tives of subordinate Lodges. Total mem- 
bership amounts to about 5,000, and about 
1600,000 has been paid in sick, disability, 
and death benefits. The ritual embodies 
features found in the secret work of many 
similar organizations. The office of the Su- 
preme Secretary is at Chicago. 

Order of Mogullians. — A "side de- 
gree " of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen. (See the latter.) 

Order of Odd Ladies. — A New Eng- 
land mutual benefit, assessment society mani- 
festly named in imitation of the Odd Fellows. 
No replies have been received to inquiries. 

Order of Protestant Knights. — De- 
scribed in the census of 1890 as a mutual 
assessment beneficiary organization, with the 
office of the Secretary at Buffalo, N. Y. 
Not known there now. 

Order of Shepherds of Bethlehem. — 
Organized "in America," November 19, 
189G, by Ira A. M. Wycoff, at Trenton, 
N. J., a sick and funeral benefit association 
to which men and women between eighteen 
and fifty-five years of age are eligible. Its 
membership is about 2,000. The Order is 
evidently drawn from the same source as the 
Order of the Star of Bethlehem, an outline 
of which is given in connection herewith. 
Compare the latter with the following ex- 
tract from the " History of the Order of the 
Shepherds of Bethlehem " : 

In 1875 a prominent officer named Sir Fred Holt 
came to New York and started two Lodges, which 
grew nicely until Sir Holt's duties as Scribe of the 



ORDER OF THE GOLDEN CHAIN 



175 



Sovereign Lodge called him to Europe, -when they 
quarrelled, and under a strange name ran on for a 
time, and died out, with the exception of a few small 
Western Lodges that had their start from them and 
drifted into another snuiU Order not connected with 
this.* The eJTort was ill-advised, witii no good re- 
sults. The next person who took up t he matter was 
a popular antiquarian who went to the Holy Land 
to study the Order among the shepherds as it origi- 
nally existed and is now in the home of these 
jincient people of the Holy Land. lie learned all 
the old legends and methods of the Order, and on 
his return presented tlie Order in the thoroughly 
original form, translated and put in modern shape. 
By special arrangement the Supreme Lodge of 
Nortli America was formed in 189G, and instructed 
in the beautiful ceremonies of this old and won- 
drous Order. The Supreme Lodge of North Amer- 
ica, by authority of the Sovereign Lodge, is supreme 
authority in North America. 

There are marked similarities between the 
two Orders of Bethlehemites, notably the 
provision that membership does not lapse in 
either for non-payment of dues, except so 
far as the right to share in benefits is con- 
cerned, and the custom of addressing mem- 
bers by the titles Sir and Lady. The rit- 
ualistic ceremonies of the Shepherds of 
Bethlehem are declared to be beautiful and 
elevating. The first degree is entitled that 
of Light, the second the ShephercVs, and the 
third the Disciple's degree. (Com2)are with 
Ancient Order of Shepherds, Order of the 
Star of Bethlehem, and Shepherds of Amer- 
ica.) When one reads in the leaflets of these 
/ Bethlehemite Orders that each "is without 
a doubt one of the oldest in the world, and 
was founded as an Order shortly after the 
birth of Christ, by the shepherds who 
watched over their flocks on that eventful 
night, when they were first chosen of God 
to hear of the birth of our Saviour and went 
at once to see and worship him," he is com- 
pelled to wonder at the audacity of the 
genealogist who constructed the society's 
family tree. 

Order of Sparta. — Organized by J. B. 
^Moffitt, "Robert A. Welsh, James ^IcConnell, 
Alexander J. McCleary, and William H. 

* Order of the Star of Bethlehem ? 



Smith, all of Philadelphia, in 1879, as a 
mutiud assessment, death benefit society. 
Its field is restricted to within one hundred 
miles of Philadelphia. The founders were 
all members of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, who souglit to establish a com- 
pact secret society with the one-dollar assess- 
ment of the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men. They confined membership to men 
between twenty-one and fifty years of age, 
of good physical health, " believers in the 
Christian faith.'' Its ritual is founded on 
the history of ancient Sparta, thus parallel- 
ing the English Order of Ancient Eomans 
in its search for a new source for its rites 
and ceremonies, and the (American) Order 
of Heptasophs, or Seven Wise j\Ien. The 
Order is managed conservatively, and has 
an invested permanent fund with which to 
pay the assessments of those who may re- 
tain their membership twenty-five years, 
and a relief fund with which to pay the 
assessments of members who through sick- 
ness or financial disability may be unable 
to pay them. This is done to keep worthy 
distressed members in good standing, and is 
accomplished " without the general knoAvl- 
edge of the organization." The total 
amount of benefits paid exceeds $1,000,000. 
The Order is governed by a Great Senate 
which exercises jurisdiction over tlie subordi- 
nate Senates. Its 7,000 members are drawn 
largely from the mercantile and professional 
walks of life, although nearly all trades are 
represented. The seat of the Great Senate 
contains a representation of a shield upon 
which is a sword and the words, '' With it 
or upon it." 

Order of the Black Kiiig^ht. — A Ger- 
man (Deutscher Orden Schwarze Ritter) 
secret, benevolent society. It claims an 
existence here of about thirty years. Its 
strength is principally in New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, New York, and District of Colum- 
bia. Like some other German Orders, it 
claims great antiquity. 

Order of tlie Goldi'u Chain. — Organ- 
ized at Baltimore, December 22, 1881, by 



176 



ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS, OR SEVEN WISE MEN 



members of the Knights of Honor, Royal 
Arcanum, American Legion of Honor, and 
the Masonic Fraternity, as a mutual assess- 
ment beneficiary society to which men be- 
tween twenty-one and fifty-one years of age 
are eligible. It insures the lives of mem- 
bers for $1,000, 12,000, or 13,000, besides 
which it pays sick and total disability bene- 
fits. It employs the popular step-rate 
graded system of assessments, and enjoys 
the enviable record of having paid out more 
than $1,600,000 to beneficiaries since organ- 
ization at an average annual cost to those 
insured of about 18 per $1,000. The total 
membership is about 11,000, and is steadily 
increasing. The ritual seeks to exemplify 
the meaning of the golden chain of friend- 
ship, which, represented by twelve links of 
a chain surrounding a monogram comjDOsed 
of the letters 0. G. C. and the motto of the 
Order in Greek, constitute the emblem of 
the society. The Order is incorporated 
under the laws of the State of Maryland, 
with its headquarters at Baltimore, and is a 
worthy sister of similar organizations which 
have had their origin in that city. 

Oi'der of the Heptasoplis, or Seven 
Wise Men. — This is one of the oldest 
benevolent, secret organizations in the 
country, and possesses the attractively mys- 
tical title of the Order of the Heptasoplis, 
or Seven Wise Men. It is far from being 
among the larger societies with similar 
aims, numbering only about 4,000 mem- 
bers in eighteen States. This is all the 
more curious when one recalls that it is 
nearly half a century old, and possesses an 
elaborate and exceptionally beautiful ritual, 
based upon some of the ancient mysticism 
which, in j^art, had remained unapiarojDri- 
ated by older and better known secret 
societies. The organization was originally 
called The Seven Wise Men, but the title 
was changed to its present form, because 
of *'the higher excellence " impressed upon 
its ritual "by the Hellenic mind,'' the 
term " Heptasophs " being derived from the 
Greek Hepta, seven, and Sophos, wise. The 



Order gives no adherence to any religious 
creed, but requires from its candidates the 
jirofession of a belief in a Supreme Being. 
It bears aloft the motto, ''In God We Trust," 
admitting to its mysteries both the Jew 
and the Christian on the common ground of 
mutual dependence and universal brother- 
hood under the Fatherhood of God. To 
this end it inculcates the principles of 
''Wisdom, Truth, and Benevolence." The 
earlier official history of the Order, as may 
have been antici2:>ated, carried the inspira- 
tion of the society back to the Persian 
Magi, or Seven Wise Men, the initials of 
the original title being given in this form, 
S. •. W. M. •., the missing letters being 
represented by seven dots. In the precise 
form in which the Order "now exists in 
America," strict succession in ritual, for- 
mulge, etc., from the Persian Magi was not 
claimed. " In the transfer from Persia to 
Greece, from Greece to Rome, from Rome 
to Britain and to the Western world, it was 
admitted that certain changes had doubt- 
less been made in the course of adaptation 
to races, times, civilizations, and forms of 
government ; " but its legends, traditions, 
and teachings were claimed to be " as true 
to the ancient tyj^e as are those of its sister 
societies to their venerable predecessors." 
The original story ran, that the Order of 
the Seven Wise Men was " introduced into 
the United States" at New Orleans, La., 
April 6, 1852 ; that in June of that year 
the Grand Conclave of Louisiana was or- 
ganized, and that in 1854 it was incorpo- 
rated. It was not stated whence the Order 
came, or who brought it to New Orleans. 
The society was, however, established at the 
Crescent City, and a Supreme Conclave was 
organized in 1857, in which year the latter 
was said to have held its first " communi- 
cation." This body was and is the Su- 
preme legislative and governing authority 
of the Order. The admission in printed 
proceedings that the Supreme Conclave 
established the " ritual, regalia, and work- 
ing paraphernalia now in use," evidently 



ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS. OR SEVEN WISE MEN 



177 



appealed to later chroniclers, for they have 
since admitted that the Order "had its 
origin in the city of New Orleans." When 
one recalls the period of Jewish history 
which led np to and witnessed the comple- 
tion and dedication of King Solomon's tem- 
ple, with which the Fraternity of Free and 
Accepted Masons link so many of their tra- 
ditions ; the story of David and Jonathan, 
concerning which the ritual of Odd Fel- 
lowship has much to say ; the friendship 
of Damon and Pythias, which is so closely 
identified with the ceremonials of the 
Knights of Pythias ; the legends of Eobin 
Hood and his Merrie Men, which have been 
appropriated by the Foresters ; the man- 
ners and customs of the American Indians, 
which are being preserved by the Improved 
Order of Red Men ; and the struggles by 
the various Orders of ancient Knighthood to 
preserve the Holy Land from defilement at 
the hand of the Infidel, which have given us 
the Masonic Knights Templars, and various 
other secret Orders of Knighthood ; Avhen 
one contemplates not only this vast amount 
of material in the hands of modern secret 
society ritualists, but the use of Druidic 
lore by modern Orders of Druids, legends 
of ancient Shepherdry by existing secret 
societies of shepherds, the symbols of wood- 
craft by Modern Woodmen, and of other 
and like quarrying for material on Avhicli 
to build fraternal and beneficiary secret 
organizations, then the antiquity, the ap- 
propriateness, the beauty, and the mystical 
character of the groundwork of the ritual 
of the Order of the Heptasophs challenges 
attention. The Heptasophs declared that 
" the earliest traces of the Order defy 
chronology, reaching far back into the 
twilight of legend and tradition clustering 
about the Magi of the East, which ante- 
date the Druids of Gaul and Britain, and 
probably the Masons who existed in Judea." 
The first alleged ''^ authentic history" of 
the Seven Wise Men is so ingenious and in- 
teresting as to merit a permanent record. 
It takes the Order back to the period llO-l 
13 



B.C., and couples it with the name of the 
first Zoroaster, who is said to have been the 
head of the Magi of Persia at that time. 

From these Magi, Persian kings iuid to receive 
instructions in the art of reigning and in worship 
before they could come to the throne, and from the 
most ilhistrious of their niunbers the king had to 
select six wise men as counsellors, who, together 
with the monarch, constituted the celebrated coun- 
cil of seven. In a subterranean cavern, beneath 
the royal palace at Ispahan, the capital of Persia, 
was the only spot where it was lawful to impart the 
most occult mysteries of the seven, and to which 
the heir of the throne was only admitted for merit 
and not of right. For many centuries the pliiloso- 
pliy of tlie Seven Wise Men formed the basis of the 
polity of the Persian dynasty, and without whose 
advice the king on the throne determined no im- 
portant matter. As one among many evidences of 
this, we refer to the language of Feridon (200 years 
B.C.), who, under the advice and guidance of the 
seven, after twenty years of exile with them, suc- 
cessfully revolted against Zohak, the usurper, and 
came in triumph to the throne of his fathers. He 
said (referring to the S. *. W. M.\) : "Have they 
not for centuries been the advisers and counsellors 
of the mighty rulers of this spacious realm ?" 
Firdisi, the eminent Persian historian, records that 
in the time of the illustrious King Kayomers, who 
reigned 900 years before Christ, the council of 
seven were styled by the grateful people " the 
earliest distributors of justice." On his deathbed 
this great ruler exhorted his son and heir to the 
throne to adhere to the teachings of the Seven Wise 
iMen, which was religiously done by him and his 
sons after him, until the dynasty of the Kayomers 
came to be called Pashdaidans, which means dis- 
tributors of justice. It appears that about a.d. 
638, Yezdefird, King of Persia, was conquered by 
Mohammed, then styled ''Camel Driver of Mecca," 
and with his downfall perished the influence of the 
Seven Wise Men in the national affairs of Persia. 
They, however, left the impress of their philosophy 
and wisdom upon the history of that country run- 
ning through a succession of centuries, rendering 
their kingdom glorious and its subjects happy by 
(heir devotion to justice and the inculcation of 
Wisdom, Truth, and Benevolence long before the 
brighter and grander glories of Greece dawned. 

This brought the Order down to the 
golden era of Greece, from whence ''the 
transfers ... to Rome, from Rome to 
l^ritain and the Western world " were pre- 
sumed to follow. It might prove interesting 



178 



ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS, OR SEVEN WISE MEX 



to speculate on the possibility of the 
mysteries of the Seven AVise Men of old 
having been carried from Rome by means 
of the workingmen's guilds of the early 
and middle ages to England, as an inner 
circle or cult, in the recesses, as it were, 
of ancient craft Masonry, which, some have 
declared, crossed Europe in that manner. 
Be that as it may, the original Seven Wise 
Men in America builded beautifully and 
well from a ritualistic point of view. That 
their ceremonials and ritual did not imbibe 
Freemasonry from Masonic guardians and 
protectors on a secret journey from Persia 
to Greece, through Italy and iiortli to Eng- 
land, but acquired it at New Orleans, where 
the Society was formed, may be accepted 
as a fact.* That it did acquire Masonic 
traditions and symbols is in part shown in 
its seven-pointed star enclosing a seven- 
branched candlestick, the All-Seeing Eye, 
the ark and the altar, its groups of seven, 
the adoption of a three-word motto, and 
other features. Efforts to learn more of 
the origin of the Order than its officials 
could furnish have been fairly successful. 
The early history of modern secret societies 
has too frequently been fragmentary be- 
cause of lack of interest in compiling, or 
care in preserving, records. An examina- 
tion of the "Greek letter," or college 
secret society system, reveals the Mystical 

* In a letter from George W. "Wright, Supreme 
Secretary, S.". W. M.'., Xovember 30, 1896, it is 
stated : " The Order was founded at Xew Orleans, 
April 6, 1852, by Alexander Leonard Saunders, a 
resident of that city, and prominent Freemasons, 
among the earlier members being ex-governors, 
ex-mayors, etc." In 1855 Mr. Saunders " moved to 
Paducah, Ky., where his son published a newspa- 
per. It was understood that he died in New York 
city in 1869." Members of the Order tell that some 
of its ceremonials are based on Grecian liistory. 
This impress of "Hellenic influence" is natural 
when a connection between this society and the 
college fraternity M'orld is contemplateel. The 
ritual of the Mystical Seven includes strikingly 
original featui-es with traces of Scottish Rite Free- 
masonry, which rank it among the first of such 
productions by American college fraternities. 



Seven as unique among college fraterni- 
ties, in that it was not given a Greek letter 
title. It was organized at Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, Middletown, Conn., in 1837, by 
Hamilton Brewer, uncle of Judge Brewer 
of the United States Supreme Court, fif- 
teen years prior to the appearance of the 
Seven Wise Men at New Orleans. Its 
chajDters were called temples, and named 
after its emblems. The Wesleyan Temple 
was the " Wand ; "' that at Emory College, 
Georgia, where it was taken in 1841, was 
" Skull and Bones ; '' and that at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, where it was established 
in 1844, the " Skull.'' In all, there were 
ten Temples, eight of them in the South, 
two being at colleges in Georgia, and one 
each in Mississippi (1857), Louisiana (1857), 
Tennessee (1867), and Virginia (1867). 
Temples were also placed at two colleges 
in North Carolina as late as 1884. Thus, 
out of eight Southern Temples, two — those 
at Emory College, Oxford, Ga., and the 
University of Georgia, Athens — were es- 
tablished, respectively, eleven and eight 
years prior to the introduction or founding 
of the Seven Wise Men at New Orleans in 
1852. The mother Temple, at Wesleyan, 
became dormant in 1861, but was revived 
some years later as a local senior society. 
With other surviving Temples it united in 
1887 with and became absorbed by the 
widespread college secret society. Beta 
Theta Pi. The significance of this refer- 
ence to the first college secret society to be 
established in tlie Soutli * is due merely to 
two of its Temples having been j^laced in 
Georgia some years prior to the establish- 
ment of the Seven Wise Men at New 
Orleans and the strength of the society 
haying been largely at the South. Baird, 
the author of " American College Fraterni- 
ties,'' says of the Mystical Seven : 

The customs of the Fraternity were quaint and 
interesting. Much is made of the number "7," 
and the membership in each Cliapter was for many 

* Baird's American College Fraternities, New 
York, 4tli edition, p. 60. 



ORDER OF THE HEPTASOPHS, OR SEVEN WISE MEN 



179 



years retained at that figure, or a multiple of it. 
The badge of the Fraternity is a seven-pointed 
star, each point containing a Hebrew letter ; within 
the centre field of the star is displayed a caiddron 
and ladle over a bundle of burning faggots, encir- 
cled by a snake. The color of the J^raternity is 
white, and each Chapter was assigned one of the 
primary colors." ^ 

The conclusion is, therefore, suggested 
tliat graduate or other members of tlic 
Mystical Seven, or of the Rainbow Society, 
a college society originating at Oxford, 
Miss., in 1848, and strongly resembling the 
Mystical Seven, were, in whole or in part, 
responsible for the birth of the Seven Wise 
Men, especially when secret and jiublic 
characteristics of the two societies are 
found to have had so much in common. 
Even the Greek letter nomenclature of 
various subordinate bodies is or has been 
similar in both organizations. It was the 
" Zeta " Conclave of the Heptasophs, or 
Seven Wise Men, in Baltimore, from which 
sprung the Improved Order of Heptasophs 
in 1878. It is unnecessary to explain why 
resemblances of the ritual of the Mystical 
Seven (now incorporated within the Beta 
Theta Pi) to that of the Heptasophs, or 
Seven Wise Men, cannot be given at length ; 
but they leave little room for doubt that 
the benevolent, and afterward beneficiary, 
secret society, the Heptasophs or Seven 
Wise Men, of 1852, is an indirect de- 
scendant of the Mystical Seven college fra- 
ternity, founded in 1837. During the 
period 1830-1840 the birth and growth of 
college and other secret societies were no- 
ticeable, due in part to the reaction which 
followed the anti-Masonic agitation. The 
latter brought before the public, as never 
before, the whole subject of secret societies, 
their ceremonials and objects, with the re- 
sult that much not secret, but which had 
not been discussed out of Lodge rooms, 
found its way into daily papers, almanacs, 
pamphlets, and other publications, late in 
the second and early in the third decade 
of this century. When the storm raised 
by the ''good enough Morgan until after 



election " blew over, there was a reaction. 
At Hamilton College, N. Y., in 1832, the 
Alpha Delta Phi was born, one of the first 
of the great college fraternities, and in the 
same year, at Yale College, Skull and 
Bones, the famous local senior society, first 
saw the light ; Psi Upsilon made its ap- 
pearance in 1833, at Union College, stimu- 
lated by a desire to rival Kappa Alpha, 
Sigma Phi, and Delta Phi, which had been 
founded there seven or eight years before, 
after which the Mystical Seven appeared 
at Wesleyan, with a ritual, as explained, 
having distinct Masonic thumb-marks.* 
It was about this period, also, that tlie 
Ancient Order of Foresters was introduced 
into the United States from England, and 
that the Improved Order of Red Afen, of 
distinctly American origin, was revived 
and entered on a career of prolonged pros- 
perity. Coincident with these evidences 
of appropriation of the secret society idea 
by the general jiublic as well as by college 
students, the Freemasons and the Odd 
Fellows were enjoying seasons of renewed 
interest and rapidly increasing member- 
shij). It was on this wave that the Mysti- 
cal Seven floated out to sea, and from it 
undoubtedly arose, substantially as out- 
lined, the Seven Wise Men, afterwards re- 
christened Order of the Heptasophs, or 
Seven Wise Men, the first general secret 
society, so far as learned, to find its origin 
in one of the American college fraternities. 
Several of the larger and better known col- 
lege secret societies have found their inspi- 
ration in, or have been established by Free- 
masons, Odd Fellows, Foresters, and other 
general fraternities ; but the springing of 
the Seven AVise Men from the Mystical 
Seven, which fact is, apparently, known to 
or ajipreciated by few, if any, of its living 
members, marks the incident as unique 
and warrants the space given it. The 
earlier growth of the Heptasojihs, or Seven 

* This could be made plain to any "mystic" 
who is also a Scottish Rite Freemason, S.'. P.". 
R.-. S.-. 



180 



ORDER OF THE IROQUOIS 



Wise Men, was principally in the Southern 
States, and at the outbreak of the Civil 
War it naturally lost many of its members 
and much of its influence. It liad always 
been conservative, and little effort had been 
made to carry it north, east, or west. Its 
ritualistic work now consists of an intro- 
ductony degree, with beautiful scenes and 
impressive ceremonies, designed to teach 
due reverence for the Supreme Archon of 
the Universe and the beauties of a blame- 
less life, whicli " never fails to make a last- 
ing impression on the initiates,'' and three 
additional degrees, emblematic of the vicis- 
situdes encountered in pursuing the course 
of duty. To satisfy the modern demand 
for a military feature, a uniformed rank has 
been introduced, but membership in it is 
not compulsory. The life insurance branch 
was established in 1880. It is called the 
endowment rank, and is composed of 
members in good standing who desire to 
join and can pass the medical examination. 
The amount paid beneficiaries is 1300, and 
the total membership is about 1,000. The 
Order has also established what is known as 
the Heptasophian Mutual Benefit Fund, to 
give aid to widows, heirs, or assignees of 
deceased members to the amount of $500, 
the management being in the hands of a 
Board of Directors formed of officers of 
the Supreme Conclave. Wives of members 
are also eligible to membership in the Fund, 
which is met by an assessment of twenty- 
five cents. 

Membership in the Order is limited to 
white men of good moral character, be- 
lievers in a Supreme Being, 2:)ossessed of 
some known reputable means of support, 
free from any mental or physical infirmity, 
and having sufficient education to sign 
their own applications for membership. 
No person under eighteen years of age can 
be admitted. Each Conclave is allowed to 
determine the maximum age of applicants. 
There is no auxiliary branch for women. 
The organization of the society is similar 
to that of other well-known like societies. 



consisting of Subordinate Conclaves acting 
under charters issued by Grand Conclaves, 
or by the Supreme Conclave when in 
territory where Grand Conclaves have not 
been formed. Grand (State) Conclaves 
are composed of Past Archons (presiding 
and former presiding officers) of subordi- 
nate Conclaves, and the Supreme Conclave is 
made up of Past Grand Archons. After the 
conclusion of the Civil War the Order began 
to grow again, and early in the seventies took 
on something like a rapid increase of mem- 
bership. In 1872 it provided that Conclaves 
might arrange to pay benefits at option. 
Prior to that year the Order had been 
benevolent rather than beneficiary, and its 
membership had remained small. Its total 
of about 4,000 members, within a year or 
two, is the largest in its history. The busi- 
ness depression (1873 to 1879) checked its 
growth, after which a movement gained 
headway in favor of a j^lan for the general 
payment of death benefits. This excited 
opposition, and a number of brethren of 
Zeta Conclave, Baltimore, becoming dis- 
satisfied with a decision of the Supreme 
Conclave, the result was a schism, a number 
of members leaving in 1878 to found the 
Improved Order of Heptasophs. The an- 
tagonism between the two Orders was con- 
spicuous for a few years, but gradually died 
out. The parent society has continued its 
way conservatively, but, as explained, has 
vindicated the position of some of its former 
members by adopting, in 1880, the system of 
payment of death benefits by means of 
assessments. While its membership is not 
as large as that of its offspring, its paths 
are those of peace, and its prosperity is 
attested by the loyalty of its members. 

Order of the Iroquois. — Organized June 
26, 1896, by some of the representative 
citizens of Buffalo, N. Y., among them Dr. 
Ernest Wende, Health Commissioner ; C. 
Lee Abell ; Walter A. Eice, its Supreme 
Secretary ; D. Clark Kalph, and others, a 
fraternal beneficiary society for men only, 
the ritualistic work of which seeks to 



ORDER OF SELECT FRIENDS 



181 



perpetuate tlie name and fame of tlic Iro- 
quois Confederation, so intimately associ- 
ated with the early history of the country. 
What the Improved Order of Red Men have 
done for the Delaware Tribe the Lenni 
Lenape, the Order of the Iroquois seeks 
to do for the Tribe from which it takes 
its name. The society, wliilo distinctly 
patriotic in its teachings, demands no 
religions or political tests from those who 
seek to join it. The prospectus of the 
Order bears upon the title page a cut of the 
noted Indian chief and orator. Red Jacket, 
who was one of the most conspicuous 
figures in the Iroquois Confederation. 
The cut of Red Jacket is also used as the 
design of the Supreme Lodge Seal and for 
gold buttons worn by members. The bene- 
ficiary department presents a plan that is 
easy to understand. Its feature is a table 
of certificates graded according to ages. 
Only men between the ages of twenty and 
fifty-five are admitted to membership. 
The average benefit certificate is $1,500, 
and all members pay regular dues of II per 
month, or $12 per annum. 

Another feature is the accumulation of a 
reserve fund for the payment of benefits 
in case of necessity. The name of John 
E. Pound, Past Snpreme Regent of the 
Royal Arcannm, is at the head of the 
charter list of the Order of the Iroquois. 
The government of the Order is based* 
upon that of local, or subordinate Lodges ; 
State, or Grand Lodges and a national, 
or Supreme Lodge. The first Lodge was 
organized with over one hundred charter 
members, and is known as Red Jacket, 
No. 1. In the first eight months the 
Order received over 500 applications for 
membership. 

Order of Red Cross and Kiiigrhts of 
the Red Cross. — Usually referred to as 
Knights of the Red Cross, founded in 
1879 by memJaers of the Ancient Order of 
United AVorkmen and other similar so- 
cieties as a fraternal beneficiary organiza- 
tion, having for its fundamental principle. 



charity, and for its motto, "Omnia pro 
Caritate." Its ritual .is based on Biblical 
incidents, and from the fact that both men 
and women are admitted as members, it 
may be inferred that its title constitutes 
about all the similarity there is between its 
ritual and rituals of Masonic and other Or- 
ders of the Red Cross. It pays death bene- 
fits and numbers about 7,000 members, most 
of Avliich are residents of central Western 
States. More than $200,000 has been 
paid to beneficiaries since the society M'as 
founded. The emblem is as pretentious as 
those of some older and better known 
Orders of the Red Cross, consisting of a 
red Greek cross surmounted by a crown, 
a white five-pointed star in the centre, with 
the motto of the Order on a blue band en- 
circling it. The similarity between this 
design and the emblem of the Order of the 
Golden Cross, a like organization, founded 
by Freemasons in 187G, is suggestive, but 
no particulars are at hand to show a direct 
relationship. 

Order of Select Friends. — One of the 
several fraternal beneficiary Orders of 
" Friends," inspired, directly or otherwise, 
by the Order of Chosen Friends. It was 
organized in Kansas in 1888 and incor- 
])orated under the laws of that State, to do 
a fraternal insurance business in all States, 
except those subject to yellow fever epi- 
demic. It issues death benefit certificates 
for $1,000, $2,000, or $3,000 ; pays sick, 
disability, and old age benefits ; and admits 
men and women between eighteen and fifty 
years of age to membership on equal terms. 
Followers of certain extra hazardous occu- 
pations are not eligil)]e to mem])ership. 
Subordinate Lodges are governed direct by 
the Supreme Lodge. Assessments to meet 
death benefits are graded according to age 
at time of joining (thirty-five cents per 
$1,000 at eighteen years of age, and seventy- 
five cents at fifty years), and are not in- 
creased with advancing years. The Order 
has paid over $200,000 to beneficiaries since 
it was founded. Its motto is " Friendship, 



182 



ORDER OF THE SANHEDRIM 



Hope, and Protection." The total mem- 
bersliip is over 5,0Q0, relatively the larger 
proportion being in Kansas. (See Order of 
Chosen Friends.) 

Order of the Sauhedrim. — Organized 
at Detroit, July 2G, 1887. A beneficiary 
society of members of the press and others 
in Michigan and elsewhere. It is divided 
into Priests, Elders, and Scribes, together 
with ''one who sits in Moses' seat." The 
National Sanhedrim is the governing body. 
There are also State Sanhedrims and sub- 
ordinate or little Sanhedrims. 

Order of the Star of Bethlehem.— 
'' Permanently established '' in America in 
1869, where it was introduced into New 
York and Pennsylvania, according to its 
official legend, by Albert Gross of New- 
castle-on-Tyne, England. At that period 
it was known as the Knights of the Star of 
Bethlehem. The Grand Commandery of 
Pennsylvania was instituted in 1870, and 
the Eminent Grand Commandery of North 
America in 1871. The Order prospered for 
several years, but fell behind in membership 
between 1878 and 1884, when an entire 
change was made in the officers, and the so- 
ciety reincorporated under its present title. 
The headquarters are at Detroit, in which 
city there are sixteen Lodges of the Order. 
It exists in nineteen States of the Union 
and reports a total membership of more 
than seventeen thousand men and women. 
The objects of the society are to unite ac- 
ceptable men and women who are respec- 
tively eighteen and sixteen years of age or 
over, and believers in a Supreme Being, in 
social and fraternal bonds, to "perpetuate 
the traditions of the Order;" pay death, 
sick, accident, and disability benefits ; to 
defend the life, limb, and reputation of 
members from unjust assault ; and to assist 
members to obtain employment and to 
settle disputes by arbitration. Members 
in arrears for dues lose the right to speak 
and vote at meetings, and forfeit pecuniary 
benefits, but are not debarred from the 
social advantages of Lodge meetings. " The 



government of the Order in America" con- 
sists of the Eminent Grand Commandery, 
Grand Councils, Uniformed Conclaves, and 
Subordinate Lodges. Some of the official 
history of the organization, prior to its 
introduction into the United States, par- 
ticularly the more recent portion of it, is 
probably founded on fact. Much of it, 
particularly that which reaches far back 
into the distant past, would seem to rank 
with traditions once current, which brought 
Entered Apprentices, Fellowcrafts, and 
Master Masons in Masonic Lodges, organ- 
ized as at present, in an unbroken line 
down to to-day, from the building of King 
Solomon's temple. 

The story of the Bethlehemites, much 
abridged, states that it is '"'believed to have 
been originated in the first century of the 
Christian era," exact date unknown, '''as 
all records prior to the thirteenth century 
have been entirely destroyed." In the 
thirteenth century, we are told, '"it was an 
order of monks called the Bethlehemites, 
who dressed like the Dominicans, and 
wore a five-pointed star on the left breast," 
. . . ''.in commemoration of the star that 
shone over Bethlehem," etc. "In the 
fourteenth century it was a powerful Order 
in England," and during the next two hun- 
dred years " seems to have consisted of two 
branches, the Monastic and the Knightly," 
evidences of which, it is declared, appear in 
the ritualistic work in use to-day. It seems 
unfortunate that the expression, " Star of 
Bethlehem tradition informs us," or some- 
thing similar, is not prefixed to the histori- 
cal revelations made. It is probably true 
that " the time when the Order in France 
and Spain ceased to be purely Monastic, 
and became a semi-military organization^ 
will never be known." Other extracts in- 
clude those which identify the Order with 
the AYaldenses in 1260, and state that 
many of the persecuted meinbers of the 
Order of the Temple, after its destruction 
by Clement v., in 1313, " united with other 
Orders;" "that there are good reasons 



ORDER OF rXITED COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS OF AMERICA 



183 



for believing that quite a number united 
with the Bethlehemites, or Kniglits of the 
Star of Bethlehem." What the "good 
reasons are " is left to conjecture, which is 
to be regretted when one realizes this new 
complication jDut upon the various theories 
which have been advanced to show a con- 
nection between the Knights Templars of 
to-day and their fraters who were person- 
ally acquainted with Jacques de Molay, 
Godfrey de Bouillon, and the rest. The 
Bethlehemite legend also relates that the 
Knights of Bethlehem (Equites Bethlehe- 
mensis) were placed under the ban of the 
Inquisition at Salamanca in 1359 ; that 
the Order was introduced into France by 
Sir Jean Lodet, in 1470, where it was exter- 
minated by the massacre of 1572, and that 
it was brought to England from Spain, about 
1473, by George Henry Percy. Nothing was 
heard of it there, however, '' until 1571," 
by which time the Monastic and Knightly 
branches "had united and become a benevo- 
lent and scientific Order." Here there is 
a gap of 180 years, when it is related that 
Sir Henry Seymour succeeded Sir Herman 
Oviedio as Grand Commander, and after 
him others at reasonably short intervals. 
As women Avere admitted to some com- 
manderies and not to others, a schism took 
place in 1813, the seceding party, presum- 
ably those who objected to women as 
members, " uniting with others at Leeds to 
form the ' Eoyal Foresters.' " This will in- 
terest the Ancient Order of Foresters, who 
omit all reference to this in their account of 
the origin of their society. By 1857 it is 
declared the Order was well established 
throughout England, Scotland, and North 
Ireland, but it declined in membership in 
later years, because each commandery was 
"made a Grand Commandery unto itself," 
and because, owing to the semi-religious 
character of the Order, it refused to be en- 
rolled under the friendly societies act. It 
is of interest to learn that the Knights of 
Bethlehem was first introduced into America 
in 1G91 by Giles Corey of London, during 



the war between England and France, but 
was suppressed by the colonial authorities ; 
and also that it was brought to New 
York city by John Bell in 1849 or 1850, 
who established several commanderies at 
that city in 1S51, which did not long sur- 
vive. A reference to the third and success- 
ful effort to bring this ancient society to 
America has been given. The ritual of the 
American branch is said to retain only the 
practical teachings on truth, fraternity, 
charity and the moral law, drawn from the 
ancient ritual. ; • 

There is an auxiliary society within the 
Order of the Star of Bethlehem, known as 
the Eastern Star Benevolent Fund of 
America, organized in 1893, designed to 
increase the pecuniary benefits available to 
members of the Order. Only members 
who have attained the Eastern Star degree 
may join it. (See Shepherds of Bethlehem 
and Shepherds of America.) 

Order of the Triang^le. — Registered in 
the United States census reports for 1890 as 
a mutual assessment beneficiary society, with 
headquarters in Brooklyn. Nothing is 
learned of it there to-day. 

Order of True Frieiid.s. — Organized at 
New York in 1886 to insure its members 
by means of mutual assessments. It paid 
death benefits of ^200, and weekly sick 
benefits of from 12.50 to 85.00. Letters 
addressed to it are unanswered. 

Order of United Coniiiiercial Trav- 
elers of America. — Organized at Colum- 
bus, 0., and incorporated September 25, 
1890, under the laws of the State of Ohio 
by John C. Fenimore, Levi C. Pease, S. H. 
Strayer, W. E. Carpenter. John Dickey, C. 
S. Ammel, F. A. Sells, and Charles B. 
Flagg to unite fraternally commercial trav- 
elers of good moral standing, to assist 
members and those depending on them, 
and to pay accident, sick, and death bene- 
fits. In case of sickness members receive 
$25 weekly for not to exceed fifty-two 
weeks, or during illness, and a like Aveekly 
benefit during disabilitv on account uf 



184 



ORDER OF UNITED FRIENDS 



accident. The sum of $5,000 is paid to bene- 
ficiaries of a deceased member. Tlie total 
membership of the Order is about 10,000. 
These indemnity features have been main- 
tained at an average cost to each member of 
$7 per annum. 

Order of United Friends. — Organized 
and incorporated in New York State in 
1881 by John C. Nott, Albany ; William 
H. Lee of Boston, Mass. ; A. A. Lamprey 
of Lawrence, Mass.; 0. M. Shedd of Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., and others. A secret fi-a- 
ternal beneficiary society, paying death and 
disability benefits. Men and women are 
eligible as members. The ritual is based on 
the teachings of the Golden Rule, and 
the motto is " Unity, Friendship, and Se- 
curity." This organization was the out- 
come of a schism in the Order of Chosen 
Friends, and numbers more than 20,000 
members. (See Order of Chosen Friends.) 

Order of United Fellowship. — Covered 
by the account of the Golden Rule Alliance. 

Order of Unity. — A mutual assessment 
beneficiary society, organized at Philadel- 
phia in 1889, by members of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, by Freemasons, 
Knights of Pythias, and others, for men 
and women, to secure the payment of $500 
and $1,000 death benefits and weekly sick 
and accident benefits ranging from 13.50 to 
130. It is among the smaller organizations 
of its class, numbering only about 2,500. 
Total benefits paid since 1889 amount to 
about $140,000. The Order is non-secta- 
rian, and through its ritual teaches strength 
in union, justice to all, and protection 
through fraternity. 

Patriarchal Circle of America. — Or- 
ganized at Milwaukee, Wis., in 1880, by 
Newell Daniels, General A. B. Myens, and 
six others, as a fraternal beneficiary society. 
It has 3,000 members and confers three de- 
grees : Preparatory, Perfection, and the Pa- 
triarchal Feast and Knighthood ; the first 
two written by Newell Daniels in 1893, and 
the last prepared by G. C. Ridings, the Su- 
preme Secretary. The work is largely mili- 



tary. The colors of the organization are 
royal purple and gold. It has its own tac- 
tics for drill and sword exercise, and fur- 
nishes life insurance to its members, based 
on mutual assessments. Each Temple es- 
tablishes sick and funeral benefits at its 
oj^tion. The principal emblem consists of 
three elongated links, connected so as to 
form a triangle, the words "Honesty, Frater- 
nity, and Fidelity " and a representation of 
a knight's helmet at the top. The auxil- 
iary for women is called the Circle of the 
Golden Band, Temples of which insure the 
lives of its members and establish funeral 
and sick benefits if they wish. This society 
was originally an organization of Odd Fel- 
lows, formed to confer " the new degrees 
for Uniformed Patriarchs." It was re]3u- 
diated by the Sovereign Grand Lodge of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in 
1885 but has continued to exist ever since in 
the State where founded. (See Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows.) 

Pennsylvania Order of Foresters. — 
See Foresters of America. 

Protected Fireside Circle. — Organized 
at Detroit, Mich. ; a social, beneficiary se- 
cret society for men and women. 

Protected Home Circle. — While in no 
way connected with the Home Circle of 
Massachusetts, the Protected Home Circle, 
organized at Sharon, Pa., in 1886, and 
chartered under the laws of Pennsylvania, 
presents a similarity in name and emblem, 
the latter being a monogram formed of 
the letters P, H, and C. As the first- 
named secret fraternal beneficiary associa- 
tion was formed seven years before the 
latter, the likenesses between them suggest 
and has been declared to amount to more 
than a coincidence. But it is certain that 
the Protected Home Circle resembles the 
older society in no other way except in 
that it has been successful and in that it, 
like its prototype, admits both men and 
women to membership. But it makes a 
radical departure in that, by placing twenty- 
five per cent, of all monthly assessments in 



ROYAL AID SOCIETY 



185 



a reserve fund, it maintains a fixed rate of 
payment and a definite number of assess- 
ments annually for each member. Those 
who join the society and preserve their 
standing and jiay all dues and assessments 
for five years may, at any time thereafter, 
take paid-up certificates for the amount 
whicli their respective portions of the re- 
serve fund warrant, and thereafter, by sim- 
ply keeping up the j)ayments of dues, be 
entitled to the amount of said certificates at 
death. Tlie society was founded by promi- 
nent members of the Equitable Aid Union, 
the National Union — both secret assessment 
beneficiary societies — and of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows, and possesses 
an instructive ritual based upon biblical 
teachings. It pays total and permanent 
disability benefits, death benefits ranging in 
six classes from $500 to $3,000, with pay- 
ments adjusted to age, rate, and risk. Its 
motto is " Safety, Economy, Fidelity, and 
Purity,'* and its jDrincipal emblem is the 
representation of an eagle perched on 
the edge of its nest, guarding its young. 
The fraternal obligations enjoined are cal- 
culated to form a real brotherhood, and its 
distinctive feature is. the requiring of a 
certain number of payments of a fixed 
amount so that each 2)erson becoming a 
member may compute the exact cost of his 
or her insurance for a given period. The 
funds are divided into four classes for 
the payment, respectively, of death and 
sick benefits, to provide for the regularity of 
assessments and for maintaining and con- 
ducting the organization. There is a haz- 
ardous and an extra-hazardous class of 
occupations, followers of which are eligible 
to membership at special rates. Subordi- 
nate bodies are called Circles, and the 
Order is governed by a Supreme Circle 
composed of the founders of the Society, 
otliers elected to the Supreme Circle, and 
representatives from subordinate Circles, as 
provided in the constitution. The total 
amount of death and sick benefits paid by 
the Protected Home Circle since its organi- 



zation is about $400,000, and its total 
membership is over 2,000. Its permanent 
headquarters is at Sharon, Pa., but its 
members are found as far west as Missouri 
and nortli as far as Miciiigan. 

Provideut League of Aniericu. — A 
Detroit assessment, mutual benefit Order, 
referred to in the census of 1890, but not 
known to the postal officials at Detroit to- 
day. 

Prudent Patricians of Pompeii of the 
United States of America. — Organized at 
Washington, J). C, under act of Congress, 
March 4, 1897, tlie first fratermil Ijeneficiary 
association so formed, by Dennis T. Flynn, 
delegate in Congress from Oklahoma ; Phi- 
lip Walker, Orand Vice-licgent of tlie Royal 
Arcanum ; George A. Reynolds, Grand 
Secretary of the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks ; W. J. Palmer, Past Noble 
Grand Manchester Unity, Independent Or- 
der of Odd Fellows, and others. Its objects 
are to provide for the payment of death 
benefits to white persons of both sexes on 
an immediate payment ])lan (the customary 
one), or an annuity payment plan, at the 
rate of ten per cent, annually ; to pay 
members a total and permanent disability 
benefit and also an old age benefit ; to 
educate members socially, morally, and in- 
tellectually ; to establish a bureau of infor- 
mation for members to aid them in obtain- 
ing employment, and to assist each other in 
business. Members who reach the age of 
seventy years are -to be free from assess- 
ments and receive ten per cent, of the face 
of certificates annually. The President of 
Prudent Patricians is W. S. Linton, Past 
Great Commander of the Knights of the 
Maccabees, of Michigan, and tlie oftico of 
its prothonotary is at Saginaw in that 
State. 

Royal Aid Society. — Organized at 
Lynn, Mass., early in 1896, to pay $1,000 
and $3,000 to beneficiaries of deceased 
members, and maintain the usual accom- 
panying social and fraternal features. It 
differs from most of the later societies of 



186 



ROYAL ARCANUM 



this character iu that it assesses members at 
a flat rate of 50 cents and $1 per thousand 
dollars of insurance at each death, instead 
of at the graded rate according to age, which 
the older and larger beneficiary fraternities 
have generally adopted. 

Royal Arcanum. — One of the largest 
fraternal mutual assessment, beneficiary, 
and benevolent secret societies in the 
United States, founded by Darius Wilson, 
C. K. Darling, W. 0. Eobson, E. M. Craw- 
ford, J. A. Oummings, G. W. Blish, W. 
Bradley, J. H. Wright, and J. M. Swain, 
of Boston and vicinity, in 1877, and incor- 
porated as the Supreme Council of the 
Royal Arcanum under the laws of the S"fi«te 
of Massachusetts. Several of the founders 
were members of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen and of the Knights of 
Honor and some were members of the 
Masonic Fraternity and of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows. The title of 
the society suggests a '''royal secret," and 
the secret is declared to be the method by 
which to obtain '^ fraternal society 'protec- 
tion ' at less cost than old line insurance 
companies furnish it." The Order owns a 
handsome building at Boston, where the 
Supreme or Governing Council meetings 
are held and where the general business of 
the organization is transacted. Subordinate 
Councils, which ai'e found throughout the 
States and Territories in the more healthful 
districts of the Union, are governed by 
Grand Councils, or by the Supreme Coun- 
cil when situated Avhere no Grand Councils 
exist, and the Supreme Council consists of 
its officers and representatives of Grand 
Councils. The Order is composed of ac- 
ceptable men between twenty-one ajid fifty- 
five years of age, and issues benefit certifi- 
cates for $1,500 and $3,000, payable at 
death. Starting with nine members in 
1877, its membership is now in excess of 
200,000, and it has paid out, in death ben- 
efits alone, more than 140,000,000. Subor- 
dinate Councils provide funds for the relief 
of sick or disabled members, and for the 



necessities of their families. The Supreme 
Council has charge of the Widows' and Or- 
phans' Benefit Fund, as the life insurance 
fund is called, which is collected by and 
paid out on order of subordinate Councils. 
The membership of the Order, while drawn 
nominally from all ranks of society, aver- 
ages higher than in many organizations 
and at most of the larger centres includes 
some of the best representatives of other 
fraternities, as well as of business, profes- 
sional and official life. Its chief emblem in- 
cludes a royal crown Avithin a circle, on the 
circumference of which are ten small Mal- 
tese crosses without notches. The motto 
of the Order is " Mercy, Virtue, and Char- 
ity," which is mystically referred to in a 
manner known only to members. 

The initiatory ceremony, which has been 
changed once or twice, is quite the reverse 
of that found in the American Legion of 
Honor, being an elaborate ceremonial 
" well calculated to impress " the meaning 
of the motto of the Order uj^on the minds 
of all novitiates, even though they have 
passed through the ordeals required by 
other secret societies. But the almost un- 
exampled jDrosperity of the Royal Arcanum 
in its fifth of a century of existence has 
not blinded its leaders to the necessity for 
remodelling its system of assessments, at 
one time the best among those employed 
by like societies and now among the most 
advanced. Signs of an increasing number 
of assessments appeared in 1896, and the 
necessary steps were taken to so adjust the 
method of collecting them as to continue 
the success and prosperity which for so 
many years marked the progress of the 
fraternity.* 

* The twenty-first anniversary of the society was 
signalized by radical action looking to the more 
efficient protection of its members. This was done 
by " discarding the old post-mortem system" ol 
assessments at deaths of members and establishing 
an emergency fund and " i^rOviding for the war 
hazard " by laying twenty-one assessments accord- 
ing to the existing scale. The twenty-one assess- 
ments are based on expert estimates of eighteen 



ROYAL LEAGUE 



187 



In order to enable members to increase 
the amount of their insurance, i>ractically 
within the ranks of the Order, the Loyal 
Additional Benefit Association was formed 
in 1889 and incorporated in 1890 under 
the laws of the State of New Jersey. 
Only members of the Royal Arcanum, 
after an additional medical examination, 
are eligible to join the Loyal Additional, 
which offers benefit certificates payable at 
death for 11,000 or $2,000 as preferred, 
and establishes funds for the relief of sick 
and distressed members. William E. Hal- 
lenbeck of Jersey City founded tlie Loyal 
Additional, which numbers more than 6,000 
members. The Association is not a com- 
petitor of the Royal Arcanum, but is its 
supplement. The Supreme Council of the 
Royal Arcanum, while not in any way con- 
nected with or responsible for the Asso- 
ciation, expressed its commendation at 
its session in Milwaukee, in 1890, of the 
motives that prompted the organization 
and extended to its promoters its praise 
and encouragement. 

Royal Conclave of Knights and La- 
dies. — See sketch of Golden Rule Alli- 
ance. 

Royal Fraternal Guardians. — Organ- 
ized at San Francisco in December, 1805, a 

assessments to meet current mortality within a 
year, one to cover war risk, and two assessments to 
establish an emergency fund. These assessments 
are collected in twelve equal amounts, thus making a 
regular monthly call. The new system was adopted 
at the annual session of the Supreme Council, held 
at Cleveland in 1898 and went into operation 
August 1st in that year. 

By the new plan, $3,000 protection at the age of 
twenty-one calls for an annual payment of, or 
twelve monthly payments amounting to, $21.12 ; at 
thirty-one years, $30.24; at forty-one, $45.36; at 
fifty, $68.40, and at fifty-nino years, $136.56. 
These rates promise to produce an emergency fund 
of about two-thirds of a million dollars annually. 
The Order is to be congratulated on the wise and 
conservative action it has taken, the significance of 
which lies in the fact that no similar organization 
of like age has so low a death rate or is transacting 
a like volume of business at so small an c.xihmisc. 



regular mutual assessment beneficiary so- 
ciety. 

Royal Fraternity, The. — Organized at 
Minneapolis, October 16, 1896, by N. W. 
Bloss, C. F. Underbill, H. AV. Hatch and 
others, to pay death and various other bene- 
fits. Women are not eligible to membership. 
The chief emblem is composed of three tri- 
angles forming a nine-pointed star, with 
other details understood only by members. 
In less than a year the society reported a 
total membership of 1,500. 

Royal Knights of King David. — Re- 
corded in the census of 1890 as a fraternal 
beneficiary society, but no evidence of its 
continued existence has been obtained. 

Royal League, The. — A glance at the 
chief emblem of this mutual assessment 
beneficiary fraternity suggests that it is an 
offspring of the Royal Arcanum, as it con- 
tinues the use of the word ''royal" in con- 
nection with the motto, '' Virtue, Mercy, 
and Charity." Inquiry corroborates this, the 
founders of the Royal League, at Chicago, 
in 1883, being members of the Royal Ar- 
canum. The former is incorporated under 
the laws of the State of Illinois, and its 
operation is confined to Ohio, Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and 
all the States and Territories west of the 
Mississippi River, north of the thirty-sixth 
parallel. It was evidently organized to 
introduce some modifications of the then 
exceptionally advanced method of coopera- 
tive life insurance employed by the Royal 
Arcanum, and bears practically the same 
relationshij-) to the latter as the Iowa Legion 
of Honor and the Northwestern Legion of 
Honor bear to the parent fraternity, the 
American Legion of Honor. The Royal 
League offers to unite acceptable men be- 
tween twenty-one and forty-six years of age 
to provide what it (and the Royal Arcaiuuu) 
calls a widow's and orphan's benefit fund, 
from which, at the death of members, to pay 
$2,000 or $4,000 to their families or depend- 
ents. The option of $-3,000 or $4,000 insur- 
ance (instead of $3,000 only) constitutes only 



188 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF GOOD FELLOWS 



one difference between the two fraternities, 
as the younger introduced a $50 and a $25 
week!}' benefit for permanent disability (to 
be deducted from the death benefit), to be 
paid at the request of the insured and the 
beneficiary, and it prohibited membershiiito 
followers of a long list of hazardous occupa- 
tions. Following in the footste2:)s of the 
Royal Arcanum, the League makes a feature 
of the social side of the organization, with 
the reading of papers, debates, and other 
entertainments. The government of the 
latter is vested in a Supreme Council, with 
Advisory Councils in States having the 
necessary membership. There were about 
14,000 members at the end of the thir- 
teenth year of the society's existence, 
during which period nearly 11,000,000 had 
been paid to beneficiaries. 

Royal Society of Good Fellows. — An 
incorporated fraternal assessment bene- 
ficiary society, organized on the lodge 
system in Ehode Island, in 1882, by mem- 
bers of the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, Royal Arcanum, Knights of Honor, the 
Masonic Fraternity, and the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. It admits men and 
women to membership and pays death and 
sick benefits. Its membership is principally 
in the New England and Middle States, and 
aggregates about 15,000. Within fifteen 
years it has paid nearly 13,000,000 to bene- 
ficiaries. The Good Fellows' emblem con- 
sists of the re^iresentation of a crown sur- 
mounted by a small Latin cross, the whole 
surrounded by a ring of twelve small tan- 
gent circles, in eleven of which are the 
letters forming the words " Good Fel- 
lows," and in the twelfth a five-pointed 
star. Tiie office of the Premier, as the 
chief executive officer is called, is in New 
York city. 

Royal Standard of America. — A mu- 
tual assessment beneficiary society, which 
may be addressed at Jersey City, N. J. 

Royal Tribe of Joseph. — Incorporated 
under the laws of the State of Missouri in 
April, 1894, as a fraternal beneficial so- 



ciety, with headquarters at Sedalia, in that 
State, by John N. Dalby, H. G. Clark, Ira 
T. Bronson, J. E. Ritchey, B. H. Ingram, 
E. C. Mason, Philip E. Chappell, R. S. C. 
Reaugh, August T. Fleischmann, E. E. 
Durand, Stephen Pirkey, and William H. 
Black. H. G. Clark, St. Louis, was Gen- 
eral Superintendent of the Missouri Pacific 
Railway ; Philip E. Chappell, Kansas City, 
had been State Treasurer of Missouri, and 
August T. Fleischmann of Sedalia was 
President of the Missouri State Board of 
Pharmacy. White men between twenty- 
one and sixty years of age, socially and 
otherwise acceptable, able to read and 
write, believers in a Supreme Being, not 
engaged in the manufacture of or traffic in 
alcoholic stimulants, who can pass the re- 
qiiired jihysical examination, are eligible 
to membership. It will accept railway 
engineers, firemen, freight conductors, ex- 
press messengers, yardmasters, and postal 
clerks, who are excluded from some similar 
societies, but railroad brakemeu and others 
engaged in extra-hazardous occupations 
are excluded. Beneficiary certificates are 
issued for $1,000 or 12,000 below the age 
of fifty ; for $1,000 between the ages of 
fifty and fifty-five, and $500 between the 
ages of fifty-five and sixty, thus permitting 
a person below fifty to carry $4,000 if de- 
sired ; below fifty-five, $2,000, and below 
sixty, $1,000. One-half the face of the 
certificate is payable in case of total dis- 
ability in ten annual installments. The 
payment of sick benefits is optional with 
subordinate Lodges. Death benefit certifi- 
cates may be taken out in either of two 
divisions. The first provides a graded rate, 
which increases with the age and risk of 
the member, and is payable in definite 
amounts each month. The other division 
permits a certificate being paid up at once, 
or in annual installments, during various 
periods, from one to twenty years. A cer- 
tificate in the latter class has a cash sur- 
render value, and is payable as disability 
benefit when a member reaches the asre of 



THE GRAND FRATERNITY 



189 



expectancy, or to his beneficiary at deatli 
prior to that period. 

This society operates in the United States 
and Canada, bnt not south of the southern 
line of the States of Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, and Missouri, nor in any district 
known to be unhealthful. Its form of gov- 
ernment is the usual one among like frater- 
nities, the laM'-making power resting in the 
Supreme Lodge, under which Grand (State) 
Lodges have jurisdiction over subordinate 
Lodges in particular districts. The cere- 
mony of initiation is confined to one degree 
and considerable ingenuity has been exer- 
cised to render it attractive and impressive. 
It is based on Pharaoh's dream, its inter- 
pretation by Joseph, and the measures taken 
to provide food for the residents of the land 
of Egypt in "the seven years in which there 
shall be no corn crops." Referring to this 
and to the biblical statement that " in all 
the land of Egypt there was bread," the 
Rev. T. De Witt Talnuige, in a sermon on 
*' Life Insurance," is quoted as saying " this 
was the first life insurance company ; " 
whence the suggestion of the ritual of the 
Royal Tribe of Joseph. The society has 
over 3,000 members. 

Seven Stars of Consolidation, The. — 
Organized at Ilearne, Tex., ten years ago, 
but not found there now ; beneficiary and 
fraternal in its features. 

Shield of Honor. — Organized at Balti- 
more in 18T7, by .John W. Mceks, W. J. 
Cunningham, and Henry Duvall. Cun- 
ningham was a Freemason and an Odd Fel- 
low. Acceptable white men are permitted 
to become members, to whom sick and death 
benefits are paid, the former through sub- 
ordinate Lodges, in such amounts as may be 
determined, and the latter through the Su- 
preme Lodge, for stated sums, to meet 
which the entire fraternity is assessed. 
Death and sick benefits paid during the 
past twenty years will exceed $500,000. 
The ritual is based on an incident in the 
life of a prominent character in the Old 
Testament, suggested by the swords and 



bow and arrow on an open Bible, which, 
with the hour-glass, form the seal of the 
society. The membership, which aggre- 
gates about 14,000, is relatively heavy in 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, most of the 
officers of the Supreme Lodge residing at 
Baltimore or Philadelphia. 

Snprenie Coniniandery of the Uni- 
ver.sal Brotherhood. — Founded by G. F. 
Bowles, at Natchez, Miss., as a secret 
beneficiary organization to pay sick, acci- 
dent, disability, old age, annuity, and death 
benefits. It is unique in that it contains 
members of both sexes, black and white. 
That an exemplification of the meaning of 
its title is possible is shown by a total mem- 
bership of about 9,000. The headquarters 
of the Order are at Natchez. 

Templars of Liberty. — An organiza- 
tion by this name, believed to have been 
beneficiary and patriotic in its objects, 
is known to have existed in Brooklyn and 
New York in recent years. 

The Grand Fraternity. — Organized at 
Philadelphia, in 1885, by Michael Nesbit 
of Philadelphia, Past Grand Master of Free- 
masons in Pennsylvania, member of the 
American Legion of Honor, Royal Arca- 
num, and Chosen Friends; Howard H.Morse 
of New York, also a member of the three 
beneficiary societies named ; W. J. Newton 
of Washington, D. C, Supreme Treasurer 
of the Chosen Friends, and Chester Brad- 
ford of Indianai:)olis, Ind., a Freemason 
and a member of the Knights of Honor, 
Royal Arcanum, and Chosen Friends ; a 
charitable and beneficiary society i)aying 
permanent disability, old age, and death 
benefits, and annuities, by means of mutual 
assessments. The system adopted is based 
upon that in use in Great Britain, and is 
designed to afford a protection to the family 
and support in old age. Men and women 
between eighteen and fifty-five years of age 
are admitted on equal terms. On the death 
of a male member, an annuity is paid his 
widow as long as she lives without remarry- 
ing ; if she marries again it goes to the 



190 



TRIBE OF BEN-HUR 



minor children until they become of age. 
On reaching the old age limit a member 
receives an annuity as long as he or she 
lives, and if permanently disabled prior to 
reaching the old age limit, a member be- 
comes entitled to a half-rate annuity until 
reaching the old age limit, when full annuity 
is paid. There are six classes of annuities, 
ranging from $100 to $600, on which 
monthly assessments are collected (until the 
old age limit or permanent disability inter- 
venes) of from fifty cents to $3, making the 
total annual assessments $6, $12, $18, $24, 
$30, and $36. The experience of the Fra- 
ternity during its first decade showed a 
total annual revenue of $30,000 per 1,000 
members, or enough to support seventy-five 
$400 annuitants. During the jieriod named, 
its death rate had been only four to 1,000, 
at which rate it would have required twenty 
years to produce the seventy-five annuitants, 
during which time the annual surpluses 
would go on accumulating at compound 
interest. The organization has not grown 
rapidly, numbering about 2,000 members, 
by far the larger proportion being men. 
Its ritual is not based upon any so-called 
mystery or historical incidents, the cere- 
monial being confined to an explanation of 
the principles upon which the society seeks 
to accomplish its objects. Its best known 
emblem is a four-leaf clover, with the let- 
ters composing the word "help" distrib- 
uted upon the leaves. The primary aim of 
the society is not to pay insurance at the 
death of a member, but to turn over an- 
nually during the lifetime, or the lifetime 
of relatives, what would amount to the 
earnings of a given amount of insurance if 
invested. Thus, one who secures an annuity 
of $100 for his declining years, or for his 
family in the event of his untimely death, 
has practically insured himself for $2,000. 

Tribe of Beii-Hiir. — One of the young- 
est of the better known secret assessment 
beneficiary societies is the Tribe of Ben- 
Hur. It was incorporated in Indiana, 
January 9, 1894, and on the 16th of Jan- 



uary of the same year the first meeting of 
the Sujjreme Tribe was held in the city of 
Crawfordsville, Ind. Ex-Governor Ira J. 
Chase was elected the first Supreme Chief. 
The Order grew out of a conference be- 
tween D. W. Gerard and F. L. Snyder, 
both of Crawfordsville, Ind., and General 
Lew Wallace, the author of the book 
'" Ben-Hur," at the latter 's residence in 
Crawfordsville, Ind., in November, 1893. 
Prior to this interview Messrs. Gerard and 
Snyder had carefully considered the ad- 
visability of founding an Order upon the 
book " Ben-Hur," providing the consent 
of General "Wallace could be obtained to 
use some name which would be suggestive 
of that book. During the interview, it was 
suggested that the name, " Knights of 
Ben-Hur," be selected, but General Wal- 
lace dissented, and remarked that " There 
were only tribes in those days," and sug- 
gested the "Tribe of Ben-Hur" as appro- 
priate. This was adopted and General 
Wallace gave his consent to the founding 
of the Order upon the story of "Ben-Hur," 
and secured the consent of his publishers, 
who hold the copyright on the book. 

Immediately after, the preparation of the 
ritual and by-laws was begun, and in a 
short time thereafter several prominent 
men were invited to join in the work of 
founding the Order. Prominent among- 
these were ex-Governor Ira J. Chase and 
Colonel W. T. Royse, both of Indianapolis, 
Ind.; S. E. Yoris, postmaster of Crawfords- 
ville ; and Dr. J. F. Davidson of Craw- 
fordsville, Ind., all men of experience in 
fraternal Orders, and most of them promi- 
nent in the insurance world, notably Messrs. 
Gerard, Royse, and Voris. 

The first subordinate Court of the 
Order was instituted at Crawfordsville, 
March 1, 1894, and was named " Simoni- 
des Court, No. 1, Tribe of Ben-Hur." The 
beneficiary plan was not perfected until 
April 5, 1894, when beneficial certificate 
No. 1 was issued. The popularity of the 
book "Ben-Hur" soon made the Order 



UNION FRATERNAL LEAGUE 



191 



prominent. By January 1. 1895, it liad 
secured a membership of 1,701, and by 
January 1, 189G, 5,050. On January 1, 
1897, the membership was 12,322, 1,200 of 
which joined during December, 1896. 

Since its organization there have been 
thirty-one deatlis, representing a total of 
$51,250 in losses, every one of which has 
been paid promptly without an assessment. 
The distinctive features of tlie Order are : 
(1) ^len and women admitted to member- 
ship upon absolute equality ; (2) Uniform 
monthly payments of §1 for each whole 
certificate ; (3) Insurance graded accord- 
ing to age, from 18 to 54 years ; (4) No 
assessment upon death of members ; (5) 
Certificates paid up at '' expectancy of 
life" ; (G) A reserve fund created from the 
beginning ; (7) Two beneficial divisions, 
northern and southern. 

The Order has collected from the be- 
ginning a stated monthly payment from 
each of its members, which has enabled it 
to promptly pay all losses, and to accumu- 
late in the surplus and reserve funds $35,- 
664 within the first thirty-three months of 
its existence. 

The Society is not a schism, or a branch 
of any other fraternal Order, but its found- 
ers brought to it years of exiDcrience in 
fraternal Orders, more especially in the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, from 
which they differed in being strong advo- 
cates of the necessity for and Avisdom of a 
reserve fund. Its ritualistic inspiration is 
drawn wholly from the book '' Ben-Hur." 
Its beneficial jilan is unique, and tends to 
attract attention. Its emblems are " The 
Galley Ship," with ''T.B. H." upon the 
sail, the " Chariot Race," and the seven- 
pointed star. It is operating in Indiana, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jer- 
sey, Michigan, Illinois, Kentucky, Iowa, 
Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, California, 
Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and else- 
where. 

Every applicant for beneficiary member- 
ship must pass a medical examination, and 



the very light mortality in 1896, 2| to 1,000, 
attests its present success. The Supreme 
Tribe owns a home in Crawfordsville, Ind., 
which cost S6,600. The Order is spread- 
ing rapidly throughout the various States, 
and the novelty of its beneficiary plan un- 
doubtedly has much to do with its rapid 
growth. Instead of insuring the lives of 
members for a stated sum or sums, in all 
instances, it varies the full amount of in- 
surance granted, according to the age of the 
applicant for membership, from $3,000 be- 
tween the ages of eighteen and twenty-three 
down to $500 for those joining between the 
ages of fifty-four and sixty-five, to be paid 
from regular monthly dues kept steadily at 
$1 monthly in all instances. The latter 
feature is characteristic of the Ancient 
Order of United AVorkmen, but the de- 
creasing scale of sums for which members 
may be insured, according to age at joining, 
constituted a new departure in the field of 
fraternal beneficiary insurance. On half 
certificates monthly payments are 50 cents, 
and at a like rate on one and one-half and 
on double certificates, but not more than 
$3,000 is granted on one life, nor more than 
a whole certificate on the life of a woman. 
, Triple Link 3Iutiial Iiideinnity As- 
sociation. — A non-secret, incorporated and 
licensed insurance company, chartered un- 
der the laws of the State of Illinois in 1890, 
by members of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, who were also members of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, to insure 
the lives of Odd Fellows and Daughters of 
Rebekah (attached to the Order of Odd 
Fellows) who are under sixty years of age. 
The insurance is met by 'mutual assess- 
ments graded according to age. The home 
office is at Chicago. 

Union Beneficial Association. — A mu- 
tual assessment insurance society at Tren- 
ton, N. J. 

Union Fraternal Leajjiie. — Organized 
as at present at Boston, Mass., in 1895, 
by members of the Knights of Honor, 
Royal Society of Good Fellows, Pilgrim 



192 



UNITED AFRICAN BROTHERHOOD 



Fathers, Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, and of other leading fraternal soci- 
eties, prominent among them John C. 
Barthelmes of Brookline, Mass. ; William P. 
McKeever, Salem, Mass. ; John F. Keynolds 
and P. Kirk of Somerville, Mass.; John S. 
Smith, Dorchester, Mass.; A. Marois, Mel- 
rose, Mass. ; and F. X. Desjardins of Mon- 
treal, Quebec, as a beneficiary society, to pay 
death benefits of from $250 to $2,000, and 
sick and accident benefits graded from $3.50 
to $14 per week. Benefits are also paid for 
permanent disability due to chronic illness, 
paralysis, or loss of eyes, feet, and hands, 
one or both. It is incorporated under the 
laws of the State of Massachusetts, and ad- 
mits men and women to membership. As- 
semblies, as subordinate bodies are called, 
are found in the provinces of Ontario and 
Quebec, in most of the New England and 
Middle, and some of the Southern, North- 
western, and Pacific States. The League's 
headquarters are at Boston, and its princi- 
pal officers are representative business men 
who are acquainted with the management 
of organizations of this character. The 
Union Fraternal League was originally in- 
corporated under the fraternal beneficiary 
laws of Massachusetts, on June 19, 1889, 
under the name of the International Fra- 
ternal Alliance, by J. B. Moses, P. Kirk, 
S. Rothblum, William P. McKeever, J. F. 
Reynolds, William Horwood, and James T. 
McNamee, and began business as a frater- 
nal endowment corporation. It issued cer- 
tificates for seven hundred dollars, payable 
in seven years, and provided death, sick, and 
disability benefits. The Order was fairly 
successful up to 1893, when the Massachu- 
setts Legislature proposed to close out En- 
dowment Fraternal Orders. A trustee was 
therefore appointed to wind up the business, 
and the endowment class is now perma- 
nently closed. Previous to closing out of 
the endowment class, the issue of certifi- 
cates was begun on the present plan. In 
1895 its name was formally changed to 
the Union Fraternal League, as there was 



another Order of the same name operating in 
another State. It has about 2,000 members. 

United African Brotherhood. — Organ- 
ized, as indicated, by negroes, at Clinton, 
Tex., as a fraternal beneficiary society. 
Letters sent to the Brotherhood at Clinton 
were returned unopened. 

United Friends of Michigan. — An 
incorporated fraternal beneficiary secret 
society, composed of both men and women, 
which pays death, disability, and old age 
benefits by means of assessments, and does 
business exclusively in Michigan. Candi- 
dates for beneficiary membership must be 
over eighteen and under fifty-one years of 
age. Its distinctive emblem is a cornuco- 
jna, or horn of plenty, across a shield bear- 
ing the American colors and the initials U. 
F. & P., Unity, Fraternity, and Protection. 
The society was founded at Detroit in 1889, 
by Dr. G. F. Kirker of that city, E. F. 
Lamb of Mount Morris, Mich., and oth- 
ers, and numbers nearly 10,000 members. 
(See Order of Chosen Friends.) 

United Leag-ue of America. — A dis- 
affection among German members of the 
Order of Chosen Friends at Chicago, in 
1895, due in part to dissatisfaction with a 
projected plan for equalization, resulted in 
a schism and the formation of an indepen- 
dent fraternal beneficiary secret society 
under the title given above. It is not 
known whether it is still in existence. (See 
Order of Chosen Friends.) 

United Order of America. — A new 
beneficiary, society, organized at Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

United Order of Foresters. — The orig- 
inal United Order of Foresters consisted, in 
its best estate, of 13,000 members, practically 
the American membership of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Foresters, when at Albany, 
in 1881, that branch of the Independent 
Order changed its name to the United 
Order of Foresters. (See IndeiDendent 
Order of Foresters.) The Canadian branch 
refused to adopt the new name and con- 
tinued as the Independent Order, while 



UNITED ORDER OF THE PILGRIM FATHERS 



193 



the new United Order disappeared within 
a few years. The present United Order is 
of recent origin, having been founded in 
1894, and its Courts are located princi- 
pally in Chicago, elsewhere in Illinois, and 
through Wisconsin and Minnesota. Its 
approximate total membership is about 
1,200. This society is practically an 
imitation of other Orders of Forestry so 
far as the name, titles, and emblems are 
concerned ; and, like the other children of 
the parent Order, was organized by mem- 
bers of older Orders of Foresters. In 
general government and objects it is not 
unlike the latter, except that its Supreme 
Court governs the Order direct. Its mem- 
bers pay regularly each month into the 
insurance fund a due proportion of the 
total cost of carrying the risk for the aver- 
age duration of life instead of collect- 
ing for death benefits, as deaths occur 
" regardless of this unavoidable average 
cost." The United Order claims the latter 
system (very largely in use by prominent fra- 
ternal beneficiary societies) works cheaply 
the first five or ten years, while the death 
rate is below the average, but causes a short- 
age in the insurance fund, which must ulti- 
mately fall on surviving members. Al- 
though the youngest Order of Forestry, it 
has adopted some of the best insurance 
features of the Independent Order of Fores- 
ters, which was founded at Newark, N. J., 
in 1874. It does not go south of the 38th 
parallel of latitude for members. Benefit 
certificates for $500, §1,000, 82,000 and 
$3,000 are issued, one quarter of which is 
payable upon partial permanent disability, 
one-half upon permanent disability, and the 
wiiole amount on arriving at seventy years 
of age, or at death. 

United Order of Hoi>e. — The address 
of the Supreme Lodge of this mutual bene- 
fit organization is St. Louis, Mo. Its em- 
blem is formed of a monogram of the let- 
ters 0. H. and an anchor. No replies to 
inquiries concerning the society have been 
received. 

13 



United Order of th« Pilgrim Fathers. 

— Early in the fall of 1878, the following 
gentlemen and their wives, residents of 
Lawrence, Mass., some of them members 
of one or more of the fraternal insurance 
Orders, Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
United Order of the Golden Cross, Knights 
of Honor, Royal Arcanum, and American 
Legion of Honor, as well as of the Masonic 
Fraternity and the Odd Fellows, conceived 
the idea of forming an insurance Order 
which would confine its membership to the 
New England States : J. C. Bowker, James 
E. Shepard, A. J. French, Charles R. 
Peters, M. B. Kenney, Fred R. Warren, 
Charles Lloyd, II. A. Wadsworth, W. L. 
Seaver, A. V. Bugbee, A. W. Allyn and 
Henry W. Rogers. Associated with them 
were Miss Mary P. Currier and Charles 
McCarthy. Several meetings were held, and 
a constitution and ritual adopted, and plans 
perfected for organizing. After much con- 
sultation the name United Order of Pilgrim 
Fathers was adopted. On February 15, 
1879, the first Colony was formed in 
Lawrence, Mass., which took the name May- 
flower, Included in its membership were 
all of the incorporators and seventy-five 
others, in all one hundred and one. In the 
following month thirteen of the founders 
were granted a charter under the laws of 
Massachusetts. The objects, as set forth in 
the charter, are to aid members when in 
need, and assist the widows and orphans 
or other legatees and beneficiaries of de- 
ceased members. The Supreme Colony 
was organized immediately and Supreme 
officers elected. The total membership 
December 31, 189G, was 21.4(13. This 
society presents graded assessments insur- 
ing men and women from eighteen to fifty 
years of age, for 8500, 81,000, or 83,000, and 
has one hundred and ninety-three Colonies 
scattered throughout the New England 
States. The principal emblems consist of 
a representation of the ship '• Mayflower," 
encircled by a white enamelled band with 
U. 0. P. F. over the top, E. II. F. at the 



19i 



UNITED STATES BENEVOLENT FRATERNITY 



bottom, with the dates 1620-1879. The 
Supreme Colony meets annually. It is 
comjjosecl of the incorporators, a represen- 
tative from each subordinate Colony, and 
an additional representative for each one 
hundred members. Five trustees are elected 
at each annual meeting, who, together with 
the Supreme Governor, Supreme Lieuteiiant 
Governor, and Sui^renie Treasurer, consti- 
tute the Board of Directors, who meet 
once in each month for the purpose of 
approving bills, jjassing upon proofs of 
death and ordering assessments. The Or- 
der is in a flourishing condition. It has 
paid nearly $2,500,000 to beneficiaries of 
deceased members. 

United States Benevolent Fi-ater- 
nity. — Founded by Thomas H. McGechin, 
its first president, at Baltimore, Md., Feb- 
ruary 22, 1881, to pay death, total dis- 
ability, and annuity benefits. It admits 
white men and women on equal terms, is a 
lineal descendant of the Royal Arcanum 
and American Legion of Honor, and num- 
bers about 1,000 members. 

United. States Benevolent Fraternity. 
— Organized at Baltimore j^rior to 1890 as 
a mutual assessment beneficiary society. 
It died in 1894. 

" V. A. S." — The Vera Amicitia Sempi- 
terna est, or True Friendship is Eternal, 
was organized at Grenell, la., in 1879, as a 
graded assessment, fraternal benefit society, 
confined to the State of Iowa. It paid 
death benefits of 12,000 each. In 1891 it 
was merged into the Security Life Associa- 
tion of Clinton, la. It paid all obliga- 
tions up to the date of loss of iden- 
tity. Its successor was a small insurance 
company, with headquarters at Washing- 
ton , la. 

AVestern Kuiglits Protective Associa- 
tion. — Founded by fifteen members of 
various fraternal societies at St. Charles, 
Minn., its present headquarters, as a 
straight death benefit organization, to unite 
all acceptable white persons between 
eighteen and fifty-four years of age in 



Lodges, or Assemblies, as they are called, 
to their moral, intellectual, social, and 
financial advantage. Death benefits are 
paid by means of fixed monthly, quarterly, 
semi-annual and annual payments, or, if 
pi'ef erred, a paid-up " benefit bond " may be 
secured on a single payment. The Associa- 
tion is composed of its local Assemblies ; 
its Grand Assemblies, made up of repre- 
sentatives elected by local Assemblies ; and 
of the Supreme Assembly, the legislative 
body of the Association, which comprises 
representatives from Grand Assemblies and 
the original incorporators. 

Woodmen of tlie World. — Organized 
as a fraternal beneficiary society, June 3, 
1890, at the Paxton Hotel, Omaha, Neb. 
W. 0. Rodgers, M.D., of Omaha, presided, 
and F. A. Falkenburg of Denver, Col., 
was secretary. The following were also 
present : J. Cullen Root, Lyons, la.; F. F. 
Roose, Lincoln, Neb. ; W. N. Dorward, 
Omaha, Neb. ; Robert T. Court, Spring- 
field, 111. ; John T. Yates, Omaha, Neb.; 

B. Wood Jewell, Manchester, la., and 
W. Murray Guiwitts, Lincoln, Neb. The 
following, not present, sent word they 
intended to become members : Buren R. 
Sherman, Waterloo, la. ; Theodore H. 
Thtsmas, Denver, Col. ; L. J. Moss, West 
Superior, Wis. ; S. Leonard Waide, Mus- 
catine, la. ; C. K. Erwin, Tomah, Wis. ; 

C. C. Farmer, Mt. Carroll, 111., and W. C. 
Ilomermiller, Tomah, Wis. The govern- 
ing body of this new society of Modern 
AVoodmen of America, as it was then 
called, is the Sovereign Camp of the 
World. At a meeting in Omaha, June 4, 
1890, benefit certificates were authorized at 
$1,000, $2,000, and $3,000, to be issued 
only to members of the Sovereign Camp, 
and it was further provided that when the 
Sovereign Camp exceeds 10,000 members, 
a separate jurisdiction maybe formed, pro- 
vided membership in the proposed juris- 
diction shall exceed 5,000. A Pacific 
Jurisdiction was established, consisting of 
Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Nevada, 



WOODMEN OF THE WORLD 



195 



Year. 



Certificates 
in Force. 



Insurance 
in Force. 



Insurance 

Written during 

the Year. 



Washington, Oregon, California, and Colo- 
rado. Organization was perfected at a 
meeting, June 5, 1890. At the fourth 
meeting, August 13, 1890, the name of the 
organization was changed to Woodmen of 
the World, and that of the governing body 
to Sovereign Camp, Woodmen of the 
World, owing to the similarity between the 
former title and that of the original ^lod- 
ern Woodmen of America. In the inter- 
vals between sessions of the Sovereign 
Camp the society's affairs are managed by 
its officers and the Sovereign Executive 
Council. The Order has also spread into 
the Canadian Dominion, where there is a 
separate jurisdiction. The principal of- 
ficers are salaried and give bonds for the 
faithful performance of their duties, from 
which it is j^lain that the life insurance 
feature dominates. The growth of the 
organization is shown in the following 
figures : 

Death 
Rate 
per 
1000. 

1891 5,461 $11,971,300 $13,277,000 3.3 

1893 10.106 22.604,600 15,502.600 4.3 

1893 14,057 30,780,200 17,495,900 6.1 

1894 20.272 41,612,200 21,147.000 8.6 

1895 33,027 65,693,200 38,419,500 6.8 

While the development in membership 
and financial strength has been rapid, the 
death rate and assessments have been low, 
as there were sixty-eight assessments dur- 
ing the first seventy-eight months of the 
Order's existence — fewer than one per 
month. The system and the growth shown 
are credited to J. C. Root, a thirty-second 
degree Scottish Rite Freemason, a member 
of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
of the Knights of Pythias, of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, the Iowa Le- 
gion of Honor, and founder of the Modern 
Woodmen of America. The ancient Ro- 
man methods of obligating underlie the 
^ initiatory ceremonial, and, as shown by its 
principal emblems — the beetle, wedge, and 
axe, symbols of the woodmen's craft (also 
displayed by the Modern Woodmen of 
America) — it attempts, so far as practi- 



cable, to tread in paths less frequented by 
modern secret society ritualists, the idea 
evidently having been to parallel efforts of 
earlier secret societies, to utilize in cere- 
monials customs aTul implements employed 
in some of the primitive occupations of 
mankind. Results of this method are seen 
not only in Masonic rituals, but in the sng- 
gestiveness of the titles, the Ancient Order 
of Shepherds, the Fishermen of Calilee, 
the Ancient Order of Foresters, and the 
Ancient Order of Gardeners. In the 
Woodmen of the World, an additional step 
is taken by preserving in form and cere- 
mony implements and teachings drawn 
from woodcraft. There is no relationship 
between the two Orders of AVoodmen ex- 
cept that the same man founded each, and 
that they employ similar emblems, as do 
some other important but independent so- 
cieties, such as the various Orders of Odd 
Fellows and of Foresters. 

The Woodmen of the World insures the 
lives of members between 16 and 52 years 
of age, for $500, $1,000, 81,500, $2,000, 
$2,500, or $3,000 each, by means of assess- 
ments graded according to age, and, fur- 
thermore, agrees to place a monument to 
cost $100 at the grave of every deceased 
member. Only white men are eligible to 
membership, and there is no restriction as 
to religious creed or political conviction. 
The ritual is dignified and impressive, 
teaching no abstract dogma or jihilosophy, 
seeking to exemplify the "grandeur of the 
voluntary association of good men for their 
advantage and improvement." Only one 
degree, known as the Protection degree, is 
obligatory. Additional degrees, Morning, 
Xoon, and Night, are furnished to Camps 
desiring to elaborate fraternal work. 

Women may unite with the recently or- 
ganized Women's Circles, which contain 
over 1,000 members. They are said to 
form useful social auxiliaries. Woodmen's 
Circles also pay death benefits and erect 
monuments at the graves of deceased 
women members. Circles meet in Groves 



196 



WORKMEN'S B-ENEFIT ASSOCIATION 



which are governed by a Siipreme Forest, 
subject to the approval of the Sovereign 
Camp of the Woodmen of the Workl. 
Woodmen joining' between the ages of 16 
and 33 years become life members in 30 
years ; between 33 and 43 years they be- 
come life members in 25 years ; and those 
joining at over 43 years of age become life 
members in 20 years. Death benefits of 
life members are paid by means of a spe- 
cial quarterly assessment when necessary. 
The Order is governed by a Sovereign 
Camp having three subordinate Head 
Camps, two in the United States and one 
in Canada. Subordinate Camps have been 
established in more than 1,300 cities and 
towns in the more healthful portions of 
the United States, in central western and 
northwestern States and in the Dominion 
of Canada, and more than $1,000,000 has 
been paid in death benefits during six years 
of the fraternity's existence. The total 
membership in the United States is about 
35,000, exclusive of members of Wood- 



men's Circles. In Canada there are about 
3,000 members. The Woodmen of the 
World *' is the only Order of its kind that 
places a monument at the grave of every 
deceased member, that issues a paid up 
certificate at the end of a certain period, 
and that makes its certificates incontest- 
able after one year." 

Workmen's Benefit Association. — 
Founded by J. Varnum Mott, M.D., at 
Boston, Mass., June 23, 1893, as a frater- 
nal beneficiary society, to afford additional 
insurance to members of the Ancient Or- 
der of United Workmen, who alone are 
eligible to join. It issues certificates of 
$1,000, payable at death of holders. Its 
membership is 5,500. 

World Mutual Benefit Association.— 
A non-secret stock company doing a life 
insurance business on the assessment plan. 
It makes a specialty of insuring members 
of the fraternal secret Order of the World, 
which does not insure its own members. 
(See Order of the World.) 



ECLECTIC ASSEMBLY 



197 



III 



MUTUAL ASSESSMEISTT BEISTEFICIAEY FRATERNITIES 
[SHORT-TERM OR ENDOWMENT.] 



American Benevolent Association. — 

One of the more recent accident, total dis- 
ability and sick benefit endowment orders, 
its feature being ten-year distribution cer- 
tificates, providing life insurance to a cer- 
tain amount during continuance, and "a 
competency " for the holder if he survives. 
The Association was founded and incorpo- 
rated by W. R. Eidson, F. H. Pickrell, 
John H. Allen, Dr. J. D. Irwin, Erie De 
Jong, Dr. A, T, Martin, and Henry T. 
Burns at St. Louis, Mo., in 1894. Men 
between fourteen and sixty-five, and women 
between fourteen and fifty-five years of age 
are eligible to membership. Certificates are 
issued in eight amounts, ranging from 1250 
to S2,000, on which regular monthly pre- 
miums are paid. The Association is ac- 
tively at work in Missouri, Kentucky, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, ^Michigan, Nebraska, Iowa, 
Kansas, Colorado, Indian Territory, Texas, 
Louisiana, Arkansas, Alabama, Georgia, 
Florida, and Tennessee. Equality for man 
and woman, faith, hope, and benevolence, 
and loyalty to country are typified in the 
emblems. It confers one degree, the cere- 
monial of which is said to be dignified and 
impressive. The total number of members 
is about 13,000. 

American Benevolent Union. — Date 
of organization at Boston unknown. (See 
Order of the Solid Rock.) 

Benevolent Union. — Organized at Bos- 
ton in 1889. (See Order of the Solid Rock.) 

Columbus Mutual Benefit Associa- 
tion. — Organized at Philadelphia in 1893, 
and incorporated under the laws of Pennsyl- 
vania. It combines the features of the 
building and loan association with those of 
the fraternal beneficiarv order, in which it 



follows the path marked out by the Inter- 
national Fraternal Alliance of Baltimore. 
(See the latter.) Men and women between 
fifteen and fifty-five years of age may be- 
come members. Holders of shares may apply 
for loans after six months' membership. 
Shares are issued in nine amounts, rang- 
ing from $200 to 65,000, which mature in 
ten years, or are payable in full, prior there- 
to, at death of holders. Its ritual is based 
on the '' Landing of Columbus." 

Eclectic Assembly. — Incorporated un- 
der the laws of Pennsylvania, January 3, 
1893, with headquarters at Bradford, Penn., 
by W. R. Weaver, C. P. Collins, L. E. 
Hamsher, W. E. Burdick, II. A. Canfield, 
George A. Berry, Freemasons; and by T. J. 
Melvin, Alanson Palmer, C. F. McAmbley, 
W. W. Brown, and J. B. Cochrane, to offer 
a combination of the most desirable features 
•'found in the justly popular insurance or- 
ders of the present day." Its system of 
assessments is declared to be adjusted so 
that only twelve payments are necessary 
each year in order to build u]i the reserve 
fund, pay accident and death benefits, and 
one-half the sums called for in certificates, 
where holders reach the "age of expect- 
ancy." Men and women are received as 
members on equal terms, and insured in 
any of six classes, which range from $500 
to §3,000. The Order is governed by a 
Supreme Assembly and a Supreme Board 
of Directors. It publislies the obligation 
required of those who become members, 
which is merely a solemn promise to obey 
the rules of the organization, and not com- 
municate its " private work " unlawfully. 
Its ritual is based on mythology, and its 
signs refer to God's covenant with man. 



198 



FRATERNAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 



There are references also to red men, the 
early inhabitants of America. The emblem 
of the organization is an anchor within an 
eqiulateral triangle, the sides of which are 
denominated Hope, Truth, and Charity. 
Its membership numbers about 1,500. 

Fraternal Association of America. — 
Organized at Boston. (See Order of the 
Solid Eock.) 

Fraternal Guild. — A short-term or en- 
dowment order, founded at San Francisco 
in 1889. Untraced. 

Industrial Benefit Order, Boston. — 
(See Order of the Solid Rock.) 

Industrial Order of America. — A Bos- 
ton organization. (See Order of the Solid 
Rock.) 

International Fraternal Alliance of 
Baltimore. — Organized by William Bauni- 
garten, C. E. P. Brewer, W. J. Wroth, and 
others, members of a number of the best 
known beneficiary Orders, the Masonic Fra- 
ternity, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, 
and Red Men, to pay sick, disability, and 
death benefits, and enable its members to 
secure homes on the most favorable terms. 
It seeks to combine in its " bnilding loan 
and insurance shares" the advantages of a 
sound system of insurance with the building 
and loan system of protection and accumu- 
lation. One advantage claimed over the 
regular building and loan association is in 
the payment of the full face value of shares 
held at the death of the lending member, 
instead of only the amount paid in on them 
at date of death. Should the deceased be 
a borrower on his shares, the possessor of a 
house mortgaged to the Alliance, "the 
mortgage is cancelled at once," and "the 
family or home left entirely free from debt." 
Its membership includes about Id, 000 men 
and women, residents of thirty States of the 
Union and the Dominion of Canada. Pay- 
ments on shares are made on the assessment 
system, or as regular monthly dnes. The 
Alliance, in common with short-term, en- 
dowment, or life-benefit orders, has been 
subjected to criticism and litigation, but has 



been fairly successful in its chosen field. Its 
ritual shows traces of Masonic handiwork. 
Much of its success has been due to the 
activity of C. H. Unverzagt. The "Fra- 
ternal Monitor," published at Rochester, 
N. Y., says that the stand taken by the 
Alliance, as an exponent of the system of 
paying benefits during life, " has done much 
to keep the system alive and oppose oppres- 
sive legislation." 

International Order of Twelve, of 
Knights and Daughters of Tabor. — 
Founded by Rev. Moses Dickson, a promi- 
nent clergyman of the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church, at Independence, Mo., 
August 12, 1872. It is an " Afro- Ameri- 
can labor and benevolent association," or- 
ganized on the lodge system, with an elabo- 
rate series of titles and ceremonials. It 
"numbers 100,000 members" in thirty 
States, England, Africa, and the West Indies. 
The society explains that there was an anti- 
slavery secret organization of negroes at the 
South in 1846, entitled the Order of Twelve, 
and two others, some years later, the 
Knights of Liberty and the Knights of 
Tabor, upon which the founder of this 
society built the International Order of 
Twelve, of Knights and Daughters of Ta- 
bor. Knights of Tabor now meet in Tem- 
ples and Daughters in Tabernacles, while as 
Princes and Princesses of the Royal House 
of Media they convene for literary and so- 
cial entertainment in Palatiums. Maids 
and Pages of Honor, as juvenile members 
are called, meet in Tents. The Order pays 
death and sick benefits, and, except in the 
juvenile department, endowment or short 
term benefits also. The chief emblem dis- 
played on its publications is an eye be- 
tween two groups of numerals, 777 and 333. 

Iron Hall, of Baltimore City. — An- 
nounced to have been "reorganized" on 
"the original plan" of the Order of the 
Iron Hall, an Indiana fraternal beneficiary 
society for men and women. The latter 
went into the hands of a receiver in 1892. 
(See Order of the Iron Hall.) The Iron 



NATIONAL DOTARE 



199 



Hall, of Baltimore City, was formed at Balti- 
more by Freeman D. Somerby and others 
in 1892, and incorporated under the laws of 
tfie State of Maryland as an insurance so- 
ciety. Its different branches control the 
reserve fund of the Order, which " in 
case of trouble . . . not even a receiver 
could touch." It has nearly 9,000 mem- 
bers, and gives evidence of increasing 
growth. Among other features it embodies 
a plan of seven-year maturing certificates, 
and death benefit certificates of from $200 to 
I>1,000 each, which include sick and total 
disability payments. It also issues straight 
life policies of 11,000, 12,000, and $3,000, 
which are to mature in twenty years, and 
has a pension savings fund, certificates un- 
der which head are issued in like amounts 
with a benefit provision for old age on at- 
taining the age of seventy-three years. Any 
accejitable white person between sixteen and 
sixty-five years of age, a believer in a Su- 
preme Being and who is competent to earn 
a livelihood, is eligible to become a member. 
The Order has '' a brief and pointed ritual," 
with "just enough of secret society machin- 
ery" to secure mutual obligations. Among 
its founders were Knights of Pythias, 
Knights of Honor, Chosen Friends, and 
Freemasons. AYomen are received on the 
same terms as men, and are eligible to the 
highest office. 

Knights and Tjadies of America. — A 
"mutual benefit, savings, and loan frater- 
nity," instituted in 1894 under the laws of 
the State of New York, with its headquar- 
ters in New York city. It is non-sectarian, 
non-political, and seeks to form a medium 
" between the high-priced tontine insurance 
companies and the very low-priced fraternal 
orders," a sort of "compulsory savings 
bank." Its founders were members of the 
Masonic Fraternity, the American Legion 
of Honor, Royal Arcanum, and the Junior 
Order of United American ]Mechanics, the 
influence of the latter showing itself in the 
stress laid upon "our glorious country 
America " in its ritual. There is no physi- 



cal examination as a prerequisite to admis- 
sion and men and women between sixteen 
and sixty years of age are eligible to mem- 
bership. Its subordinate Councils are gov- 
erned by a Supreme Council. It loans to 
members from $G0 to $000 on certificates of 
from $100 to $1,000, and pays a cash benefit 
of $100 to $1,000 at (death or) the end of 
sixty-five months' membership. The build- 
ing and loan society feature combined with 
sick, disability, and death benefits charac- 
terize the Society. There is also an arrange- 
ment for cash withdrawals, and the cost of 
each $100 certificate is $1 monthly. All 
loans are limited by the amounts i)aid in, 
and in case of death prior to the maturity 
of a certificate, the benefit paid consists of 
the total amount paid in with 6 per cent, in- 
terest. Loans are made on first mortgages 
on real estate at 6 per cent., and are repay- 
able in monthly installments. The secret 
work of the organization is not elaborate. 
Its motto is " Love, Truth, and Justice." 

Kniglits and Ladies of Protection. — 
A short term or endowment order for men 
aiul women formed at Roxbury, Mass., and 
recorded in the United States census of 
1890. Not known to exist now. 

Modern Order of Craftsmen. — Found- 
ed at Detroit, Mich., in 1894, and incor- 
porated under the laws of Michigan as a 
fraternal beneficiary order. Its certificates 
mature in twenty years, and a paid-up value 
is given them, if desired, after five years. 
There is also a plan l)y which surplus funds 
are loaned to members on real estate, first 
mortgage security, to enable them to pro- 
cure homes. 

National Dotare. — Organized at De- 
troit, Mich., in 1892, a short term mutual 
benefit society. It agreed to i)ay $1,000 to 
holders of certificates who should pay the 
specified assessments during the life of cer- 
tificates. The plan depended on lapses of 
membership to make it "a success." The 
society soon went into the hands of receiv- 
ers. At one time it had a monthly income 
of $5,500. 



200 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL UNION 



National Fraternal Union. — One of 

the younger in the sisterhood of secret bene- 
ficiary societies, having been organized at 
Cincinnati by Freemasons, members of the 
Knights of Pythias and of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, in 1889, to insure 
the lives of its members in sums ranging 
from ^500 to ^5,000, or furnish ten, fifteen, 
and twenty-year endowments. The Union 
was incorporated under the laws of Ohio by 
its founders, S. L. Miner, John B. Peaslee, 
A. Alanson Phelps, W. C. Lockwood, Lee 
H. Brooks, L. E. Casey, and F. M. Dillie. 
The endowment certificates are framed to 
provide sick and accident policies, and after 
two years' membership a cash surrender is 
allowed on endowment certificates. This 
society enjoys the unique distinction of 
being "the first of its kind" to loan its 
surplus funds to members on the building 
and loan association plan. It therefore 
offers regular life insurance on the assess- 
ment basis, or on the endowment plan, with 
sick and disability insurance, and its reserve 
fund as loans for building. No charges are 
made for initiation, medical examination, 
or for lodge dues, the regular monthly 
payment including the entire cost of mem- 
bership. Both men and women are mem- 
bers. The six-pointed star containing a mo- 
nogram formed of N. F. and U., encircled by 
a chain and the initials of the motto, " Ad- 
vancement, Protection, and Fraternity," 
constitute its public emblems. The ritual 
is suggested by the motto, and includes 
three degrees, one for each word. The 
membership numbers about 10,000. 

National Protective Legion. — A fra- 
ternal beneficiary society organized and char- 
tered under the laws of the State of New 
York in 1891, by members of the Masonic 
Fraternity, to unite all acceptable men and 
women in one association, the aim of which 
shall be benevolence, social culture, the care 
of the sick and needy, and to provide and 
maintain a fund for the benefit of its mem- 
bers while living, and for the protection of 
their families in the event of death. Its local 



Legions are governed by Grand or State 
Legions, and the latter by the National 
Legion, which transacts the business of the 
order. The Legion seeks to combine some 
of the desirable insurance features found in 
similar societies, conspicuously among them 
a semi-endowment plan, by which part of 
the face of death benefit certificates is paid 
during the life time of holders; a cash sur- 
render value after five years and sick and 
disability benefits; in addition to which the 
certificate holder may borrow from the bene- 
fit fund up to a certain amount, giving the 
certificate as security. The office of the 
National Legion is at Waverly, N. Y. Its 
total membership is about 4,000. 

Order of iEgls. — Founded at Baltimore, 
in 1892, by Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, 
and members of various fraternal orders, 
to insure by means of assessments the lives 
of acceptable white men and women be- 
tween sixteen and fifty-five 3'ears of age for 
S500, 11,000, 12,000, or 13,000, and pay 
them weekly benefits during sickness. The 
secrets of the Order are reduced to those 
serving to identify members. At the first 
biennial session of the Supreme Lodge of 
the Order it was decided to issue certificates 
on the ten-year endowment plan, thus plac- 
ing the organization among those which pay 
a specified sum to members at the end of a 
given period or to their beneficiaries in the 
event of their not surviving the certificate. 
The emblem of the Order is a shield bearing 
the Stars and Stripes surrounded by a scroll 
containing the motto, "Fraternity, Protec- 
tion, Equality, and Security." Total mem- 
bership about 6,500. 

Order of Equity. — Founded at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., in 1889, by some of the leading 
officers of the Knights of Pythias in that 
State, and by Freemasons and Odd Fellows, 
to pay members from ^6 to 125 weekly in 
case of accident or sickness, and funeral 
benefits of from $40 to $100 at the death of 
a member, to comfort sick and distressed 
members of the Order, and to assist them 
in obtaining employment and in business. 



ORDER OF THE CONTINENTAL FRATERNAL UNION 



201 



It issued certificates of §200, ^300, 8400, 
and §500, "to mature in five and eight 
years from date of issue," which ckxssed it 
among the short-term or endowment orders. 
These certificates carried sick, temporary 
disability, and funeral benefits. Both men 
and women were admitted to member- 
ship. The Order was scattered through 
nearly twenty States, but was strongest in 
the central West. It paid more than 
$200,000 in benefits, with a total member- 
ship of only about 4,000. Its ritual re- 
ferred to the parable of the Good Samaritan 
and the healing of the lejiers. The Order 
went into the hands of a receiver in March, 
1897, owing 172,000 to holders of certifi- 
cates, with assets amounting to only $35,000. 
The institution was similar to the original 
Order of the Iron Hall, which failed in 
1893. 

Order of Home Builders. — Organized 
January 25, 1890, and registered as a fra- 
ternal beneficiary order with the State 
Department of Pennsylvania. Its Grand 
Lodge, or governing body, is permanently 
located at Pliiladelphia. It admits men and 
women between fifteen and sixty- five years 
of age on equal terms, and pays $500, 1250, 
and $125 death benefits, according to age; 
sick benefits of $7 per week for a monthly 
payment of 40 cents, and annuity benefits 
to widows, orphans, or other beneficiaries, 
ranging from $100 to $500. There is also a 
savings department in which members may 
make monthly deposits for six years, after 
which they are to receive the sums paid by 
them into the benefit fund, together with 
their pro rata shares of the profits of the 
savings department. 

•Order of Peudo. — A mutual assessment, 
beneficiary organization doing business un- 
der the laws of the State of California. Its 
headquarters are at San Francisco. 

Order of Pente. — Organized at Phila- 
delphia in 1888, and chartered under the 
laws of that State as a fraternal, coopera- 
tive, beneficiary association. Its name, as in 
the case of the Sexennial League, formed at 



the same city in the same year, is based on 
its short term — in this instance, five-year ma- 
turing certificates — as opposed to the system 
of payment of benefit certificates only at 
death. There were Freemasons, Odd Fel- 
lows, Knights of Pythias and members of 
the Grand Army of the Republic among the 
founders, but there is no particular trace of 
the influence of any of those societies in the 
private work of the organization. The 
7,000 members, mostly in Pennsylvania, in- 
clude women and men between the ages of 
sixteen and sixty-five years to whom it 
pays sick and disability benefits of from 
$5 to $25 weekly, and from $100 to $500 
in case they hold a certificate for that 
sum for a period of five years. It also loans 
money upon certificates up to 75 per cent, 
of the amount paid in on them. The seal 
of the Order discloses a five-pointed star 
inscribed Avithin a pentagon. 

Order of Solon. — Organized at Pitts- 
burgh in 1888. (See Order of the Solid 
Rock.) 

Order of Sons of Projji-ess. — Organized 
in Philadelphia in 1879. (See Order of the 
Solid Rock.) 

Order of Twelve. — An anti-slavery se- 
cret society of negroes formed in 184G. De- 
funct. (See International Order of Twelve, 
of Knights and Daughters of Tabor.) 

Order of the Benevolent Union. — See 
Order of the Solid Rock. 

Order of the Continental Fraternal 
Union. — Similarities of names of secret 
beneficiary societies are strongly marked 
among the various ''Unions," one of the 
younger of which, the Continental Frater- 
nal, with about 3,000 members (men and 
women), has its headquarters at Richmond, 
Ind., where it Avas founded in 1890 by mem- 
bers of the Knights of Honor, the Royal 
Arcanum, the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, and, as usual, the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows and the Masonic Fra- 
ternity. It pays sick and death benefits, 
and seeks to insure its members as near 
actual cost as possible. Its aim is economy 



202 



ORDER OF THE FRATERNAL CIRCLE 



and mutual helpfulness, and a feature of its 
method is the payment of §1,000 to mem- 
bers on a stated basis of assessments, in six 
and one-half years, thus characterizing it 
as one of the so-called short-term orders. 
Its emblem is made up of the clasped hands 
across a shield, above which are the letters 
U. H. F., and below, the word "Union," 
the whole surrounded by a wreath of oak 
leaves. 

Order of the Fraternal Circle. — See 
Order of the Solid Rock. 

Order of the Golden Rod. — Organized 
at Detroit in 1894 by George Raviler (of 
Knights of the Maccabees, International 
Fraternal Alliance, and Order of the Orient) 
and Emil C. Hansen (of Royal Adelphia, 
National Dotare, Order of Vesta and 
Woodmen of the World) to encourage econ- 
omy and thrift among its members, both 
men and women. The feature of its system 
is the issuing certificates of 150 each to its 
members in a series of 250, on which a fee 
and semi-monthly assessment of 25 cents are 
charged. No member carries fewer than 
two certificates, which mature in their nu- 
merical order as soon as funds from assess- 
ments accumulate to the par value of the 
lowest numbered. In case of death of a 
member in good standing the beneficiary 
may continue to pay the assessments and 
dues and receive the benefits at maturity, 
or draw out the sum total paid in assess- 
ments with interest at 7 per cent. 

Order of the Helping- Hand. — Organ- 
ized at Lynn, Mass., prior to 1890, a short- 
term, assessment insurance society. It is 
registered in census reports for 1890, which 
it did not long survive. 

Order of the Iron Hall. — Organized as 
a fraternal beneficiary secret society by Emi 
Kennedy, Freeman D. Somerby and others, 
at Indianapolis, Ind., in December, 1881, 
and incorporated under the laws of that 
State. Its object was fraternal, sick, dis- 
ability, and endowment insurance upon the 
assessment plan. It was also a secret soci- 
ety, having an initiation ceremony and pass 



words. At the beginning men only were 
admitted, and later women were admitted 
as social members, without the right to vote 
in its councils, but at the time of the ap- 
pointment of the receiver they had all the 
privileges of the association. Persons were 
admitted between the ages of eighteen and 
sixty-five years. The total membership dur- 
ing the life of the Order was about 125,000. 
The highest membership at any one time was 
probably about 70,000. The membership at 
the time of the appointment of the receiver, 
August, 1892, was 63,000. The society 
failed because the system or theory of its 
organization was not practicable. The 
moneys paid into the Order by the mem- 
bers earned no increment so far as the books 
of the association disclosed. The Order 
was said to make money on lapses of mem- 
bership and claimed that there was an in- 
crease of four members for each certificate 
maturing; or all that a member had to do 
"was to get in four other members, and 
that would enable the association to pay him 
out." Practically the association lost in the 
aggregate more than 1100,000 on account 
of lapsing members. The Iron Hall of 
Baltimore city was organized in 1892 by 
members of the original Iron Hall, with 
Freeman D. Somerby at its head. 

Order of the Orient. — A Michigan mu- 
tual benefit, fraternal order, which found 
itself in the hands of a receiver in 1895 and 
has since disappeared. An order by the 
same name was in existence on the Northern 
Peninsula of Michigan and in Wisconsin in 
1895, but efforts to obtain details of their 
origin, character, and progress have been 
fruitless. 

Order of the Royal Argosy. — An en- 
dowment or short-term fraternal society, 
organized at San Francisco in 1888. Un- 
traced. 

Order of the Royal Ark. — See Order 
of the Solid Rock. 

Order of the Solid Rock. — Founded in 
1889 at Boston, Mass., a short-term or 
endowment fraternal organization. It is 



PROGRESSIVE ENDOWMENT GUILD OF AMERICA 



203 



recorded in the census of 1890 as among the 
many similar societies of that period which 
endeavored to pay back the face of endow- 
ment certificates of from $100 to $200, $300, 
$400, $500, and, in some instances, $1,000 
to surviving members within a few years. 
These societies also paid weekly sick benefits, 
so long as they lasted, ranging from $3.50 to 
$5, and from $5 to $20. A great many un- 
thinking or uninformed people became in- 
terested in these short-term endowment 
societies and some lost money. Most of 
these societies died after meeting one set of 
maturing certificates, and comparatively few 
remain to-day. 

Order of the World, of Boston. — See 
Order of the Solid Rock. 

Order of Touti. — A Pennsylvania short- 
term or endowment mutual assessment 
fraternity. It assigned in 1895, and its 
assets were divided by the court among 
more than 15,000 certificate holders. 

Order of Vesta. — One of the numerous 
mutual assessment, short-term, or tontine 
fraternal organizations which started up a 
few years ago. Its membership was chiefly 
in Pennsylvania, where it made an assign- 
ment in 1895, and was su^bsequently wound 
up. 

People's Favorite Order. — See Order 
of the Solid Eock. 

People's Five-Year Benefit Order. — 
See Order of the Solid Rock. 

People's Mutual Life Insurance Or- 
der. — A short-term or endowment assess- 
ment fraternity, located in census reports 
for 1890 at Nashville, Tenn., where it was 
founded in 1882. Unknown there now. 

Progressive Endowment Guild of 
America. — A conservative and well-estab- 
lished cooperative, beneficiary societ}% or- 
ganized by Freemasons, Knights of Pythias, 
and members of the Royal Arcanum, and 
chartered by the Legislature of Virginia, 
embodying endowment or short-term in- 
surance, sick benefits, and cash willidniwals. 
White men and women between eighteen 
and sixty-five years of age are eligible to its 



three classes of membership. Subordinate 
Chapters are governed by a Supreme Chap- 
ter, between sessions of which the business 
of the order is managed by a Supreme 
Executive Committee of seven members. 
In Class A, to which those between eighteen 
and fifty years of age are admitted, certifi- 
cates of from $500 to $5,000 are issued, 
payable in ten years, or immediately in 
case of death, which Jilso provide sick bene- 
fits of $5 weekly on every $1,000, to be 
deducted from the amounts carried. This 
is met by monthly jiayments at the rate of 
$3.60 for every $1,000. Class B, ''inter- 
mediate," consists of those between fifty- 
one and fifty-eight years of age, who receive 
like benefits, except in case of death during 
the ten-year period, when beneficiaries re- 
ceive one-tenth of the face of certificates 
for each year of membershii? and fraction 
thereof. Class B includes those between 
fifty-nine and sixty-five years of age, who 
cannot pass a satisfactory physical examin- 
ation or are unwilling to submit to one. 
They enjoy similar benefits, but in case of 
death their beneficiaries receive only the 
amount jiaid in for assessments. The funds 
of the Guild are invested in mortgages on 
improved real estate. Five per cent, of all 
assessments is set aside for the Reserve 
Benefit Fund, no part of which is to be 
expended until it amounts to $500,000, and 
then only to limit assessments to one for 
each month. A feature is made of the 
provision that after membership for six 
consecutive years in good standing all mem- 
bers unwilling or unable to continue pay- 
ing assessments may have their certificates 
made non-forfeitable to the amount paid 
in, which sum is payable at death or on 
reaching the age of seventy years. Persons 
following hazardous occupations or who 
live in localities subject to epidemics are 
eligible to membership, but in case of death 
during the ten-year period are treated as 
members in Class B, "intermediate.** This 
applies also to those who commit suicide 
during the first ten years of membership. 



204 



ROYAL ADELPHIA 



Wliile disclaiming being a secret society, 
"in the ordinary meaning of the words," 
the Guild has its obligations, its "private 
work " and means of identifying members, 
Avhich constitute about all that is secret 
in many latter-day secret societies. The 
Guild has grown less rapidly than some 
similar organizations but far more stead- 
ily, and ranks second to none of the endow- 
ment or so-called short-time orders. Its 
membership numbers about 5,000, and in- 
cludes the names of many whose reputation 
crosses State lines, conspicuously, Charles 
T. O'Ferrall, formerly governor of Virginia. 

Royal Adelphia. — Founded at Detroit 
in 1883, a fraternal beneficiary society of 
the short-term or endowment variety, or- 
ganized to pay death benefits of $1,000, 
82,000, and S3,000, and sick benefits of $15 
weekly. It died ten years later. Some of 
its members were identified with the Na- 
tional Dotare and the Order of the Golden 
Eod. 

Royal Benefit Society. — A mutual as- 
sessment, life and endowment beneficiary 
organization, incorporated under the laws 
of the State of New York with its home 
office in New York city. It was organized 
in 1893, and among its founders were Free- 
masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, 
and members of a number of the Eoyal Ar- 
canum and other beneficiary secret societies. 
Its membership amounts to more than 
3,000. It issues certificates to .men and 
women in sums of from $250 to $3,000, pay- 
able at death or at the end of ten, fifteen, 
and twenty years, by means of monthly as- 
sessments or premiums of from $1 to $15. 
There are also weekly benefits in cases of 
sickness or accident. " Paid up " benefits 
are issued at any time after three years, and 
cash surrenders are allowed after five years. 
There are also joint certificates for husband 
and wife, payable to the survivor, or, if on 
the endowment plan, as arranged in the 
' application. This society combines charac- 
teristics of the long and short term, mutual 
assessment, fraternal orders, with some of 



the features of the ordinary life insurance 
company. Its tendency to the business 
rather than the social or fraternal side of 
secret society life is shown in the statement 
that it has a " plain, business-like ritual 
and manual." 

Sexennial League. — Organized and 
chartered under the laws of the State 
of Pennsylvania, July 18, 1888, by David 
C. Eeynolds and others, one or more of 
whom were members each of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, Royal Arca- 
num, American Legion of Honor, Order of 
Sparta, of the Masonic Fraternity, and the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. The 
definite object of the association was offi- 
cially stated to be "to enable all persistent 
members to have an opj)ortunity to save 
small amounts periodically, which, merging 
in a common fund, would produce large in- 
crease from safe investments, the benefit to 
be shared by the persistent members in pro- 
portion to the certificates held by them. 
The features of paying an ample sick bene- 
fit and a moderate death benefit were also 
incorporated. The distinctive feature was 
the termination of membership at the end 
of six years from joining ; each six years, if 
a person continuously rejoined, being thus 
a period of reaping the benefits of faithful 
membership. The certificates were of five 
denominations, $200, $400, $600, $800, and 
$1,000." Extra assessments, if required, 
were optional ; that is, members might pay 
them or allow their certificates to pay them; 
but the latter course drew upon the amounts 
to become due at the expiration of the 
sexennial, or six-years' period. Benefici- 
aries of members who died during the life 
of their certificates received one-tenth of 
the certificates if two years had elapsed, 
and proportionate amounts at later dates, 
or the heirs could continue the certificates, 
and receive the full amounts due at matur- 
ity. Sick benefits are paid for four weeks 
during one continuous illness, and a pro- 
vision is also made for total disability bene- 
fits. The laws provide "that a stated cash 



UNITED ORDER OF EQUITY 



205 



rate of two assessments per mouth sliall be 
called during the six years," and "it is ex- 
pected that the reserve accumulations with 
interest and lajjses will produce the face 
value of the certificates." The plan of co- 
operative endowment, combined with sick 
and other benefits which the Sexennial 
League made ])rominent among American 
fraternal orders, is referred to in the Ameri- 
can supplement to the "Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica " (vol. iv., p. 545) as a distinctly 
modern idea ; but it is fair to add that so 
many similar organizations have met with 
disaster that the success, or jjartial suc- 
cess, of the system appears to be practically 
dependent on lapses of membership of a 
considerable number who embark in the 
enterprise. That this is appreciated by 
those most interested is shown by the use 
of the expression " persistent members " in 
the official announcement quoted above. 
The League's first sexennial period ended 
without loss, but owing to interference by 
the Insurance Commissioner of the State of 
Pennsylvania in 1895, the endowment feat- 
ure was modified and the League permitted 
to continue its operations '* on a reduced 
scale." It is still relatively successful 
among similar organizations, numbering 



nearly 25,000 members, both men and 
women. The Supreme Lodge, by which 
subordinate Lodges are governed on a 
strictly representative system, is located at 
Philadeli)hia. The society's ritual joos- 
sesses something of novelty among like 
productions, being based on the life of 
Archimedes, having particular reference to 
his discovery of the principle of the lever, 
and the words, "Give me a fulcrum on 
which to rest, and I will move the earth." 
The emblem displayed in its Lodge rooms 
contains representations of Archimedes, the 
lever, fulcrum, and the earth. 

Society of Select Guardians. — A short- 
term or endowment order, which issues 
certificates of from ^100 to $1,000, payable 
in seven years, and death benefit certificates 
of $500, $1,000, and $2,000. It is as promi- 
nent as elsewhere at Newark, N. J. 

Sons and Daughters of America. — 
Fall River, Mass., short-term beneficiary so- 
ciety. (See Order of the Solid Rock.) 

The Union Endowment. — See Order 
of the Solid Rock. 

United Endowment licague. — See Or- 
der of the Solid Rock. 

United Order of Equity. — See Order 
of the Solid Rock. 




206 



AHAVAS ISRAEL 



IV 



HEBEEW ASSESSMEl^T BENEFIOIAET SOCIETIES 



Ahavas Israel. — A charitable and be- 
nevolent Hebrew beneficiary society paying 
death and sick benefits by means of mu- 
tual assessments. It was founded at New 
York city in 1890 by B. Nemberger, Alter 
Gottlese, L. Elerman and others, variously 
members of the Masonic Fraternity, the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the 
Sons of Benjamin, and Independent Order 
B'rith Abraham. Wives of members are 
covered by its system of insurance, and 
over $60,000 has been paid for relief 
and death benefits since 1890. The chief 
emblem is the ancient one, a pair of 
clasped hands. Total membership about 
3,000. 

American Star Order. — A charitable 
and benevolent society of Eoumauian He- 
brews organized at New York city in 1884, 
to pay death and sick benefits by means of 
mutual assessments. Women whose hus- 
bands are members, are members while the 
husbands are alive and in good standing. 
Death certificates of $500 are paid, and 
about $140,000 have been so expended since, 
the society was organized. The total mem- 
bership is about 5,500, nearly one-half being 
women. The motto is '"' Charity, Harmony, 
and Brotherly Love," and the emblem is a 
five-pointed star containing three Hebrew 
characters with the Roman numeral XIII 
below and the letter G- above. 

Iinprovecl Order of B'nai B'rith. — A 
mutual assessment beneficiary society which 
only Hebrews (men) may join. It was 
founded at Baltimore in 1887 by two Lodges 
of the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, 
numbering about 230 members, who, as ex- 
plained, ''were dissatisfied" with the laws 
of the latter order. It exists only in the 
United States, where its Lodges are found 



at many of the larger cities east of the Mis- 
sissippi River. It insures the lives of mem- 
bers for $1,000, and the lives of wives of 
members in one-half that amount. Subor- 
dinate Lodges pay sick benefits as arranged. 
Death benefits are paid by the Supreme 
Lodge. The order is similar to other He- 
brew assessment beneficiary secret societies. 
Its ritual is based upon the covenant of God 
with Noah, Abraham, and Moses, and its 
principal emblem consists of the All-seeing 
Eye above three pillars which frame the 
tablets of stone containing the Roman nu- 
merals suggesting the Ten Commandments, 
and inculcates the practice of charity, not 
only within, but beyond the limits of the 
membership of the Order. Its membership 
exceeds 3,000. 

Independent Order of American Is- 
raelites. — Founded at New York city in 
1894 by William Heller, Magnus Levy, Rob- 
ert Blum, Aaron Levy, Carl L. Leweustein, 
and Leopold Kramer, some or all of whom 
had been members of the Independent Or- 
der, Free Sons of Israel and of the Sons of 
Benjamin; a charitable and benevolent He- 
brew society, paying $1,000 to the heirs of a 
deceased member, if a man, and $500 to 
beneficiaries of a deceased woman member, 
by means of mutual assessments. Subordi- 
nate lodges also pay sick benefits. It ex- 
ists in the United States only, and reports 
about 3,000 men and 2,500 women mem- 
bers, to whom or their heirs about $9,000 
has been paid in relief or as benefits. The 
secret ceremonies of the order are based on 
the story of the Exodus of the Jews from 
Egypt. The seal of its Grand Lodge dis- 
plays the words, "Liberty, Equality, Fra- 
ternity," over a spread eagle, with shield, 
holding American flags in its talons. 



INDEPENDENT ORDER, B'NAI B'RITH 



207 



Independent Order, B'nai B'rith 

(Brotherhood of the Covenant). — Founded 
in 1843 in New York city as a fraternal, 
charitable, and benevolent Jewish organiza- 
tion. It numbers nearly 500 Lodges in 
America, Europe, Asia, and Africa, with a 
membership of about 35,000. The emigra- 
tion of Jews to America from the old coun- 
try began about 1830, and ten years later 
there were several congregations here, most 
of them conforming to ancient practices and 
clinging to traditional forms. A number 
of German Jews possessing a liberal educa- 
tion perceived that Jews who had come from 
foreign villages and country towns, and had 
begun here in an humble way, would not 
be able to work their way up except through 
education; and Henry Jones, a native of 
Hamburg, conceived the idea of forming a 
society, the chief purpose of which should 
be to foster education and to encourage the 
higher pursuits of life. He found a few 
men in accord with him, twelve in all, who 
laid the foundation of the new society deep 
and strong. Their greatest success was in re- 
conciling the orthodox, conservative, and 
reform Jews. Among the founders of the 
Order were Dr. Leo Merzbacher, the first 
reform preacher of Temple Emanuel ; Rev. 
Dr. Lilienthal, subsequently of Cincinnati; 
Baruch Rothschild; Dr. Emanuel JMoses 
Friedlein, lately deceased; and Julius Bien, 
who has been president of the Order since 
1869, in which year the Society was reor- 
ganized. Among the names of the original 
members are also those of William Renau, 
Reuben Rodacher, Isaac Dittenhoefer, 
Henry Anspacher, Samuel Schafer, Hirsch 
Heineman, Valentine Koon, Isaac Rosen- 
bourgh, Jonas Hecht, Henry Kling, and 
Michael Schwab. In the beginning its gov- 
ernment was patriarchal, but at the New 
York convention of delegates in 1869 the 
sovereignty of the Supreme Grand Lodge 
was transferred to subordinate Lodges, 
which were to exercise their functions 
through delegates who were to assemble 
every five years and form Constitution 



Grand Lodges. In the interval an execu- 
tive committee of one representative from 
each Grand Lodge and a president elected 
as delegate-at-large, were to exercise su- 
preme control, subject to the fundamental 
law as embodied in the constitution and as 
interpreted by a Court of Appeals consist- 
ing of a member from each District Grand 
Lodge. The Order has directly or indi- 
rectly established many benevolent institu- 
tions — at New York, a free circulating li- 
brary with more than 30,000 volumes; at 
Yonkers, a home for the aged and infirm, 
affording shelter for 100 men and women; 
at Cleveland, an orphan asylum supporting 
and educating more than 1,000 children; 
and at New Orleans, Atlanta, Ga., and at 
San Francisco similar refuges, supported by 
the members of the Fraternity. At Phila- 
delphia there is a technical school, and at 
San Francisco a free religious school. A 
well-equipped trade school at Chicago, sup- 
ported and maintained by the entire Jewish 
community, owes its existence to the Order. 
District Grand Lodges meet at New York, 
Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, New 
Orleans, and San Francisco. In 1882 peti- 
tions were received from Jews residing in 
Berlin for a charter to establish Lodges in 
Germany, which was granted, and the first 
Lodge at Berlin was called the '' Reich- 
stage." Some of the foremost German Is- 
raelites joined the Fraternity, and tliere are 
now twenty-nine Lodges there, working un- 
der their own Grand Lodge. The Order 
soon spread to the far East, and Lodges of 
the B'nai B'rith are at work in Jerusalem, 
Jaffa, Beyruth, Cairo, Alexandria, and else- 
where in the Levant, where, owing to their 
influence, schools, libraries, and agricultural 
plants have been established. A branch 
was established in Roumania by the late 
Benjamin F. Peixotto, during his residence 
at Bucharest as Consul-General of the 
United States, and Roumanian Lodges are 
now working under a Grand Lodge of their 
own. In Austria a sufficient number of 
Lodges have been instituted to form a 



208 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FREE SONS OF ISRAEL 



Grana Lodge, which meets at Prague. The 
Order has schools in Roumania, and a hos- 
pital in the ancient city of Jerusalem, and 
anticipates an early invasion of the United 
Kingdom, where it is expected to establish 
Lodges of the Brotherhood of the Covenant 
and continue the benevolent work with 
Avhich its name is associated throughout the 
world. The death benefit paid by means of 
assessments to surviving relatives of mem- 
bers of the Order amounted to $1,000 prior 
to 1893, but since that time members have 
been insured in the sums of 11,000, $1,500, 
and 12,000. A recent financial exhibit 
states that since its organization in 1843, 
the Order has aided needy members to the 
extent of $18,000,000, has paid to widows 
and orphans 130,000,000, expended in the 
construction or improvement of charitable 
institutions $15,000,000, and for other chari- 
ties $35,000,000; in all, $98,000,000 within 
fifty-five years. This record constitutes a 
monument to the philanthropy and benevo- 
lence of the Order, which was of Masonic 
inspiration, and whose emblem is the Meno- 
rah, or seven-branch candlestick, the em- 
blem of Light. Its ritual is based upon 
Light, teaching the uniting of Israelites in 
works of benevolence and the interests of 
humanity. The Secretary of the Executive 
Committee and Treasurer of District Grand 
Lodge, No. 1, is Solomon Sulzberger of Xew 
York. Moritz Ellinger. is editor of the 
" Menorah Magazine," the official organ of 
the Order; and S. Hamburger, Secretary of 
District Grand Lodge, No. 1, New York, 
has been identified with the Society since 
1851. Other well-known officials are Joshua 
Kantrowitz, lawyer. President of District 
Grand Lodge, No. 1; and Simon Wolf, of 
Washington, a member of the Executive 
Committee. 

ludepenclent Order of Free Sons of 
Israel. — A charitable and benevolent secret 
society of Hebrews which pays $1,000 to 
beneficiaries of deceased members, and cares 
for sick and distressed members, their wid- 
ows and orphans. It employs some Ma- 



sonic nomenclature and outward forms, but 
has for its motto, " Friendship, Love, and 
Truth," which is identified with various 
Orders of Odd Fellows. In its official his- 
tory, referring to the political and intellec- 
tual emancipation of the Jews, with which 
Moses Mendelssohn, who lived at Berlin 
more than one hundred years ago, was iden- 
tified, it recalls that dissensions on the Con- 
tinent of Europe "drove large numbers of 
the irrepressible race to the shores of liberty- 
loving America," where they "banded 
themselves together for protection and edu- 
cation. " The first Lodge of the Indepen- 
dent Order Free Sons of Israel, Noah, No. 1 
(named after Judge Mordecai M. Noah of 
New York, ex-Consul General to Tunis), 
was established at the corner of Ridge and 
Houston Streets, New York, January 10, 
1849, by Friedman Kohn, Henry Strauss, 
H. Stern, Carl Abales, Charles Heyneman, 
Abraham Posner, S. Buttenheim, I. Regens- 
bergh, and Lazarus Lobel. The same men 
were delegates to the Constitutional Grand 
Lodge, which was instituted March 10, 
1849, and met again one week later, when 
the motto of the society was adopted. The 
third meeting of the Grand Lodge was on 
March 22, 1849, when laws for the govern- 
ment of subordinate Lodges, regalia, etc., 
were adopted. Although special returns 
concerning the Order state there is no wom- 
en's branch, the official history says that 
Toechter (Daughter) Lodge, No. 1, "a la- 
dies' lodge," was instituted July 8, 1849, 
and is " still in existence." In the message 
of Grand Master Julius Harburger before 
the Grand Lodge of the L^nited States, 1897, 
the following explanation ajDpears: "For 
many years a number of Lodges composed 
of ladies being the wives, relatives, and 
friends of the members of the Brotherhood 
have been doing most excellent work, and 
while they are not under the direct jurisdic- 
tion of our Brotherhood, yet they consider 
their work, so to speak, linked with that of 
our Order." Abraham Lodge, No. 2, was in- 
stituted May 7, 1849, and late in that year 



ORDER OF R'RITII ARRAHAM 



209 



Reuben Lodge, No. 3, wliicli was joined b}- 
thirty former members of Strnve Ijodge, No. 
17, of the German Order of llarugari who 
had just resigned from the latter. This ac- 
cession brought with it Isaac Haml)urger, 
afterward Past Grand Master, and II. J. 
Goldsmith, who became Past Grand Secre- 
tary of the Independent Order Free Sons of 
Israel, and who, for eminent services, are 
ranked us founders. The latter was elected 
Secretary of Reuben Lodge in 1855, two 
years after he had drafted a new ritual for 
the Order and been elected Degree Master. 
The growth of the society was conservative 
but healthful, the membership numbering 
only 453 members divided among seven 
Lodges in 1850, and 928 members in ten 
Lodges in 18G3. On April 25, 1865, the 
Order, as yet confined to New York city, 
assembled and took part in the funeral 
ceremonies of Abraham Lincoln. The first 
Lodge established out of New York was 
Benjamin, No. 15, at Philadelphia, July 30, 
1865, where the society grew and prospered. 
The Order includes many of the leading 
and progressive Jewish citizens of the coun- 
try, numbers about 15,000 members in 104 
Lodges, has a reserve fund of 1735,000, and 
has paid out nearly $5,000,000 in relief to 
members and their families. ■Membersliip, 
which is restricted to Israelites, is scattered 
through twenty-one States of the L^nion. 
Past Grand Master Julius ILirburger and 
Grand Master M. L. Seixas are prominent 
among those in recent years who have had 
much to do with building up the Order. 
(See Independent Order American Israel- 
ites.) 

Independent Order of Free Sons of 
Judali. — Founded by Rev. Dr. AVechsler 
at New York city in 1890 to pay ^^oOO to 
beneficiaries of deceased members, and ^G a 
week sick benefits for thirteen weeks in any 
one year, by means of mutual assessments. 
Hebrews only, both men and women, are 
eligible to membership, meeting in separate 
Lodges. Total meml)ership is about 3,500, 

nearly one-half being women. More than 
14 



^30,000 have been paid for sick and death 
benefits. Itsemljlcm is tlie lion of the tril)e 
of Judah. 

Keslier Shel Burzel. — A charitable and 
benevolent mutual assessment Hebrew bene- 
ficiary society, having a branch for women. 
It has paid about 82,000,000 for the relief 
of members and their families during tiie 
past thirty-six years. The emblem includes 
the All-seeing Eye and the ark, below which 
are three Hebrew characters. Its ritual is 
based upon the history of Noah, Abraham, 
and Isaac. IIead(iuarters are at New York 
city, where it was founded in 1860, and the 
total membership is about 6,000. 

Order of B'ritli Abraham. — A charita- 
ble and benevolent Hebrew societ}' founded 
at New York city in 1859 by Oscar Wiener 
of Newark, N. J., Leonard Leisersohn of 
New York city, and others, in part along 
lines laid down by the Independent Order 
B'nai B'rith (1843) and the Independent 
Order Free Sons of Israel (1849), to pro- 
vide, by means of assessments, for sick and 
distressed members, for widows and orphans, 
and to educate members to become worthy 
citizens of the United States. Like all sim- 
ilar Hebrew organizations, it embodies some 
of the features of Freemasonry. Its em- 
blem is the interlaced double triangle and a 
representation of Abraham about to offer 
up his son Isaac as a sacrifice. Its member- 
shij) is restricted to reformed Jews, those 
classed as not orthodox. Its ceremonial of 
initiation is calculated to emphasize the 
meaning of harmony, wisdom, and justice. 
It pays both sick and death benefits, and 
has ex])ended for the relief of members and 
their families since the date of foundation 
nearly !5'2,000,000. Lodges for women, rela- 
tives of members of the Order, are formed 
with the sanction of the Grand Lodge, and 
may elect Past Presidents of men's Lodges 
to act as officers. There are more 'than 160 
Lodges of the Order of B'rith Abraham in 
the United States, three-fifths of which, 
with 8,000 members, are in New York 
city. The total membership exceeds 11,000, 



210 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF SONS OF ABRAHAM 



exclusive of about 1,000 members of women's 
Lodges. (See Independent Order, Sons of 
Benjamin ; Ahavas Israel, and the Inde- 
pendent Order of Sons of Abraham. ) 

Independent Order of Sons of Abra- 
liaiu. — Founded at New York city in 
1892 by Berman Bonner, Osias Dulberger, 
Mayer Moscowitz and others of New York, 
members, variously, of the Masonic Fra- 
ternity, the Sons of Benjamin, and the 
Order of B'rith Abraham, as a charitable 
and benevolent Hebrew beneficiary society 
paying death and sick benefits by means 
of mutual assessments. The membership, 
which is almost exclusively in New York 
city and Brooklyn, numbers about 2,400, 
including almost an equal number of men 
and women. 

Independent Order of Sons of Benja^ 
niin. — A charitable and beneficiary mutual 
assessment Hebrew society, founded at New 



York city in 1877 by William Heller, Adolph 
Silberstein, Abraham Kayser, members of 
the Order B'rith Abraham, and others. It 
spread rapidly to many of the principal 
cities of the United States and into the Do- 
minion of Canada, and of late years, under 
the Grand ]\Iastership of Ferdinand Levy of 
New York, has achieved a marked degree of 
prosperity. It preserves the usual secret 
society forms, ceremonies, and privileges, 
and has expended about $2,000,000 for the 
relief of members and their families. It 
authorizes the formation of Lodges exclu- 
sively for women, of which there are about 
twenty. Its emblem presents a triangle be- 
tween the letters F and P, with the letter L 
in its centre. There are about 18,000 mem- 
bers, exclusive of about 2,500 women in 
Lodges set apart for them. (See Ahavas 
Israel, Sons of Abraham, also American 
Israelites.) 



ANCIENT ORDER OF HIBERNIANS 



211 



EOMA]^ CATHOLIC ASSESSMEl^T BENEFICIAET 

FRATERJSriTIES 



Ancient Order of Hibernians. — A se- 
cret or semi-secret patriotic, religious, and 
beneficiary (friendly) society, paying relief, 
burial, and sick benefits, to which only men 
who are of Irish birth or descent, practi- 
cal Eoman Catholics, are eligible. It was 
founded in Ireland, in the last century, for 
the i^rotection of its members in their right 
to worship God after the forms of the Ko- 
man Catholic Church, to cherish Irish na- 
tional traditions and the names of illustri- 
ous sons of Ireland, and to care for its sick 
and distressed members and their families. 
The events which led to the formation of 
the society are thus referred to by P. J. 
O'Connor, Savannah, Ga., a prominent offi- 
cial of the organization in the United States 
in 1897: 

In 1691 Patrick Sarsfield evacuated Limerick, 
Ireland, and agreed to depai't to foreign shores, 
leaving his people, however, protected by a treaty 
signed by William of Orange, King of England. 
That treaty guaranteed, among other things, per- 
fect freedom of religious opinions, and accepted the 
claim of Ireland to a nationality and form of gov- 
ernment distinct and separate from that of England, 
though forcing the acknowledgment of William as 
King of Ireland. The treaty was broken shortly 
after, and the Irish people were by legal enactment 
forbidden to study a profession, learn a trade, or 
even to acquire a knowledge of the alphabet. For 
years no edifice for Catholic worship was allowed 
to exist and a price was put upon the head of the 
Catholic priest and the schoolmaster. Realizing 
the folly of open resistance, the Catholic Irish re- 
solved themselves into secret bands for the preser- 
vation of their religion and nationality, and in later 
days organized the Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

All efforts by the writer to learn even the 
approximate date of the founding of the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians as a secret so- 
ciety have failed, more than a score of the 



leading officials in the United States having 
confessed their lack of information on that 
point. The foregoing extract from a letter 
from National President O'Connor makes 
sufficiently plain the reasons why the Order 
was organized. But it may well be doubted 
whether it met in lodges, with systematized 
2)rivate means of recognition, a ritual, an 
initiatory ceremony, lectures, and the like, 
modelled (but not copied) after those of the 
Freemasons and the Odd Fellows, until after 
it was introduced into the United States. 
This view is enforced because those portions 
of the so-called work of the Ancient Order 
of Hibernians which have been made public 
in whole or in part, give evidence of having 
come after the founding of the Loyal Orange 
Association in 1707-98 and the public dis- 
cussion of secret society ceremonials inciden- 
tal to the anti-Masonic agitation of 1837-40. 
Secret societies were not tolerated by the 
British Government late in the last and 
early in the present century, with the ex- 
ception of the Masonic Fraternity. The 
Odd Fellows, Druids, and Foresters had 
difficulty in preserving their identities from 
1780 to 1810, and the Orange Association 
did 60 mainly through the help of Free- 
masons, from whom it acquired some of 
the outward Masonic forms and peculiari- 
ties. If one may presume that the Ancient 
Order of Hibernians, in something like 
its present form, appeared between 183G 
and 1845, its ceremonials, emblems, lec- 
tures, examinations, toasts, etc., are easily 
explained on the basis of what had gone be- 
fore. To imagine that they were originated 
in the eighteenth century, and that other 
secret societies borrowed them from the 
Hibernians is out of the question. The Or- 



212 



ANCIENT ORDER OF HIBERNIANS 



der was introduced into the United States 
at New York city in 1836, one hundred and 
six years after Freemasonry had been estab- 
lished in this country, seventeen years after 
Odd Fellowship was founded at Baltimore, 
six years after the United Order of Druids 
had found its way here from England, and 
about two years after the Improved Order 
of Red Men, as at present organized, had 
been placed upon its feet at Baltimore. 
With its advent its characteristics changed 
somewhat. Its motto now is Friendship, 
Unity, and True Christian Charity to its 
members, and peace and good will to all 
men; and its objects, other than the paying 
of relief and death benefits, are the advance- 
ment of the Eoman Catholic religion, "the 
encouragement of the country's welfare, 
the promotion of the sacred cause of Irish 
nationality, and the propagation of the prin- 
ciples embodied in the motto." Lodges are 
found in the United Kingdom and Ireland 
and in the United States, w^here (until 1884) 
they were governed by a Board of Erin se- 
lected from representatives of higher bodies 
in the United Kingdom and Ireland, by 
whom signs and passwords were selected and 
communicated to members on both sides of 
the Atlantic. 

The National ofl&cers in the United States 
(prior to 1884) were the National Delegate, 
Secretary and Treasurer, and the President 
of the Board of the City and County of New 
York. After these ranked the State and 
County Delegates, and then the chief oflB- 
cers of Lodges, called Body ]\Iasters. In 
1873 there were 6,000 Lodges of the Order 
in this country Avith about 150,000 mem- 
bers. Emblems of the Order include the 
clasped hands, the harp, and the shamrock, 
and the three links which have so long been 
identified with Odd Fellowship, but which 
parallel the triangle and form one of the 
most ancient symbols of the Trinity. In 
1884 the society in the United States suf- 
fered from schism, the smaller branch tak- 
ing the title Ancient Order of Hibernians, 
Board of Erin, and remaining in affiliation 



with the Order abroad, while the larger 
number reorganized as the Ancient Order 
of Hibernians of America. In 1897, when 
efforts were made looking to reunion, the 
Board of Erin in America claimed about 
40,000 members, most of them in New 
York, New Jersey, Ohio, j\Iichigan, and 
Illinois ; the Ancient Order of America, 
about 125,000, scattered through nearly all 
the States of the Union, and the Order in 
the United Kingdom and Ireland, about 
50,000; in all, 215,000 members. The two 
branches in America finally reunited in 1898. 
In July, 1896, the report of the National 
Secretary of the American branch showed 
disbursements for sick benefits within a year 
amounting to $345,768; for burial expenses, 
$86,025; and 1239,838 for charitable and 
other purposes, with a balance of 1545,211 
in the division treasuries. 

A women's auxiliary to the American 
Order was organized in 1894, known as the 
Daughters of Erin, and has since been 
authorized b}^ the Order to work in conjunc- 
tion with it. The Daughters are recruited 
from among relatives of members of the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, and num- 
bered in 1897 about 20,000. Their purpose 
is to assist the Ancient Order of Hibernians 
in perjoetuating the memory of their fore- 
fathers, in promoting love for the mother 
church and countr}^, in aiding sick and dis- 
tressed widows and orphans, and to find 
them homes and employment. 

Any historical sketch of the history of the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians in America 
without a reference to its temporary degra- 
dation by unworthy members (1865-75) 
would be as unfair to the public as to the 
Order. During the period mentioned the 
society was used by men, who afterward 
turned out to be Molly Maguires, as a cloak 
for the commission of crime. (See ]\Iolly 
Maguires.) While every member of the 
Order of Hibernians in the Pennsylvania 
anthracite coal regions at that time was not 
a Molly, practically every Molly belonged 
to the Hibernians. The good character of 



CATHOLIC BKXEVOLENT LEGION 



213 



the Order without the coal regions, even 
then, was not called in question, but ho com- 
pletely was it dominated by the Mollies in 
some counties of Pennsylvania, that for a 
few years it became, locally, a nuicliino for 
the encouragement of crime and the ])rotec- 
tion of criminals. With the breaking up of 
the ^lolly ^Maguires came the reorganization 
of the Ancient Order of Hibernians in the 
coal regions, and its benevolent, moral, fra- 
ternal, and religious professions again re- 
asserted themselves. The society stands 
to-day among the foremost in its class. 

Catholic Benevolent Liegion. — Organ- 
ized in Brooklyn, September 5, 1881, by 
Dr. George 11. Kuhn, with whom were as- 
sociated John D. Carroll, John C. McGuire, 
John D. Keiley, John Rooney, Patrick F. 
Keauy, Ivoberfc M3'han, Thomas Cassin, Da- 
vid T. Leahy, William G. Ross, and James 
H. Breen, as a fraternal beneficiary society, 
to which Roman Catholic laymen between 
the ages of eighteen and fifty-five years are 
eligible, and to afford facilities for intel- 
lectual improvement, social advancement, 
and material prosperity. It pays death 
benefits of $500, $1,000, $2,000, $3,000, 
$•4,000, and $5,000, by means of assessments 
graded according to the ages of members 
when joining, and is governed by Supreme 
Councils, to which State Councils are sub- 
ordinate, which, in turn, regulate more than 
GOO subordinate Councils in nearly every 
State in the Union. Within the past sixteen 
years the Legion has paid out more than 
$7,000,000 to beneficiaries. Its plan is to 
give insurance as nearly at cost as possible, 
without the aid of a reserve fund. The 
growth of tiie organization has been more 
rapid than tliat of any other of tlie various 
Roman Catholic benevolent societies, in- 
creasing from 134 members in the first year 
of its existence to neary 900 witliin one 
year, to 3,000 at the close of 1883, two 
years after it had been incorporated under 
the laws of the State of New York, and to 
nearly 10,000 at the end of 188G, five years 
after it was founded. The total member- 



ship in 1890 had jumped to 23,553, an 
increase of nearly 150 i)cr cent, within five 
years, and at the close of 1896 the increase 
as compared with ten years before was five- 
fold. The Supreme Council is composed 
of representatives from the several State 
Councils, and ten of the incorjKjrators who 
shall continue in good standing in the 
Councils to which they belong. State 
Councils, after the first year, are composed 
of its officers only, who are elected from 
among representatives from subordinate 
Councils. State Councils send one repre- 
sentative each to the Supreme Council, and 
one more when their membership exceeds 
2,500, and one in addition for every addi- 
tional 5,000 members. Only one subordi- 
nate Council is permitted in each parish or 
congregation. Sick and disability benefits 
are paid by subordinate Councils from 
initiation fees and dues. A distinction be- 
tween this and some other similar Catholic 
societies is that it also invites to its ranks 
men who are merely nominal Catholics, if 
their lives and conduct be otherwise com- 
mendable, without exacting promises to 
perform religious duties as a requisite to 
membership. This is in the hope of saving 
thousands of little children from becoming 
charges on charitable institutions or de- 
pending upon the charity of the world at 
large. A strict physical examination is re- 
quired from all applying for admission. Its 
emblems and inspiring cardinal virtues are 
Faith, Hope, and Charity, and, as its name 
im])lies, its design and scope are to be catli- 
olic and benevolent. It is classed, ui)on 
the authority of representative members, 
among secret societies ; but, as explained, 
'' has no ulterior objects beyond those pub- 
licly announced." 

In the official publication of the Order it 
is pointed out that it was difficult to secure 
Roman Catholics to join the Royal Arca- 
num and American Legion of Honor '* be- 
cause no assurance could be given that the 
societies might not be prohibited by eccle- 
siastical authority. That they apparently 



214 



CATHOLIC KNIGHTS OF AMERICA 



merited no condemnation, but deserved 
the support aud encouragement of all good 
citizens was no assurance that their pur- 
poses would not be misinterpreted in some 
localities, for in those days before the late 
plenary council every pastor exercised the 
authority of condemning societies that did 
not size up to his individual o2)inion of jjer- 
fection. Indeed a case just then occurred 
in the city of Brooklyn, where a member 
of the Arcanum, who having taken sick 
and sent for the priest, was required to 
abandon his insurance and all connection 
with that society. It was under such con- 
ditions that the work of creating and build- 
ing up a great fraternal association of Eo- 
man Catholics was undertaken by Dr. Kuhn 
and his associates. The ritual of the Le- 
gion refers to the sacrifices for the relief of 
others made by St. Vincent de Paul, St. 
Dominic, and others. Its badge displays 
ujjon a passion cross a band containing the 
name of the Order, a heart and an anchor. 
Catholic Kiiiglits of America. — This 
Roman Catholic fraternal beneficiary so- 
ciety makes the special plea that it is not a 
secret society in any sense, in which it dif- 
fers from some other similar organizations. 
It was founded in 1877, and the statement 
is volunteered that none of the organizers 
were members of any of tbe secret beneficiary 
orders which preceded it. Among its found- 
ers were R. L. Spalding, W. B. Dalton, J. J. 
O'Rourke, D. H. Leonard, and W.Nehemiah 
Webb. Its membership is confined to the 
United States, and it has paid out for sick 
and death benefits more than $7,000,000. 
The society is largely identified with the 
West and South, though its Lodges are 
found in many States of the Union. The 
total membership is about twenty-five thou- 
sand, and though it is not the largest among 
the various Roman Catholic organizations of 
like character, it has been prominent in urg- 
ing the amalgamation of Catholic fraternal 
societies, by having them '^'consolidate with 
the Catholic Knights of America." It 
caters to the military idea, which has been 



so popular among beneficiary societies, by 
organizing a uniformed rank, with special 
tactics and drill. Among its members are 
Edward Feeney of Brooklyn, N. Y., a mem- 
ber of the Grand Army of the Republic, a 
secret military organization, and promi- 
nently identified with newspaper work in 
New York city and Brooklyn. He was at 
one time a member of the New York State 
Board of Mediation and Arbitration. Will- 
iam Purcell, editor of the Rochester " Union 
and Advertiser," is also a member. When 
the Catholic Knights met in convention at 
Omaha in 1895, they were addressed, among 
others, by Most Reverend Archbishop Gross, 
who said, in part, as follows : " You are to 
remember it well. Catholic Knights of Amer- 
ica, not of France, or Germany, or Ireland, 
or Spain, or Italy ; either you are natives of 
this great republic, or you gave up all alle- 
giance to the land of your birth and have 
sworn solemn allegiance to the Constitution. 
Be true to your country. Uliless you wish 
the downfall of your society, vote not for a 
candidate because he is German, or Irish, or 
French, or belongs to any nationality, but 
vote for him who is, as you know, a staunch 
and true upholder of the Constitution of 
the United States of America." He added : 
" If you, my Catholic brothers, are what 
you should be, and I doubt not but you are 
loyal and true, you will render useless the 
existence of all secret societies, and we have 
but one answer to give all those who speak to 
us about joining any society ; namely, join 
the Catholic Knights of America, that noble 
band of Catholic Knights. They have all 
the advantages and insurance of other socie- 
ties, and have no secrecy, for that which is 
honorable and pure loves not darkness." 
The banner of this Order is the blazing 
cross, 1)1 Hoc Sig)W Vinces, 'Hhe cross and 
the flag, the stars and stripes." 

Catholic Knights of Illinois. — Organ- 
ized at Carlyle, 111., and incorporated in 
1884, to unite fraternally all practical Ro- 
man Catholics, men and women, between 
eighteen and fifty years of age, to give them 



CATHOLIC ORDER OF FORESTERS OF ILLINOIS 



215 



moral and material aid, encourage them in 
business, assist them in obtaining employ- 
ment, give their cliildren a Cliristian educa- 
tion, and give them "cheap life insurance 
without the danger of going into associa- 
tions or orders forbidden by our Holy 
Mother the Church." Benefit certificates 
of S500,, §1,000, and |;3,000 are issued to 
men, and of from ^100 to 81,000 to Avomen, 
which are met by a graded system of assess- 
ments. The Order does business in the 
State of Illinois only. The amount of ben- 
efits paid in twelve years was about §150,- 
000. Its present membership is about 
2,000. 

Catholic Mutual Bcnelit Association. 
— Organized at Niagara Falls, in July, 
1876, and incorporated under the laws of 
the State of Xew York, June 9, 1879. A 
fraternal beneficiary society, to which only 
men, practical Catholics, between the ages 
of eighteen and fifty years, are eligible 
for membership. It issues certificates, 
payable at the death of members, in the 
amounts of §500, §1,000, and §2,000, which 
are paid by means of assessments graded 
according to the age of the member when 
joining. This is one of a number of Roman 
Catholic associations of similar character, 
which have been provided by that religious 
denomination to afford an opportunity for 
members of that faith to participate in 
mutual benefit association j^rivileges with- 
out joining like societies which have been 
condemned by that church. Tlie order 
was the outcome of a suggestion by the late 
Et. Rev. S. V. Ryan, Bishop of Buffalo. 
Subordinate bodies or lodges are governed 
by Grand Councils, which have charge of 
the affairs of tlie order in the States, which, 
in turn, are controlled by the Supreme 
Council, which meets biennially. The or- 
ganization has disbursed §6,000,000 in sick 
and deatli benefits since it was founded, 
and numbers about -15,000 members. Its 
headquarters are at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Catholic Order of Foresters of Illinois. 
— The formation of the Catholic Order of 



Foresters at Chicago was suggested by a Mr. 
Taylor, a shoemaker, with whom John F. 
Scanlan, Michael B. Bailey, John K. dow- 
ry, Patrick Keane, John J. Collins, and 
Francis W. Fitz-Gerald cooperated. The 
Order was organized at Chicago, in 1883, 
about four years after the secession of the 
Independent Order of Foresters of Illinois 
from the Independent Order of Foresters, 
by a member of the ^lassachusetts Catholic 
Order of Foresters and a number of Roman 
Catholics, members of the Illinois Order of 
Foresters, and because of the well-known 
desire of the Roman Catholic Church to 
have those of the faith, who wish to join 
institutions of this character, select those 
which recognize and cooperate with the 
Church. The Catholic Order also drew 
some of its members from the Independent 
Order. The former has no connection or 
affiliation with any other Order of Forestry, 
though it employs similar insignia and em- 
blems, has a ritual modelled upon the Robin 
Hood legend, and a system of government 
like those of other and older Forestic Or- 
ders. In one of its leaflets it states : *' Unity 
through Catholic organizations is one of 
the great instruments in perpetuating and 
spreading the truths of the Church." From 
this it is plain that only members of tlie 
Catholic Church are eligible to member- 
ship. The Catholic Order confines its 
activity principally to the northwestern 
States of the Union and to the Canadian 
Dominion. It pays endowment, sick, and 
funeral benefits by means of assessments, 
and within the past fourteen years has ex- 
pended §1,500,000 in that direction. Its 
growth has been rapid, comparing favor- 
ably witli many assessment mutual benefit 
secret societies of equal age. It numbers 
more than 45,000 members. On December 
31, 1896, its 627 Courts were distributed 
throughout Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Min- 
nesota, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, N'ermont, 
New Hampshire, and the provinces of 
Ontario and Quebec. One of its features 
is tlie Side Rank. All members do not 



216 



CATHOLIC WOMEN'S BENEVOLENT LEGION 



belong to it. Its mission is to fnrnish 
amusement after the lieavy work of con- 
ventions. The work of the Side Rank re- 
quires a complete set of paraphernalia and 
includes elaborate ceremonies. This fea- 
ture of the Order was originated by Thomas 
Calleu. 

Catholic "Women's Benevolent Le- 
gion. — A beneficiary association incorpo- 
rated under the laws of the State of New- 
York, August 23, 1895, restricted to ac- 
ceptable Roman Catholic women in sound 
health, between seventeen and fifty-five 
years of age at time of joining. Its design 
is to have a subordinate Council in every 
Roman Catholic congregation in the United 
States, to be a centre for social, intellectual, 
and moral improvement of its members. 
Local Councils secure revenue by means of 
quarterly dues and from proposition fees. 
Provision is also made for a representative 
government by State Councils and in the 
Supreme Council. Members are insured 
for 1250, $500, $1,000, and $2,000, which 
amounts are secured by assessments graded 
according to age at joining. The Legion 
is yet in its infancy, but it has secured the 
approbation of ecclesiastical authorities, 
and has established more than one hun- 
dred subordinate branches with 4,000 mem- 
bers. 

The names of leading members of the 
Supreme Council in 1897 are as follows : 
Supreme President, Mrs. Mary A. Murray, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Supreme Secretary, Miss 
Annie O'Conner ; Supreme Treasurer, Miss 
Mary J. Hughes, both of New York ; Su- 
preme Orator, Mrs. Katie Coleman, Jersey 
City, N. J., and Supreme Guard, Mrs. 
Mary A. M. Trainer, Baltimore, Md. 

Irish Catholic Benevolent Union. — 
Founded by Dennis Dwyer of Dayton, 0., 
in 18G9, an assessment fraternal beneficiary 
society, composed of Irish Roman Catholics, 
of the semi-secret character confessed by 
like associations, to which only members of 
the Roman Catholic faith are eligible. It 
has disbursed about $3^000,000 in death 



and sick benefits, and has about 17,000 
members. The secretary's address is Phil- 
adelphia, Penn. 

Knights of Columbus. — Organized in 
New Haven, Conn., March 29, 1882, and 
incorporated under the laws of that State, 
by Michael J. McGivny, Matthew C. 
O'Connell, Cornelius T. Driscoll, James 
T. Mullen, John T. Kerrigan, Daniel Col- 
Avell, William M. Gearv, and others. Its 
objects are to promote social and intellec- 
tual intercourse among its members and to 
render pecuniary aid to them and their 
beneficiaries. Men only, of the Roman 
Catholic faith, between eighteen and forty- 
five years of age, are eligible to membership. 
Death benefits of from $1,000 to $3,000 are 
a feature of the organization. Sick bene- 
fits are optional with local Councils. The 
Order made rapid progress in Connecticut 
and Rhode Island, but did not enlarge its 
field of labor until 1892, when the first 
Council in Massachusetts was instituted at 
Charlestown. Its progress in Massachu- 
setts from 1892 to 1897 was remarkable, 
there being more than one hundred flour- 
ishing Councils in that State, with about 
10,000 members out of about 35,000 mem- 
bers throughout the country. The Order 
has been extended west to Chicago, east to 
Bangor, Me., and south to Baltimore and 
Washington. There is a social side be- 
yond that of insurance, by which men who 
do not care to be insured, or who are phys- 
ically unable to pass the required examina- 
tion may become members. By means of 
this, a man who is otherwise eligible, or 
more than 45 years of age, may become a 
member and enjoy the social privileges of 
the order. The headquarters of the soci- 
ety are at New Haven, where the Supreme 
Knight and Board of Directors meet every 
Saturday for the transaction of business. 
The Supreme Knight is elected by national 
delegates chosen by State conventions. 
The latter also elect State deputies, who 
appoint district deputies, and hold office 
for one year. The emblem of these Knights 



ST. PATRICK'S ALLIANCE OF AMERICA 



217 



is an eight-cornered cross, ornamented with 
representations of a compass, dagger, an- 
chor and vessel, having reference to the 
voyage of Columbus in 1402. 

Knights of Father 3Iathcw. — One of 
the smaller lioman Catholic fraternal 
beneficiary semi-secret societies. Its total 
membersliip is about 3,000, the larger pro- 
portion of which is in the central Western 
and Western States, The Order has paid 
out $250,000 in sick and death benefits 
since it was founded. Leading officials in 
its Supreme Council reside at St. Louis 
aud Kansas City. 

Knights of St. Rose — See Massachu- 
setts Catholic Order of Foresters. 

Massachusetts Catliolic Order of For- 
esters. — Founded at Boston in 1879, at the 
period which gave rise to the Forestic schisms 
entitled the Canadian Order, and the Inde- 
pendent Order of Illinois (see Foresters of 
America), in part through a desire to secure 
local self-government aud in part because 
of the dominance of Koman Catholic influ- 
ence among Massachusetts Foresters aiul a 
desire of those of that religious faith to place 
the control of the society in that State in 
the hands of their own religious faith. 
The motto of this branch of the group 
of American bodies of Foresters is " Frater- 
nity, Unity and True Christian Charity," 
and its standard displays the Roman cross 
upon a shield. The Knights of St. Rose 
was originated by members of the Massa- 
chusetts Order of Foresters in 1889 and 



adopted as its second degree. It has a 
separate insurance beneficiary fund and 
admits both men and women to membership. 
(See Catliolic Order of Foresters of Illinois.) 
St. Patrick's Alliance of America. 
— Organized in 18G8 by members of tke 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick and others, a 
benevolent and charitable secret society for 
men, most of whom are Roman Catholics. 
It pays sick and death benefits, and a 
funeral benefit of ^75 at the death of a 
member's wife. It has paid altogether 
about 61,750,000 in benefits. Its ritual is 
based upon the right of every man to wor- 
ship God according to the dictates of his 
own conscience and denounces bigotry 
coming from any source whatever. The 
more frequently displayed emblem is a disk 
bearing the initial letters of the title of 
the society, S. P. A. of A., and a represen- 
tation of a tree, referring to the " tree of 
life." There are more than 50,000 mem- 
bers of the Alliance in New England, 
Middle, Pacific Coast, and some other States. 
The office of the Natiomil Secretary is at 
Newark, N. J, St. Patrick's Alliance, 
while an offspring of the Friendly Sons of 
St. Patrick, admits having drawn inspira- 
tion from the Foresters and other like or- 
ders. There is no religious or political 
test of membership, as the National Sec- 
retary writes: "'We have Democrats and 
Republicans and Catholics and Protestants, 
among our members, but they must be Irish 
or of Irish descent. 



^3- 




218 



ACTORS' ORDER OF FRIENDSHIP 



VI 



CHAEITABLE A:N'D BEISTETOLEI^T, ^O^^-ASSESSME^T 
OR ''FRIENDLY" SOCIETIES 



Actors' Order of Friend!>;liip. — A ben- 
eficiary and charitable associatiou composed 
of actors of not less than three years' experi- 
ence, organized in Philadelphia, January 
12, 1849, where the first Lodge, " Shakes- 
peare, No. 1," still continues. In 1888 the 
more progressive and energetic members of 
the Order then residing in New York, 
realizing that the changed condition of af- 
fairs in the theatrical world made the me- 
tropolis the natural headquarters of the 
drama, met and organized Edwin For- 
rest Lodge, No. 2, the first officers of which 
were. President, Louis Aldrich ; Vice-Pres- 
ident, Frank G. Cotter ; Secretary, Archi- 
bald Cowper, and Treasurer, Frank W. 
Sanger. Under this leadership the list of 
members rapidly increased, until the roll 
carried the names of nearly every important 
actor in America, from Edwin Booth down 
to the humblest aspirant on the first rung 
of the ladder of fame. In material pros- 
perity Edwin Forrest Lodge has exceeded 
the expectations of its most sanguine pro- 
jectors. During the nine years of its exist- 
ence, not only has it met every obligation 
promptly, but has accumulated assets valued 
at more than eighteen thousand dollars. 
In 1895 it acquired the property at 16G 
West 47th Street, New York city, which 
it has altered and adapted to its purposes, 
fitting up handsome reception and lodge 
rooms, on the walls of which hang many 
portraits, old play bills, and other reminders 
of the stage celebrities of the past and pres- 
ent. Here are to be seen the programme 
of Edwin Forrest's first appearance on the 
stage, November 27, 1820, when, in his fif- 
teenth year, a "young gentleman of this 
city " (Philadelphia), he played " Young 



Norval " in Rev. John Home's tragedy of 
'^ Douglas ; " the crown worn by him as 
" Macbeth," and the shackles used by 
J. W. Wallack, Jr., as '' Fagin," together 
with other interesting mementos. A hand- 
some bookcase filled with rare volumes, pre- 
sented by Joseph Jefferson, a member of 
the Order and its first Treasurer, adorns the 
Lodffe room. The Actors' Order of Friend- 
ship is the oldest, as it is the most influen- 
tial of all the various theatrical organiza- 
tions. Charitable as well as beneficial, it 
moves quietly on in its conservative way, 
gaining strength as the years roll by, dis- 
pensing with a liberal but Judicious hand, 
to many without as well as those within 
its pale. A friend, a protector, a faithful 
monitor, it cordially invites all to enter its 
fold whose years of service entitle them to 
its manifold advantages. 

Ancient and Illustrious Order, 
Knig-lits of Malta. — Formed and incor- 
porated early in 1884, the outcome of a 
schism, late in 1883, from the Grand Priory 
of America, Ancient and Illustrious Order, 
Knights of Malta, Avliich, in turn, resulted 
from a rebellion, in 1882-83, from the Chap- 
ter General of America, Knights of St. John 
and Malta. The latter was the Supreme body 
in America, under a warrant from the Im- 
perial Parent, Grand Black Encampment 
of the Universe, at Glasgow, Scotland, but 
withdrew from the latter in 1881, because it 
was not permitted to confine its secret work 
to the ancient Malta orders, and because it 
insisted on discarding the Orange and 
nominally Masonic degrees which the Im- 
perial Parent conferred. (See Non-Masonic 
Orders of Malta ; Knights of St. John and 
Malta (modern); and the Knights of St. 



ANCIENT AND ILLUSTRIOUS ORDER, KNIGHTS OF MALTA 



219 



John of Jerusalem, RIkkIcs, Malta, etc.) The 
Grand Priory of America, with George G. 
Oheesmun at its head, was formed at Phila- 
delphia, from six schismatic hodies of the 
Chapter General of America, February 30, 
1883, but it did not last long. The Im- 
perial Parent was responsible for the organi- 
zation of the Grand Priory, and in 1884 
transferred the authority delegated to Chces- 
man to a Continental Grand Priory. On 
February 7, 1884, a notice was published in 
the Philadelphia "Protestant Standard" 
of the existence of a Grand Encamj)ment, 
Ancient and Illustrious Order of Knights of 
Malta — which, as announced, consisted of 
Constantino Commandery, No. 1, which 
met in a certain hall on such and such 
evenings. One week later it was similarly 
announced that the Grand Commandery in 
question had celebrated the investment of its 
incorporate body by instituting a new Com- 
mandery, again Constantine, No. 1, meet- 
ing at the same hall and on the same nights. 
The same paper also contained a commii- 
nication that the warrant of Constantine 
Commandery, No. 34, Ancient and Illustri- 
ous Order, Knights of Malta, had been 
cancelled by the Grand Priory of America 
in January, 1884, about one month before, 
and that its four principal officers, who 
were prominent in organizing the new 
Grand Commandery, had been expelled. 
Hence the inference is that the new Grand 
Commandery, Ancient and Illustrious Order, 
Knights of Malta, was a self-created body, 
an outcome from the Grand Priory of 
America. In 1888 the Grand Commandery, 
which had slowly added to its membership, 
offered to unite with the Imperial Parent, 
of Glasgow, Scotland ; and the latter, faith- 
ful to its Sovereign Grand Inspector Gen- 
eral for America, George G. Cheesman, at 
the head of the Grand Prioiy of America, 
authorized the latter to negotiate with the 
then independent, and, if one pleases, ir- 
regular Order of Malta, looking to union. 
Cheesman delegated his authority to Robert 
Stewart, who, in 1880, met representatives 



of the Craiid ('omniaiidery, and, so far as is 
learned, straightway proceeded to Scotland 
and secured the recognition of the Imperial 
Parent for the Grand Commandery. 'i'lius 
the Glasgow body was recognizing two in- 
dependent Supreme organizations in Amer- 
ica : the one last referred to and the Grand 
Priory of which Cheesman was the head. 
AVith the chartering of the Grand Com- 
mandery, the Grand Prioi-y began to decline, 
and has practically ceased to exist, although 
its charter from the Imperial Parent, so far 
as known, has never been recalled and may 
become useful to degree peddlers to spring 
another ''Order of Malta" upon the com- 
munity. In fact, there were rumors from 
Columbus, 0., in the summer of 1897, that 
a new Order of Malta was about to be 
launched upon the sea of fraternities, but 
whether based i\\)on the old Grand Priory 
charter, or not, is not known. The repre- 
sentatives of the existing Ancient and Illus- 
trious Order, Knights of Malta, state that 
Charles IVIcClintock and George H. Pearce 
of Philadelphia, Orangemen and Free- 
masons, and the latter an Odd Fellow as 
well, are the founders of the organization. 
The name of the former is linked with the 
schism from the Grand Priory in 1883. 

The Order is declared to be designed to 
unite men under the most binding forms, 
"to comfort 6ne another in the practice of 
Christian religion, to offer mutual assistance 
in the time of need, to promote Protestant 
unity, and to defend the Protestant faith 
against all foes whatsoever." It is also said 
to be the staunch defender of civil and re- 
ligious liberty. " While opposing all forms 
of error and superstition, it nevertheless 
teaches and exorcises the fullest tolerance 
and charity toward all men, being inca])able, 
from the nature of its constitution and of 
the religion in whose interest it has been 
pcrj)etuated, of o})i)ressing any man or body 
of men on account of religious or political 
belief. ... It demands as the sole 
qualitication for membership, purity of 
morals, zeal for the Protestant cause, faith 



220 



ANCIENT AND ILLUSTRIOUS ORDER, KNIGHTS OF MALTA 



in the Holy Scriptures as the infallible rule 
of faith and life, belief in the Holy Trinity 
as expressed in the Apostles' Creed, and 
reliance upon Christ as the only Mediator." 
Its prospectus ''calls, therefore, upon all 
Protestants, by whatever name known, who 
love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity and 
in truth, to enlist under its banners and to 
take their part in the religious regeneration 
of the world. "With Protestantism aroused 
and faith kindled, our religion would sweep 
the nations, to the utter destruction of 
every form of error and superstition. May 
the Lord hasten the day and grant the 
speedy coming of His Kingdom," The 
printed leaflets of the Order also contain 
the doubtful statement that " the Ancient 
and Illustrious Order, Knights of Malta, 
confers the old degrees exactly as they have 
been given for ages throughout Europe and 
the Orient, imposes the same solemn and 
binding obligations, and is composed solely 
of Protestants." As the Ancient and Illus- 
trious Order confers twelve degrees, some 
of them of Orange origin and some not 
known to the Ancient Knights of Malta, 
and as the latter did not confer degrees at 
all and was not a secret Order, a mistake 
has evidently been made. (See (Ancient) 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, Rhodes, 
Malta, etc., and Non-Masonic Orders of 
Malta in America.) There is evidence 
that the Ancient and Illustrious Order, etc., 
has no affiliation whatever with the revived 
ancient Order of Malta in England, the 
Sixth or English Language, the headquar- 
ters of which is at Clerkenwell and of which 
the Prince of Wales is the head ; with the 
Brandenburg Order, and naturally not with 
the Italian (Roman Catholic) Order. Its sole 
relationship must be confined to tlie Scotch, 
Irish, and American bodies chartered by the 
Imperial Parent at Glasgow, a body of in- 
dependent origin, witli Orange and Masonic 
earmarks, which made its appearance in 
Scotland in 1844. There is undoubtedly 
much in the Ancient and Illustrious Order 
to commend it. but there are no links 



to connect it w'ith the ancient Order of 
Malta beyond a portion of its tille. 

Following in the footsteps of modern 
fraternal beneficiary societies, the Order 
has a system of death and sick benefits, 
which, in almost all instances, are moderate 
in amount and are said to be paid from 
dues instead of assessments. In 1895, ac- 
cording to published accounts, it recog- 
nized and incorporated an organization, 
within itself, entitled the College of An- 
cients, a series of "degrees of merit.''' 
(See Knights of St. John and Malta.) 
George G. Cheesman, at the head of the 
Grand Priory, the parent of the existing 
Ancient and Illustrious Order, had been a 
member of the College of Ancients designed 
and created by Robert E. A. Land of the 
Knights of St. John and Malta, and at his 
own request was authorized by the Imjierial 
Parent to establish an Order of Merit of 
the Ancient and Most Illustrious Order of 
the Great Cross (instead of Grand Cross, as 
in the Knights of St. John and Malta) of 
Malta and St. John of Jerusalem, and in 
December, 188G, a Supreme Council of the 
Great Cross was instituted. In the same 
year the Imperial Parent empowered Chees- 
man to merge the Continental Grand Priory 
in the Supreme Council of the Great Cross. 
In 1885 an Order of the Great Cross was 
taken to Scotland by Robert Stewart, adopted 
by the Grand Black Encampment and by 
it given to the Grand Encampment of Ire- 
land in 1886. Cheesman declares Stewart 
did not get the Order from him and that 
Stewart must have invented the one he 
took abroad. Stewart was never a member 
of the original College. The idea or plan 
of a College of Ancients evidently spread 
from its creator. Land, in 1880, through 
the Chapter General, Knights of St. John 
and Malta, to Cheesman, who, as he de- 
clares, after seceding, borrowed merely its 
title and the names of two of its degrees, 
the Eagle and Great Cross, upon which 
to build up a series of degrees of merit of 
his own. Stewart, McClintock, and others 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



221 



of the Ancient and Illustrious Order then 
proceeded to create a College of Ancients 
of their own, the third, which, strange to 
say, they adorned with emblems and mot- 
toes of the Scottish Rite and other degrees of 
Masonry, and made it presumably a sort of 
ne plus ultra of their own Order of Malta. 
The organizations of Daughters of Malta and 
of Dames of Malta, composed of women 
relatives and friends of members of the 
Order, are not known to have yet been 
formally recognized as a part of the organi- 
zation. There are about 17,000 members 
of the Ancient and Illustrious Order of 
Malta in the United States, and the society 
promises to grow even more rapidly than in 
preceding years. Its Scotch and Irish mem- 
bership is not believed to exceed 2,000. 

Ancient Esscnic Order. — Founded in 
1888, at Olympia, Washington, by Charles 
J. Weatherby. It seeks to unite fraternally 
acceptable men ; to give moral and material 
aid and assistance to members and to those 
depending upon them for support ; to en- 
courage each other in social and business 
matters, and to assist each other in obtain- 
ing employment ; to care for the sick and 
disabled and furnish relief to the poor and 
distressed, and is to be classified as a frater- 
nal, social, semi-military, and benevolent 
society, without what are called beneficiary 
or insurance features. The public appear- 
ance of the Order during the opening cere- 
monies of the Tennessee Centennial Ex2)o- 
sition at Xashville, in 1897, was said to be 
imposing. The badge of the Order is a 
golden crescent and star. Total member- 
ship is about 35,000. The Order makes no 
claim to antiquity, or to trace a morc-or- 
less disconnected existence back to the origi- 
nal Jewish sect of Essenes, which was co- 
existent with the Pharisees and Sadducees, 
200 B.C., and conspicuous in Jewish his- 
tory until it disai)peared with the coming 
of the new dispensation. The headquar- 
ters of the modern organization are at 
New York city, where it is presided over by 
its founder and Supreme Ruler. It may or 



may not be of interest to add that S. C. 
Gould, in his " Societas Rosicruciana " 
(Manchester, N. II., 1896), says : '* A small 
book, now out of print, bears the following 
title : ' Important concealed information, 
obtained from an old manuscript found in 
Alexandria, shows that Jesus in a trance 
was taken down from the Cross, brought to 
life again, and in reality died six months 
after, within a secret religious society called 
Essene Brethren, of which He was a mem- 
ber. A manuscript for Freemasons.' " 

Ancient Order of Foresters. — Tbe pa- 
rent or English Order of Foresters is unique 
in that its ceremonies, ritual, and legends 
arc founded on the history and traditions of 
the English people. The revival of Free- 
masonry in England, in 1717, carried along 
and emphasized historical and traditional 
incidents which long antedated records af- 
fecting the British Isles. A split from or 
an imitation of the Freemasons of 1830 
to 1845, or an antagonism to them, re- 
sulted in the founding of a Lodge of Odd 
Fellows, in 1745, and remains to this day 
a mighty organization, but one which has 
betrayed the thumb-marks of Freemasonry 
on its pages. The Loyal Order of Orange- 
men, organized later in the eighteenth 
century, while entirely unlike Freemasonry 
as to objects and ritualistic material, 
is also built along lines borrowed from 
Masonic trestle boards. But with Forestry 
a new departure was made. By 1813 Free- 
masonry was the only widespread, interna- 
tional secret society in the United King- 
dom. It was growing rapidly, and had 
already become powerful, not only from the 
character of its membership, but from the 
fact that it had just healed a mighty schism 
of more than half a century's duration. 
The Odd Fellows, too, were relatively strong 
in number at that time, but more 2>referred 
by the people as distinct from the classes. 
That Order was even then giving evidence 
of its strength through the secession of a 
large share of its members, who formed 
what has since become the main branch or 



222 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



stem of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, Manchester Unity. The first evidence 
of the existence of a Court of Foresters 
from which a direct line of succession is 
obtained is dated 1813, and takes the form 
of a dispensation from No, 1 Court of Eoyal 
Foresters, held at Old Crown Inn, Kirkgate, 
Leeds, for the opening of No. 1 Court at the 
Shoulder of Mutton Inn, Knaresborough. 
The dispensation says : 

The Supreme Chief Ranger and officers of No. 1 
Supreme Court of Royal Foresters, held at the 
house of Mr. Hugh Black, inn-holder at Leeds, 
having the welfare of the institution at heart, as 
tending to improve the morals of men, and make 
those good who are inclined to be so, do grant, 
and give our full consent to Brother John Smithson 
of Knaresborough to assemble and hold regular 
Court of Royal Foresters at the house of j\Ir. Rich- 
ard Lister, inn-holder of Knaresborough, by the 
firm, style, and title of No. 2 Royal Foresters, and 
there to perform all the rites and ceremonies of 
Ancient Foresters as practised of old at our Secret 
Swaine Mote. 

The dispensation provided, also, that the 
sole power to grant dispensations was re- 
served by Supreme Court No, 1, and that 
the Chief Eanger of Court No. 2 should 
communicate at least once a year with Su- 
preme Court No. 1. The date of the dis- 
pensation, 5,817, translated (counting from 
Adam) as 1813, '' is the only absolute date 
we can find in connection with the early 
history of the Order." * For a long time, 
however, it was claimed and believed the 
Koyal Order of Foresters was founded at 
Knaresborough Castle, October 29, 1745, 
the year, by the way, in which we have the 
first record of a Lodge of Odd Fellows. In 
fact, the preface to the general laws of the 
Royal Foresters for many years contained 
a foot-note to that effect. But no records 
were ever in existence, as far as known, to 
show that the pioneer Royal Order of For- 
esters ever met at Knaresborough Castle. 
There was, however, a meeting of " Royal 
Foresters " at Knaresborough, in 1792, to 
" show their loyalty," at which a strong 

* Foresters' Directory, Glasgow, 1887. 



resolution was passed " against levellers and 
other seditious folk.^" * These Foresters 
are declared by late official publications of 
the (English) Ancient Order of Foresters 
not to have been their kith and kin at all, 
not '''sworn brothers" of their "secret 
swaine mote," but merely inhabitants or 
tenants of the royal forest of Knaresborough, 
who thus testified to their loyalty at the 
centre of authority of the manor and forest. 
It is open to conjecture that a similar gath- 
ering of what may be termed operative for- 
esters, who were ''royal" because loyal, 
may have been held at Knaresborough Cas- 
tle in 1745 also, and that the founders of 
the modern Royal Foresters, early in this 
century, in their search for an ancient line- 
age, may have gotten hold of the story, 
and so dated themselves back more than 
three-quarters of a century. 

This theory or conjecture takes on prob- 
ability because of the interest regarding 
the spread of Freemasonry from 1725 
to 1750, and the coincident formation of 
convivial secret societies of Odd Fellows. 
It is possible that meetings of Royal For- 
esters of that period were of a similar out- 
growth ; at least, so the Foresters of 1838 
thought, argued, and printed as a foot-note 
in the preface to their general laws. 
Evidently a few years of comparative pros- 
perity had stimulated a search for the real 
origin of the secret society of Foresters, 
for in the preface to the general laws 
in 1829 it was exijlicitly stated that the 
No. 1 Court at Leeds was " the oldest on 
record" — only that and nothing more. 
The later, or Knaresborough tlieory, that 
the birth of the Order was in 1745, which 
has long been discarded, was picturesque 
and had a local flavor which was sure to 
attract. It declared that congenial sj)irits 
formed secret convivial clubs or courts, 
under the name of Foresters, and that their 
ceremonies were drawn from the legends 
and stories concerning Robin Hood, Little 
John, and their merrie men, with which 

* London Sporting Magazine. 



ANCIEXT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



223 



the Englisli jieople were so familiar. 
Either the founders of the Order of For- 
esters builded better than they knew, when 
they veiled their so-called mysteries witji 
tapestry decorated with the exploits of one 
so popular among English legendary he- 
roes, or else they stumbled upon a most 
attractive background of ^tradition against 
which to arrange their ceremonies. In 
any event, they produced a secret society, 
equipped with legend and ritual which were 
unique in that they appealed directly to the 
imagination and sympathies of the masses, 
with the lays of the minstrels of the middle 
ages which made popular the lawless dar- 
ing of British yeomanry. Ballads in praise 
of knight errantry charmed the nobility, 
but the plain people were fascinated by the 
stories of Eobin Hood, Little John, Friar 
Tuck, and their followers who roamed 
through Sherwood forest, levying on no- 
bles and clergy, waging constant warfare 
against "the usurpers of English soil," 
and exacting toll from castle and abbey on 
the confines of the forest. Small wonder 
that the earlier members of the modern 
Order of Foresters sought to trace the 
links which might connect them with the 
Foresters who represented the resistance of 
the yeomanry of centuries ago at being 
despoiled of their lands. Later, when the 
power of the kings prevailed over the 
forest, the foresters guarded them and the 
trees and wild beasts within their baili- 
wicks, and organization became necessary 
to preserve the '* vert and venison " against 
attacks from bands of outlaws. A mode 
of government then became necessary and 
a " code of the forest " was the outcome. 
Three courts were formed, the Wood 
Mote, a warrant or attachment court ; the 
Swaine Mote, a court of preliminary exami- 
nation, and the Justice Seat, or court of 
trial and conviction. As might naturally 
follow, these banded foresters had signs 
and tokens of recognition. With a code 
of laws their very environment created 
the need for means of recognition. Hence 



tiie organizations became Courts ; the chief 
officials. Chief Rangers, Sub-Chief Ran- 
gers, Woodwards, and Beadles. In addi- 
tion to the development of the forestry of 
an outlawed peasantry into a forestry of 
law-abiding, peaceful yeomanry, there were 
a great many societies of Foresters in Eng- 
land prior to 1790 with varying titles and 
objects, but, so far as history or chronicle 
shows, entirely unconnected with and dif- 
ferent from modern Foresters. At the 
present time, the Ancient Order of For- 
esters, with 900,000 members, ranks second 
only, as to number of members and age 
among the British affiliated friendly so- 
cieties, to the Manchester Unity, the prin- 
cipal branch of English Odd Fellows. A 
l^oint of contrast between these friendly 
rivals in the United Kingdom lies in the 
fact that while schism has rent Odd Fel- 
lowship into twenty-seven distinct but 
similar societies, the Ancient Order of 
Foresters includes all of British Forestry 
except a small schismatic branch known 
as the Irish National Order, the English 
branch of the Indejjendent Order, and a 
few Courts of Royal Foresters, whicli re- 
main faithful to and constitute all that con- 
tinues of the ancient organization of that 
name. 

In America the situation is different ; for 
aside from a branch of the (English) Ancient 
Order of Foresters there arc : The Foresters 
of America, the Independent Order of Fores- 
ters, the Independent Order of Foresters of 
Illinois, the Canadian Order of Foresters, 
the Catholic Order of Foresters of Illinois, 
the United Order of Foresters, the Massa- 
chusetts Catholic Order of Foresters, and 
the Irish National Order of Foresters. But 
the Foresters of America has nearly as many 
members in the United States as all the 
others. There was also an independent 
Pennsylvania Order of Foresters, but little 
has been heard of it in recent years. There 
are, or were not long ago, a few, perhaps 
live or six, negro courts of an independent 
(clandestine) Order of Forestry in New 



224 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



York city. They probably got their 
*' forestry " in the same manner as the negro 
Knights of Pythias got the name and 
emblems of the latter society. Very little 
is known of them or their whereabouts. 

All the Orders of Forestry, except the 
(English) Ancient Order, when strictly 
classified, are clandestine, and, in a sense, 
not entitled to the use of titles, insignia, 
and ritual which infringe on those of the 
Ancient Order. This characterization in- 
volves a fine point in ethics, one upon 
which conscientious men may differ. But 
the least that may be said is, that whatever 
the merits or demerits of the disputes or dif- 
ferences which have resulted in schism among 
Foresters, the various branches would have 
been absolutely right if they had begun 
their careers with essentially different names, 
with newly created titles, and something- 
different or original in the way of ritual 
and ceremonies. The (English) Ancient 
Order, the Foresters of America, and the 
Independent Order easily lead in member- 
ship and promise prolonged careers of use- 
fulness. While there is no more connection 
between them than between the Freemasons 
and Odd Fellows, they are traveling parallel 
courses in the work of uplifting humanity, 
and it is to be regretted that the prospect 
for their being reunited is not bright. 
With three great bodies of Foresters, with 
three sets of salaried officials, and, therefore, 
three times as many opportunities for pre- 
ferment and distinction for services rendered, 
it seems, in view of the tendency of human 
nature, that the dream of only one universal 
Order of Forestry is not likely to be real- 
ized in the near future. 

Beginning, in 1834, with about 12,000 
members, as a schism from the Eoyal Order 
of Foresters, the enthusiasm of the Ancient 
Order may be judged by the addition of 
3,000 new members within a year. Nearly 
300 Courts of Eoyal Foresters gave alle- 
giance to the new body within three months. 
The one American Court Joined the Ancient 
Order in 1834-35, at which time all but about 



50 out of 408 Courts of Koyal Foresters had 
seceded and Joined the Ancients. The 
Eoyal initiatory ceremony was used with 
alterations, but new regalia was adopted. 
In imitation of like outgivings by the Odd 
Fellows and the Druids, the joublication of 
a directory of the Order was begun, after 
which, in 1836, a new ritual was prepared, 
although it differs from that now in use, 
concerning which members declare that no 
trace of Masonic influence, "which so per- 
meated the Odd Fellows' ritual," can be 
found in it. At that period the Forestic rit- 
ual included only one degree or ceremony of 
initiation. In 1835, prior to the complete 
revision of the old ritual (and after refusing 
to recognize or organize a women's Order 
of Forestry), the Ancient Order adopted 
bodily the ritual of the Ancient Order of 
Shepherds* as its second degree. Whether 

* The Ancient Order of Foresters is also unique 
in that it is the only similar society or order to cre- 
ate what may be called an additional degree or 
grade by incorporating within itself another and 
perhaps older secret society. In making this com- 
parison, reference is had, of course, to so-called " af- 
filiated, friendly " or secret, beneficiary societies 
alone. The origin of the Shepherds is declared by 
its self-appointed chroniclers to date back to "some 
unknown period in the early pai't of the present 
century." The Shepherds met in "Sanctuaries," 
were originally called Royal Shepherds, and early 
became allied through tradition or otherwise with 
the Foresters. The governing body of Shepherds 
was called the Supreme Sanctuary. For these and 
other reasons the two Orders were believed to liave 
long had a common origin. Sanctuaries of Shep- 
herds are declared to have been in the liabit 
of meeting with Courts of Foresters by dispensa- 
tion of the Supreme Sanctuary, and there is in 
existence a dispensation fx'om the Supreme Sanc- 
tuary of Royal Shepherds, Leeds, to members of 
Covirt of Truth, No. 21, Royal Foresters, and 
their successors, to "assemble and hold a second 
degree of Royal Foresters," etc., "under the title 
of Royal Shepherds, and there to make and form 
Shepherds and to perform all rites and cere- 
monies as practised by the Ancient Shepherds." 
It is signed, among others, by the Worthy Royal 
Pastor, First and Second Attendants, and Worthy 
Supreme Pastor. In 1835 a meeting of delegates 
of Sanctuaries of Shepherds was held at Leeds, 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



225 



this means that an existing but moribund 
Order was adopted en hloc by Britisli For- 
esters in 1835, or whether merely tluit the 
ritual of a practically extinct or a dormant 
society was incorporated within English 
Forestry, docs not appear. By 183G, within 
two years, the total membership had in- 
creased to 17,260, a gain of more than 5,000 
within two years, and the extent of tlie ref- 
ormation of sentiment as to the purposes 
and conduct of the society may be inferred 
in that meetings were authorized to be held 

which is referred to as the first High Sanctuary 
Meeting. An organization was perfected, a code 
of rules prepared, and heraldic emblems, motto, and 
word were adopted. From that time the progress 
of the Ancient Order of Shepherds within the l)ody 
of Forestry (more particularly in the United States) 
has been steady, but without other noteworthy de- 
A'elopraent. A suspension of a Forester from his 
Court formerly acted as a suspension from his Sanc- 
tuary, which in later years was not the case. Ex- 
pulsion from a Court, however, expelled from the 
Sanctuary also. The tendency in England has been 
to loosen the tie between the two organizations. 
Shejtherds there now govern their own affairs, the 
natural outcome of a ruling that a Forester's ad- 
vancement in olBce is not affected by his not hav- 
ing joined the Ancient Order of Shepherds. Mem- 
bership in the Shepherds (England) carried with it 
"half benefits" for which "half contributions" 
were necessary. The practical breakdown of Shep- 
herdry in Forestry in England was due primarily 
to unwillingness to keep up two organizations in 
one, with two rituals and two sets of expense. 
Elaborate ritual, extensive paraphernalia, and the 
like, are more popular in the United States than in 
the United Kingdom. The emblem of tlie Shep- 
herds is the slieepskin sack or white wool scrip. 
The heraldic emblem, adopted sixty yeai's ago, was 
the Lamb and the Cross ; but the Cross was after- 
ward eliminated "in deference to the wishes of 
Jewish brethren." The motto as given in author- 
ized Forestic publications was Noster Pastor Domi- 
ne, and " the word " formerly was Quam Dilecti. 
The "Handbook of Foresters of America," published 
in 1893, New York, states tiiat the Ancient Order 
of Shepherds severed its connection witli the Order 
in England and became Americanized shortly after 
the Minneapolis Convention in 1889. It now forms 
a beneficiary branch of the Foresters of America, 
"but its distinctive aim is to socially unite the 
brethren of the different Courts." 
15 



only in " temperance hotels ;" that sessions 
must close by eleven o'clock at night, and 
that in ceremonies in which swords had been 
used, clubs should thereafter be employed. 
It was not until 1837 that Forestry was in- 
troduced into London. Between 1837 and 
1843 much was suggested and begun in 
the way of extending and enlarging philan- 
throi)ic work, and elTorts were made to pro- 
vide for the relief of the superannuated 
and maimed as well as the sick and dis- 
tressed. The nine years following the ref- 
ormation, after the revolution in 1834, con- 
stituted the primary period in the life of 
the society, during which it had been man- 
aged at odd moments by men whose atten- 
tion was, in most instances, nearly all oc- 
cupied with the task of earning their liv- 
ings. 

In 1843 the practical jjeriod in the life- 
work of British Forestry was begun with 
the election of permanent, salaried ofKcials. 
This indicates that Forestry had been fol- 
lowing or watching closely the strides of 
its older sister, the Manchester Unity of 
Odd Fellows, which in 1844, in order to 
insure solvency, went so far as to interfere 
in the financial affairs of its subordinate 
Lodges, one of the first steps looking to 
financial soundness on the part of such 
societies, and one which the more success- 
ful secret beneficiary assessment societies 
have imitated. Hardly second in impor- 
tance was the persistent, even courageous, 
compilation of vital statistics by the Man- 
chester Unity Odd Fellows. Vital statis- 
tics, as a basis on which to establish a scale 
of assessments, to determine something in 
relation to the probable lifetime of an 
api)licant for menil)ership, were little un- 
derstood by the working classes of the 
United Kingdom sixty or seventy years 
ago, and were lightly esteemed by nearly 
all meml)ers of the then leading beneficiary 
Orders — Foresters, Druids, and Odd Fel- 
lows. Foresters were among the first to 
recognize the necessity for the business 
methods of the Odd Fellows. Althougli 



226 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



all Orders named, as well as the uon-secret. 
generally local, beneficiary societies, con- 
tinued to hold meetings, initiate members, 
and relieve distressed bretliren by system- 
atic contributions, for fifteen or sixteen 
years after the birth of the Ancient Order 
of Foresters in 1834, all except the purely 
local societies continued under the ban of 
the corresponding societies and the sedi- 
tious meetings acts, and were unable to pro- 
tect themselves, by law, against fraud or 
theft. Not until 1850 did they finally gain 
legal recognition through the friendly 
societies act, which required the registr}^ 
of their rules. The Ancient Order of 
Foresters has been described as the first 
affiliated friendly society apjolying for 
registry under that act, and by that date, 
October, 1850, tliis Order numbered nearly 
70,000 members, although it sulfered in 
1848 from the results of a bitter struggle 
between its officials over the investment of 
funds. This had no sooner ended in the 
interest of the society at large than an 
unfaithful treasurer disappeared from Glas- 
gow (1849) with a considerable sum belong- 
ing to the organization, which almost 
killed Forestry as well as Odd Fellowship 
at that city, and it was fully sixteen years 
before they recovered from the blow. Yet, 
by 1855, only six years later, there were, in 
all, 100,000 members of the Ancient Order of 
Foresters, a gain of 34,000 within ten years. 
In the efEort to extend the work of relief a 
levy of one shilling per member was made in 
1850 for the erection of a Foresters^ Home, 
and in that year, and those immediately 
following, mortality and sick tables were 
compiled. These were imperfect, but were 
greatly improved in 1855 by the incorpora- 
tion of features developed in like statistics 
prepared by the Manchester Unity. Not- 
withstanding imperfections in the earlier 
Forestic tables of membership, sickness, 
deaths, etc., the compilations demonstrated 
the then unsuspected ability of the Order 
to pay fourteen shillings per week for the 
full term of sickness of members (between 



the ages of twenty and seventy) on the 
assessment of only fourpence jier week 2)er 
capita. 

In 1857 a prize and honorary membership 
were awarded Mr. George Faulkner of Man- 
chester for a new ceremony of initiation, 
and in 18G2 £500 were sent to relieve dis- 
tress in the cotton districts of the United 
States, the result of the Civil War, "and to 
relieve the distressed members of the Or- 
der." In 1865 the passing of a satisfactory 
medical examination was made compulsory 
on those applying for membership, and as 
an evidence of the growth of the society, at 
the High Court Meeting at Wolverhampton 
in 18G8, at which the Earl of Litchfield pre- 
sided, delegates were present from Ireland 
and from Australia. At that meeting, also, 
was first urged the payment of a graduated 
scale of assessments according to age, but 
this was not perfected until 1882, although 
nominally put into operation in 1872 so far 
as new members were concerned. The pub- 
lic spirit of the society is attested by its pres- 
entation of a life-boat to the National Life- 
Boat Institution in 1864,and another in 1869. 

The Order was formally introduced into 
the United States in 1832, by the estab- 
lishment of Court Good Speed, No. 201, 
at Philadelphia, by the Eoyal Foresters. 
In 1836 Court Good Sj^eed seceded to the 
Ancient Order, but died some time after, 
leaving no records. Court General Wash- 
ington, No. 1,361, was opened at Brooklyn 
in 1841, but was short-lived. Early in 1842 
Court Potifar, No. 1,412, and Court Trans- 
atlantic " were opened somewhere in the 
United States," but no records remain to 
tell where. A dispensation was granted to 
"City of New York," with no name of 
Court, early in 1843, but apparently noth- 
ing further was done in the matter. Court 
Bay State, No. 2,249, was opened at Boston 
in December, 1847, but has not been heard 
of since. But on May 28, 1864, Court 
Brooklyn, No. 4,421, was instituted at 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and on May 5, 1865, Court 
Eobin Hood was instituted in New York 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



227 



city, both of whicli continue to this day 
and are therefore the oldest living Courts 
of Forestry in the United States. Between 
1864 and the year 1874, when the first dis- 
sension in the ranks of American Forestry 
took place, the Order in the United States 
grew until it numbered 43 Courts with 
2,300 members, all holding allegiance to the 
High C'ourt of the Ancient Order of Fores- 
ters of England. As pointed out in a " His- 
tory of the Independent Order of Foresters " 
(Toronto: Hunter, Rose & Co., 1894), an 
agitation arose as early as 1871 to secure a 
Subsidiary High Court for the United States, 
the demand being based on a desire for local 
self-government. It is declared that several 
petitions to that end Avere sent to the Eng- 
lish High Court, where they were thrown 
out. After that the movement became in 
part one for separation from the mother or- 
ganization, and the establishment of an in- 
dependent High Court for tlie United States. 
As stated by the leader of the movement for 
independence, A. B. Caldwell (who joined 
the Order in 1870), '*he (himself) became 
at once restless and dissatisfied witli the 
arbitrary laws and general mismanage- 
ment . . . and soon commenced agitating 
independent Forestry."' 

A convention of Foresters was held at 
Liberty Hall, Newark, N. J., June 16 and 
17, 1874, in response to a call signed by 
500 Ancient Foresters, residents mostly of 
New York and New Jersey. Court Inde- 
pendence, No. 1, of Newark, had already 
seceded and organized itself into a Court of 
Independent Foresters, and prior to the 
convention had instituted two independent 
Courts of Foresters under the names Court 
General Kearney, No. 2, Kearney, N. J., 
and Court United States, No. 3, New York 
city. These three Courts in convention 
declared their independence of the High 
Court of the Ancient Order of Foresters of 
England, and elected A. B. Caldwell Most 
Worthy High Chief Ranger. Before the 
end of 1874, and only shortly after the new 
Independent Order had refused to compro- 



mise differences with its American brethren 
of the Ancient Oi-der, a Subsidiary High 
Court of the Ancient Order of Foresters for 
the United States was finally granted by 
the High Court of England, at Worcester, 
England, on proposition of Court Wines, 
No. 5,738, New York, now Court Republic. 
Jerome Buck of New York, and Mr. 
Phillips of Scranton, Pa., were delegates 
to the meeting of the English High Court 
at Worcester. The now Subsidiary High 
Court was established at New York late in 
1874, and the first Executive Council was 
located at Brooklyn, N. Y, Jerome Buck 
was Subsidiary High Chief Ranger. Chron- 
iclers of the (English) Ancient Order place 
its American membership at that date at 
over 2,000 and the number of Courts at 43. 
Evidently the leaders of the Independent 
Order had gone far enough to taste the 
sweets of being in control of what promised 
to be a successful beneficiary secret society, 
because the granting of the original demand 
by the seceders for a Subsidiary High 
Court to the American branch of the An- 
cient Order, only a few months after the 
schism, failed to exercise any appreciable 
influence to reunite the American bodies. 
For the next fifteen years the Ancient Or- 
der in the United States continued its alle- 
giance to the High Court of England, 
when it, too, at the meeting of the Sub- 
sidiary High Court at Minneapolis, August 
15, 1889, seceded from the English organi- 
zation and became the Ancient Order of 
Foresters of America, and in 1895 the 
Foresters of America, under Avhich title it 
enjoys the distinction of having the largest 
membership of any of the various orders of 
Forestry into which it and the Independent 
Order have been divided. From 1875 to 
1889, wiiile still a branch of the English 
society, the Ancient Order in the United 
States greatly outstri])ped the mother fra- 
ternity in rate of progress, increasing in 
membership in fourteen years from about 
2,000 to 56,000. By 1895 it numbered 
119,000 members, an increase of more than 



228 



ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 



fifty-fold within tweuty-one years, while 
the English Order daring the same period 
trebled its niembership. The latter, how- 
ever, has eight members to one of the For- 
esters of America. 

For five years after the establishment 
of the American Subsidiary High Court, 
the progress of the Ancient Order was 
slow, membership increasing from about 
2,000 to only 4,500. In the following ten 
years extension was rapid, membership in- 
creasing to 9,950 by 1881, to 10,780 in 1883, 
to 23,570 in 1885, 29,000 in 1886, and to 
56,000 in 1889. The "color question" 
appeared early in the life of the American 
organization, there having been " two or 
more Courts of colored Foresters in the 
Order/'* which were "quietly gotten rid 
of by the Subsidiary High Court refusing 
to accept their per capita tax," on the 
ground that " to attract members and pre- 
serve unity it was necessary for the Order 
to place itself regarding the negro on the 
same ground with other leading secret be- 
nevolent societies." These Courts of negro 
Foresters afterward afl&liated Avith the Eng- 
lish Order. At the second Subsidiary High 
Court, at Scranton, Pa., 1875, rules for 
admission to the Order were adopted, limit- 
ing applicants to " white males," etc. This 
brought it into conflict with the High 
Court of England, by which no distinction 
is made as to race. The subject was de- 
bated in three English High Court meet- 
ings, and strong expressions were made 
against the American rule, while in two 
Subsidiary High Courts propositions to 
strike out the word "white" were voted 
down by large majorities. At the eleventh 
Subsidiary High Court, at Detroit, 1885, 
permanent Secretary E. M. McMurtry, to 
whom the Order owes much of its success, 
and J. J. Hayes, were appointed a com- 
mittee to attend the High Court at Leices- 
ter, England, in 1886, and present the 

* Handbook of the Ancient Order of Foresters 
of America : Forestic Publishing Company, New 
York, 1893. 



American side of "the negro question." 
They did so, and the English High Court 
was sufficiently impressed to content itself 
with merely reaffirming its previous opin- 
ions, relying "ou the good faith and sense 
of justice of the American brethren to open 
their portals to all men at the earliest possi- 
ble moment." Notwithstanding this con- 
ciliatory action, the English High Court 
at its next session, Glasgow, 1887, declared 
that no law of any Subsidiary High Court, 
etc., should prevent the admission of a man 
on account of his color, and that any exist- 
ing law to that effect was deemed invalid. 
The reply from the United States was that 
the charter rights of the Subsidiary High 
Court iu the United States permitted the 
adoption by it of the rule referred to, and 
that no law existed permitting tlie High 
Court to curtail or regulate enactments of 
the Subsidiary High Court. It is further 
claimed by permanent Secretary McMurtry 
and others conversant with the situation, 
that the American Subsidiary High Court 
sanctioned at Worcester, England, in 1874, 
was the outcome merely of a general law 
for the government of such a Court ; that 
no charter was ever issued to it, and that 
the Subsidiary High Court of America was 
virtually an independent, self-created body, 
sanctioned by the High Court of England, 
owing allegiance to the latter in a fraternal 
sense only. Evidently British Foresters 
thought differently, and it is possible they 
were not influenced by the most conserva- 
tive among them, for the Reading (Eng- 
land) High Court, in 1888, rescinded the 
resolution adopted at Worcester in 1874, 
fourteen years before, viz.: "That a Sub- 
sidiary High Court for the United States 
of America be granted," thereby cancelling 
the existing government of the English 
Orders of Foresters in the United States, 
and suspending all members thereof who 
refused to comply with the action taken. 
Excitement naturally ran high among 
American Foresters affected, j^articularly 
as the English body had made public its 



BENEVOLENT AND PROTECTIVE ORDER OF ELKS 



22i) 



willingness to reassume direct parental re- 
lations with individual American Courts. 
A great majority of American Courts fa- 
vored independence, only eighteen actively 
favoring English supremacy — thirteen in 
California, two in Michigan, and one each 
in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. 
These afterwards formed the nucleus of the 
remaining Ancient Order in the United 
States. The eighteen Courts which re- 
fused to recognize the Subsidiary High 
Court were suspended, and subsequently 
aflSliated with the English Order. 

Ancient Order, Dung-hters of Jeriisa- 
leni. — See Ancient Order, Knights of Je- 
rusalem. 

Ancient Order. Knights of Jerusa- 
^^n\. — One of the smaller fraternal benefi- 
ciary associations, paying death and funeral 
benefits. Associated with it is a similar so- 
ciety for women, the Ancient Order of 
Daughters of Jerusalem. Its headquarters 
are at "Washington, D. C. 

Ancient Order of Sanhedrims 

Founded by AV. 8. Iliff and Franklin Van 
Nuys, at Richmond, Ind., A2)ril 1, 1895, as 
a fraternal beneficiary order. It i)ays sick 
benefits of 15 weekly for five weeks in a 
year. To be eligible to membership a man 
must be sound physically, of good moral 
character, and a member of some secret so- 
ciety in good standing. The Order is an 
outgrowth of the Orientals, a ''side degree '^ 
attached to the Knights of Pythias. 

Ancient Order of Shepherds. — Origi- 
nally constituting one degree of the (Eng- 
lish) Ancient Order of Foresters, it now 
forms a beneficiary branch of the Foresters of 
America. (See Ancient Order of Foresters, 
Foresters of America, and Loyal Ancient 
Order of Shepherds.) 

Artisans' Order of Mutual Protection. 
— Founded by James N. Bunn of Altoona, 
Pa., in 1873, who withdrew from the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen for that 
purpose. As the latter is i)ractically the 
pioneer American mutual assessment, 
secret fraternity paying death benefits, so 



is the Artisans' Order of Mutual Protection 
one of its oldest children. The latter oper- 
ates only in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
New York, and pays sick and death benefits, 
but by means of fixed quarterly dues, instead 
of by mutual assessments. Sick benefits 
amount to $5 weekly and are not deducted 
from death benefits, which range from 
$1,000 to $«2,000. The society's ritual is 
"based purely on business principles," yet 
the principal emblem, containing an illus- 
tration of the application of the screw and 
the pulley to mechanics, the whole with 
a triangle inscribed within a circle and sur- 
rounded by the words *' Peace, Power, and 
Protection," is suggestive of an appropriate 
and instructive ceremonial. The office of 
the most Excellent Recorder is at Phila- 
delphia, where a large proportion of the 
four thousand members may be found. 

Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks. — A charitable and benevolent organ- 
ization, designed to contribute to the so- 
cial enjoyment of its members, to relieve 
the necessities of deserving brethren, their 
widows and orphans, and perpetuate the 
memories of deceased members of the Order. 
Its origin is given in Allen 0. Myer's history 
of the Order as follows : 

In 1866 the Legislature of New York passed seven 
excise laws that closed up all the saloons, theatres, 
etc., on Sunday. Actors are a social class, and 
this law deprived them of friendly intercourse and 
recreation on the only day in the week tliey could 
call their own. IMiey looked around to find some 
way to evade this law and enjoy themselves as they 
saw fit on the day of rest. A few of them raised a 
purse by small contributions to pay for a room and 
buy refreshments and a lunch for the company. 
They met first in a room over a place on Fourteentli 
Street in New York city, and afterwards they met in 
a room on the Bowery. As the members increased 
they saw the necessity of having some sort of an 
organization to prevent confusion in their social 
sessions and to transact the little business necessary. 
An organization was formed, called the "Jolly 
Corks." There was a social organization in Eng- 
land called the " Buffaloes." It was a convivial 
society, and as there were a number of English 
actors in the company, the first ideas of organiza- 
tion were doubtless suggested by that society, aud 



230 



BENEVOLENT ORDER OF BUFFALOES 



the name " Jolly Corks " was given the new body, 
either from the flying corks that came from the 
bottles, or because of the connection of the mem- 
bers with tlie theatrical profession. 

The credit of founding the Order is given 
to Chiirles Algernon S. Vivian, an Englisli- 
man, an actor, and the son of a clergyman 
of the established churcli. After the so- 
ciety was formed at New York, the mem- 
bers desired a distinctively American name, 
one which would harmonize with the desire 
for making the organization secret in char- 
acter and social and benevolent in purpose. 
Several Avho happened to be at Barnum's 
old Museum in New York city were struck 
by the appearance of a fine moose head, 
and agreed to select it as the society's 
emblem, and the word "Elk*' for the name 
of the new Order. This choice of name was 
due to the impression made by the descrip- 
tion of Cervus Alces iu '' Buffon's Natural 
History," "fleet of foot, and timorous of 
doing wrong, avoiding all combat except in 
fighting for the female and in defence of 
the young and helpless and weak." Gold- 
smith's description of the elk in his "Ani- 
mated History" also exercised an influence 
on the choice of name. Some confusion 
has arisen within and out of the Order over 
the use of the name Cervus Alces with 
the head of the American elk. Some years 
ago, when the Order had begun to grow, the 
moose (Cervus Alces) head was dropped by 
order of the Grand Lodge and the elk head 
(Cervus Canadensis) was adopted as the offi- 
cial emblem of the Order. The secret society 
affiliations of the earlier Elks, the original 
"Jolly Corks," in addition to the Benevo- 
lent Order of Buffaloes, an English friendly 
societ}^, cannot be ascertained; but the real 
founders of the Elks, those who so shaped 
its destinies as to make it one of the leading 
brotherhoods among the few not founded 
on political or financial considerations, may 
be safely classed as Freemasons; for the cere- 
monial of the Elks, although it has been 
changed several times, still presents features 
familiar to workmen from the quarries. 



One of the more conspicuous evidencesof this 
is or has been found in the use of aprons 
by Elks, and ' ' Lodges of Sorrow, " ' and 
" Tylers." The rule which permits the ex- 
istence of only one lodge of Elks in a city 
(since 188G) works well in practice. The 
governing body is the Supreme Lodge, to 
Avhich subordinate Lodges send represent^,- 
tives. In 1898 there were about 300 Lodges 
at as many cities throughout the country, 
with 35,000 members. The notion that the 
Order is made up almost exclusively of mem- 
bers of the theatrical profession is erroneovts. 
While many actors are Elks, the Order con- 
tains members from all the leading walks of 
business and professional life. The initials 
of the titles of some of its officers (Esteemed 
Leading Knight, Esteemed Loyal Knight, 
and Esteemed Lecturing Knight) are just 
Kabbalistic enough to excite interest, and 
what the members of the Order do at half- 
past eleven is known only to themselves. 
Elks' Memorial Day occurs annually on the 
first Sunday in December, when the memo- 
ries of departed brethren are revived and 
fittingly referred to. But above all things 
else is charity the distinguishing character- 
istic of the Order, charity which is inoffen- 
sive, untraced, and unsuspected. 

Benevolent Order of BufTaloes.— 
Whether or not the original Benevolent 
Order of Buffaloes, a social secret organiza- 
tion in England, had any more to do with 
the forming of the American secret society by 
the same name, which consists of one Lodge 
in Philadelphia and one in New York, has 
not been ascertained. The New York body 
was organized May 1, 1881. The Order pays 
sick and death benefits, and, in reply to in- 
quiries, states that the Philadelphia and 
New York Lodges "are the only ones in 
existence." 

Brethren Hospitalers of St. John the 
Baptist of Jerusalem.— See Knights of 
St. John of Jerusalem, Rhodes, Malta, etc. 

Chevaliers of Pythias.— Organized in 
Boston in 1888 as a charitable and bene- 
ficiary societv, but with the payment of 



COXCATEXATEU ORDER OF HOO-HOO 



281 



death and sick benefits optional. Its title 
is plainly a i)lagiarisni from that of an older 
and well-known fraternity. It is reported 
dofnnct. 

Coiupaiiioiis of the Forest. — A social 
beneficiary secret society confined to mem- 
bers of the Foresters of America and their 
women relatives and friends, organized at 
San Francisco in Jnne, 1883. (See Foresters 
of America and Ancient Order of Foresters.) 

Coiicatenatecl Order of Hoo-Hoo. — 
Organized at Gurdon, Ark., on Jannary 21, 
1892. There were present at the founding 
of the Order, B. Arthur Johnson, of the edi- 
torial staff of the '' Timberman," Chicago, 
111. ; William Eddy Barns, editor of the St. 
Louis ''Lumberman," St. Louis, Mo.; 
George Washington Schwartz, of the Van- 
dalia Koad, St. Louis, Mo. ; A. Strauss, of the 
Malvern Lumber Company, Malvern, Ark.; 
George Kimball Smith, Secretary of the 
Southern Lumber Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, St. Louis, Mo., and William Starr Mit- 
chell, Business Manager of the Arkansas 
" Democrat," Little Rock, Ark. Only two 
of the above-named Avere in any sense secret 
society men. These were members of the 
Freemasons and the Elks. With the excep- 
tion of Mr. Strauss they were all camp fol- 
lowers who lived by, but not in, lumber ; 
people who, as a duty, attended probably 
thirty or forty meetings of the lumbermen 
annually, which were held in all parts of 
the United States. It was first suggested 
that the Order be called the Independent 
Order of Camp Followers, which, of 
course, would imply not actual lumber- 
men, but such people as railroad men, 
newspaper men, and those other people who 
found it necessary to attend lumber retail 
and manufacturers' association meetings, 
but it was at once determined to make the 
matter vastly broader than that and have it 
include the lumbermen themselves. It is 
not out of the way to state that not one of 
those present had any idea that the Order 
then founded would ever have more than 
possibly one hundred members. 



The first regular Concatenation was held 
in the old St. Charles Hotel at New Orleans 
on February 18, 1892, and thirty-five of the 
leading lumbermen of the country were ini- 
tiated. It was not long until Concatena- 
tions were being held in several States. The 
Order is often spoken of as a lumber organ- 
ization on account of the fact that more 
lumbermen have availed themselves of the 
opportunity to become members of the 
Order than any other class who are eligible 
to membership. The word Iloo-IIoo and 
the word lumbermen have, by common 
usage, come to be almost synonymous terms. 
Under the constitution those who are eli- 
gible must be white male persons over the 
age of twenty-one years, of good moral 
character, and engaged in one or more 
of the following avocations: lumbermen, 
newspaper men, railroad men, and saw- 
mill machinery men. During the first year 
of the organization one lady, Mrs. M. A. 
Smith of Smithton, Ark., owning a saw- 
mill and railroad, was initiated, and has 
the honor of being the only lady member, 
as the constitution was changed at the next 
annual meeting. Those who founded the 
Order believed tbat the greatest achieve- 
ment known to humanity is to live a hearty, 
healthy, and happy life. Therefore, the 
objects of the Order, as stated in the con- 
stitution, are the promotion of the health, 
happiness, and long life of its members. 
Hoo-IIoo does not believe in accepting mem- 
bers from all walks and ])rofessions of life. 
Believing these things, the members of IIoo- 
IIoo have attempted to gather together peo- 
ple who have in a business sense a common 
interest. The constitution does not provide 
for sick, disability, or death benefits. Ever 
since its foundation, however, the Order has 
done in a quiet way some charitable work 
among its members. 

One of the objects of the Order is to assist 
a member in finding employment. The tra- 
ditions which were rei>resented at the Gur- 
don meeting and about which the princi- 
ples cling, were of the black oat of the 



232 



DAUGHTERS MILITANT 



Egyptians, principally because the founders 
believed and still think that there is no one 
in all Christendom who knows very much 
about a cat. It was chosen because many 
people believe a black cat to be unlucky, 
and this Order among other things was 
to fight superstition and conventionalism. 
The Order of Hoo-Hoo has no lodge rooms, 
no enforced attendance at lodge meetings, 
no plumed helmets, and, without desiring 
to cast reflection on any worthy societies, 
has nothing that other orders possess that 
can in any way be avoided. The IIoo- 
Hoo might have been appropriately called 
the " Order of Acquaintance," as every 
member carries a handbook, published, an- 
nually, which contains the business address 
of every member, arranged in such a way 
that the information cannot be used except 
by the initiated. The ritual of the society 
in a literary way compares most favorably 
with that of any of the secret societies. It 
is composed of some portions that are very 
serious, while others have for their object 
the amusement of those present. 

The executive afEairs are administered by a 
Supreme Nine, and the judicial affairs and 
the care of its emblem are represented by the 
House of Ancients. The latter is a repository 
of the past executive rulers of the Order, 
membership in which body lasts for life. A 
striking and entertaining feature of the Hoo- 
Hoo Annual is the embalming of the Snark, 
his passing into the House of Ancients. 
The present members of the House of An- 
cients are B. Arthur Johnson, William Eddy 
Barns, and James E. Defebaugh. Every- 
thing in Hoo-Hoo goes by nines. The initi- 
ation fee is $9.99, the annual dues are 99 
cents; the annual business meeting of the 
Order is held on the ninth day of the ninth 
month. Annual meetings since the organiza- 
tion have been held at St. Louis, Chicago, 
Kansas City, Minneapolis, Nashville, and 
Detroit. The Supreme ISTine consist of a 
Snark, a Senior Hoo-Hoo, Junior Hoo-Hoo, 
a Bojum, a Scrivenoter, a Jabberwock, a 
Custocatian, an Arcanoper, and a Gurdon. 



The Avork in each State or foreign country 
is under the supervision of a Vicegerent 
Snark, who has charge of Concatenations 
held in his territory. The membership of 
Hoo-Hoo is over 5,000, and is limited by 
the constitution to 9,999. 

Daughters Militant. — An organization 
of women members of the society of Daugh- 
ters of Rebekah, a branch of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows, United States 
of America. (See the latter.) 

Daxigliters of Hernianii. — AVomen's 
auxiliary to the Sons of Hermann. (See 
the latter.) 

Daughters of Rebekah. — A social and 
beneficiary secret society to which Odd Fel- 
lows and women relatives and friends are 
eligible. It Avas established in 1851. (See 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, United 
States of America.) 

Daughters of St. George. — A charitable 
and benevolent secret sisterhood composed 
of Avomen relati\'es of members of the Or- 
der, Sons of St. George. (See the latter.) 

Dramatic Order of Knights of 
Khorassan. — Prompted, perhaps, by a de- 
sire for Pythian seasons of relaxation and 
amusement of a spectacular as aa^cH as mys- 
tical character, leading spirits among the 
Knights of Pythias produced, full grown, 
in 1894, the Dramatic Order of the Knights 
of Khorassan, to which only Knights of 
Pythias are eligible. It is presided over by 
a Most Worthy and Illustrious Imperial 
Prince and is notcAvorthy, in addition to cre- 
ating ncAV Knights of Khorassan, for illumi- 
nated pageants and fantastically costumed 
processions between sessions of the Supreme 
Lodge of the Knights of Pythias. These 
Persian quality-folk are plainly suggested 
by the Arabic nobility, to join Avhich one 
must be either a Masonic Knight Templar 
or a thirty-second degree Mason of the An- 
cient and Accepted Scottish Eite. The An- 
cient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic 
Shrine, dates back a quarter of a century 
in the United States, and was followed a 
few years ago by the Imperial Order of 



FORESTERS OF AMERICA 



233 



Muscovites, which meets in Kremlins, and to 
which members of the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows alone are eligible. Then 
came the Knights of Khorassan, of the 
Knights of Pythias, also with the word 
"Imperial " in its title. It meets in Tem- 
ples, as do the '' Mystic Shriners,'* to which 
are also given Persian or Arabic names. 
There were thirty Temples of Knights of 
Khorassan represented at a meeting at 
Cleveland in 1896, at which time the mem- 
bcrshij) of this Pythian imperial appendix 
was 9,000, compared with 1,500 in Decem- 
ber, 1895. (See Knights of Pythias.) 

Foresters of America. — (See Ancient 
Order of Foresters.) The thirteenth meet- 
ing of the Subsidiary High Court of the 
Ancient Order of Foresters in America con- 
vened at Minneapolis August 13, 1889, 
and on the third day of the session, in a 
set of formal resolutions, reciting at length 
what has been explained regarding the dif- 
ferences between the English and Amer- 
ican affiliated Orders (see Ancient Order 
of Foresters), severed its connection with 
the High Court of the Ancient Order of 
Foresters, which had already been accom- 
plished by the action of the English High 
Court, and formed a Supreme Court of the 
Ancient Order of Foresters of America, with 
a new constitution and by-laws. Curiously 
enough, the newly organized American Or- 
der began with thirteen Grand Courts in 
thirteen States of the Union, subordinate to 
its Supreme Court. Its primary objects are 
to provide sick and funeral benefits for 
members and to contribute to their moral 
and juaterial welfare and those dejiendent 
upon them. A feature 'of this Ancient 
Order of Foresters for a number of years 
was an endowment or insurance fund, not 
to exceed $2,000, for the benefit of widows, 
children, or other representatives of de- 
ceased members. There are, in addition, 
sick, temporary relief, and burial funds. 
Membership is confined to white men from 
eighteen to fifty years of age, of good moral 
character, soundness of health and bodv. 



freedom from disease, and a belief in a 
Supreme Being. The government of the 
Order as well as its material benefits are in 
part patterned after those of the Odd Fel- 
lows, as, indeed, is the form of govern- 
ment of nine out of ten of the hundred and 
more mutual benefit assessment secret soci- 
eties which have sprung into existence in 
the United States within the past twenty- 
five years. 

The Supreme, formerly High, Court of the 
Foresters of America is composed of officers 
and representatives of Grand Courts, M'hich 
in turn are made up of officers and repre- 
sentatives from subordinate Courts in States, 
territories, provinces, or countries. In ad- 
dition to declaring itself independent of the 
English Order, changing its name and the 
titles of governing Courts, the Ancient Or- 
der formulated new general laws, adopted 
new regalia and ritual, incorporated the 
American flag in its insignia, prefixed " Lib- 
erty " to the ancient motto of the Order, 
"Unity, Benevolence, and Concord," and 
established August 15th as "Foresters' 
Day,'" and the second Sunday in June as 
Memorial Day. In the United States the 
paraphernalia and ritual of Forestry have 
been elaborated more than in England, and 
in 1879 a benevolent branch of the Ancient 
Order, known as the Knights of the Sher- 
wood Forest, was instituted at St. Louis. 
At the Philadelphia Subsidiary High Court 
in 1883, this l)ranch or appendant Order of 
Forestry was recognized as the second de- 
gree, and now constitutes the semi-military 
or uniformed body among this Order of For- 
esters, with a Supreme Conclave of the World 
numbering fifty subordinate Conclaves, and 
1,700 members. The Ancient Order of 
Shepherds became the third degree of the 
Order in 1889, shortly after the jMinneapolis 
Convention, it having finally separated from 
English Forestry, by which it was incorpo- 
rated iis the second degree in 1835. As in 
England, the Shepherds degree, while a bene- 
ficiary branch, has the distinctive aim to so- 
cially unite the brethren of different Courts. 



234 GERMAX ORDER OF HARUGARI 

COMPARATH'E STATISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP OP VARIOUS ORDERS OF FORESTERS. 



Total 
Membership. 


Foresters- 

of 
America. 


Independent 
Order. 


United 
Order 

t (Ist). 


Independent 
Order of 
Illinois. 


Canadian 
Order. 


Catholic 
Order. 


United 
Order 

1! (2d). 


Irish 

National 

Order. 


(English) 
Ancient 
Order. 


1895 


119,000 

116,000 

114,000 

105,000 

91,000 

69,000 

56,000 

*29,000 

*24,000 


86,521 
70,055 
43,000 
32,303 
24,4G(i 
1(),000 
14,286 
4,628 
2,959 
1,700 
369 
11,000 
15,000 
13,976 
7,029 
500 




17,330 
18,375 
21.152 


20,791 
18.641 
16,295 
14,208 
12, .51 4 
10,282 
8,625 
5,1.31 
4,305 
2,900 
1,710 
X 1,.500 


34,847 
29,130 
37,000 


1,300 


i;500 


881,000 


1894 




765,000 


1893 








750,000 


189'' 










1891 














1890 






21,000 






694,000 


1889 


























1885 














188--5 






§ 300 








1881 


*10,000 


X l'S,000 










1880 


X 2,.500 










1879 










543,000 


1878 


















1877 


















1874 


*2,800 
















1872 














277,000 


1864 


* 1 Court 


















1855 
















100,000 


1845 


















66,000 


1836 


















17,260 


1835 


















15,000 


1834 


* 1 Court 
119,000 
















12,000 


1895 U S alone 


37,008 


None 


17,330 




34,847 


1,200 


500 


16,000 


1896, Canada . . 


22,651 


20,000 





















* These totals (prior to secession of 1889) refer to the Ancient Order of Foresters in the United States. 

t Died within next few years. i Secessions from the Independent Order. 

§ Secession from the Independent Order of Illinois. || Recent origin. *f In the United States alone. 



A not less important branch is the Com- 
panions of the Forest, membership in which 
is confined to Foresters and women relatives 
and friends. The latter meet in Circles, the 
first of which was organized at San Fran- 
cisco in June, 1883. The Comj)anions be- 
came the fourth degree of the Order at the 
Detroit Subsidiary High Court in 1885, and 
exercises an important influence in favor of 
the growth, stability, and popularity of the 
Order. This, as well as the preceding de- 
grees, makes provision for sick and dis- 
tressed members and the burial of the dead. 
By 1895, ten years after it had been offi- 
cially recognized, the Companions of the 
Forest numbered 20,000, showing a rapid- 
ity of growth and a degree of pros2)erity en- 
titling it to a share in the distinction which 
has been awarded the Daughters of Eebekah 
attached to the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. An outgrowth of the English 
Juvenile Foresters is found in the Junior 
Foresters of America, membership in which 
is confined to youths of from twelve to eigh- 
teen years of age. Its total membership is 
about 2,200. In the first six years of its in- 



dependent existence the Foresters of Amer- 
ica paid about 14,000,000 in endowments in 
addition to sick and funeral benefits. The 
new ritual naturally brings in Robin Hood, 
but events in biblical history relative to the 
Garden of Eden are touched upon as well, 
the lesson taught being to help those less 
fortunate than the members of the society. 
From the date of the independence of the 
Foresters of America its extension has been 
steady and fruitful. 

Gerinau Order of Harugari. — Organ- 
ized in New York city in 1847, at a time 
when the Germans in the United States, 
among other foreigners, were antagonized 
by the dominance of native American sen- 
timent. The founders were Dr. Philipp 
Merkle, F. Germann, Th. Rodmann, J. De- 
ger, Y. Denzer, J. Germann, W. Schwarz, 
Peter Schnatz, A. Glahn, and S. Merz. 
The society was made up exclusively of Ger- 
mans, and formed not only an asylum or 
refuge but contemplated affording relief to 
its members in sickness and distress and car- 
ing for their widows and orphans. Yarious 
German societies existed, here at that time, 



GRAND UNITED ORDER OP^ ODD FELLOWS 



235 



b^^t, not being knit together, accomplished 
little in the face of the hostility with which 
German immigrants were then regarded. 
The Order was formed, in addition to the 
purposes specified, for the preservation of 
the German language, literature, customs, 
and traditions in America. This it has 
succeeded in doing during its fifty years of 
existence, which were duly celebrated at 
Newark, N. J., July 12, 1897, when it was 
announced that Philipp Merkle, Fredrech 
Germann, and Peter Schnatz, among the 
founders, alone survived. The name Ilaru- 
gari was identified with the ancient German 
tribe, the Cherusci, wliich was conquered 
by the Romans under Tiberius, but achieved 
its independence, led by Arminius, when it 
defeated the Romans under "S'arus. The 
name was taken from the old German. 
Haruc signified a forest, and the old Teu- 
tons who met in the forests were called 
Harugaris. The first Ilarugari Lodge was 
called after the great Cherusci leader, Ar- 
minia. No. 1. The motto adopted, follow- 
ing the example of older and similar or- 
ganizations, was "Friendship, Love, and 
Humanity." An exceptionally altruistic 
declaration of principles was adopted, fea- 
tures of which were the brotherhood of 
man and the desirability of working for 
the good of society in general instead of for 
self. The Order grew slowly, but soon made 
its appearance in Pennsylvania, thence in 
Illinois, and, successively, in Massachusetts, 
New Jersey, Maryland, and Ohio. It now 
has about 300 Lodges in twenty-seven States 
of the Union, and a total membership of 
about 30,000 men and women. Women 
members, which number about 7,000, meet 
in separate Lodges, which are governed and 
conducted as are those for men. Subordi- 
nate Lodges are under the direction of Grand 
Lodges, which, in turn, are controlled by 
the Grand Lodge of the L^nited States. 
During a half century the German Order 
of Ilarugari has paid out more than §5,- 
000,000 for the relief of sick and distressed 
worthy members, their widows and orphans. 



One of the outgrowtlis of the organization 
is the Ilarugari Singing Society, to which 
30,000 members belong. 

Grand United Order of Galilean Fish- 
ermen. — Founded by Anthony S. Perpener 
at Washington, D. C, in 185G, one of the 
oldest benevolent and beneficiary secret so- 
cieties in the country, membership in which 
is confined to negroes. It pays from §3 to 
15 a week in sick benefits, death benefits of 
from $300 to ^-lOO, and claims to be "one 
of the wealthiest institutions" of its kind 
in the United States, as the aggregate vahie 
of the halls, land, personal property, bonds, 
etc., owned by it is about $125,000. It will 
interest Scottish Rite Freemasons to learn 
that it claims Masonic origin, and that it 
displays the sacred emblem the fish as well 
as the passion cross, rose, and I N R I of 
the eighteenth degree of the Ancient Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite. (See the account of 
the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite among 
the negroes in the United States.) The 
Order of Galilean Fishermen claimed 56,000 
members in 1897 in Lodges scattered from 
New England to the Gulf. Both men and 
women are eligible to membership. 

Grand United Order of Xazarites. — 
One of the older societies for the payment 
of sick and funeral benefits, it having been 
organized at Baltimore in 1803, primarily 
for charitable and fraternal purposes. Let- 
ters addressed to it are returned unopened, 
but the society evidently had an existence 
of nearly thirty years, as its title appears 
in the records of the census for 1890. 

Grand United Order of Odd Fel- 
lows. — It is singular, yet no more than 
a coincidence, that in 1843, the year fol- 
lowing the declaration of independence 
by the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, United States of America, from the 
English Independent Order, Manchester 
Unity, a Lodge of colored Odd Fellows 
was established in the city of New York 
by the mother organization, the United 
Order of England, although prior to 18-43 
there had been several Lodges of white 



236 



GRAND UNITED ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS 



Odd Fellows at and uear Pottsville, Pa., 
liolding allegiance to the Grand United 
Order in England. In 1843 Patrick II. 
Reason, James Fields, and others (negroes) 
of Xew York city, members of a social and 
literary society known as the Philomathean 
Institute, petitioned the American Inde- 
pendent Order — jjrobably just prior to the 
secession of the latter from the ^Manchester 
Unity — for a dispensation to form the In- 
stitute into an Odd Fellows' Lodge. The